Network topoligies

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Network topoligies

  1. 1. Presentation of Information Technology Presented To: Sir Salman Ashar
  2. 2. Group Members: <ul><li>Mirza Ali Raza. 90 </li></ul><ul><li>Syed Ali Kamran. 50 </li></ul><ul><li>M.Jafar Tayar. 48 </li></ul><ul><li>Hussain zain-ul- abiden. 85 </li></ul><ul><li>Amjad Abbas. 71 </li></ul><ul><li>Samiullah warrich. 62 </li></ul><ul><li>Raja shoaib Azam 59 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Presentation Outline: <ul><li>Networks.(LAN,MAN,WAN ) </li></ul><ul><li>Interconnecting/Linking Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Signals. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Network: A computer network is a system for communication between computers. Components of Networks: <ul><li>People. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard ware. </li></ul><ul><li>Software. </li></ul><ul><li>connectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Network Diagram:
  6. 6. Local Area Network: A local area network is data communication system in a limited geographical area. Like a home, office, or small group of buildings
  7. 7. Metro-Politan Area Network: A Metro-politan area network is a network designed to extend over an entire city.
  8. 8. Wide Area Network: A wide area network provides long distance transmission of data over a large geographical areas Comprising a country,a continent or the whole world. The most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet.
  9. 9. Network Topology: . The logical layout of the cables and devices that connects the nodes of a computer.
  10. 10. <ul><li>Star Topology. </li></ul><ul><li>Bus Topology. </li></ul><ul><li>Ring Topology. </li></ul><ul><li>Mesh topology. </li></ul><ul><li>Tree Topology. </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid Topology. </li></ul>Types of Topologies:
  11. 11. Bus Topology: All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or backbone .
  12. 12. Star Topology: All devices are connected to a central hub.Nodes communicate across the network by passing data through the hub.
  13. 13. Ring Topology: All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it.
  14. 14. Mesh Topology: In a true mesh topology every node has a connection to every other node in the network
  15. 15. Tree Topology: Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus.
  16. 16. Hybrid Topology: A hybrid topology is always produced when two different basic network topologies are connected. Two common examples for Hybrid network are: star ring network and star bus network.
  17. 17. Linking devices: A type of linking mechanism needed to interconnect at least two computers.They are used to create a network. For example Cables,Switches or Hubs.
  18. 18. Connecting Devices Networking Devices Internetworking Devices Repeaters Bridges Routers Gateways Repeater Bridges Routers Gateways Networking Devices Internetworking Devices
  19. 19. Repeaters : A network device used to regenerate or replicate a signal. Repeaters are used in transmission systems to regenerate analog or digital signals distorted by transmission loss.
  20. 20. Bridges : A Bridge is an interface used to connect the same types of networks.
  21. 21. Bridges Diagram:
  22. 22. <ul><li>Simple Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Multipoint Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Transparent / Learning Bridge </li></ul>Types of Bridges:
  23. 23. Router : A Router is a special computer that directs communicating messages when several networks are connected together.
  24. 24. <ul><li>Routing concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Least cost Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Non adaptive Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Routing </li></ul>Routing:
  25. 25. Gateways: A Gateway is an interface permitting communication between dissimilar networks.
  26. 26. Other Devices: <ul><li>Multiprotocol Routers </li></ul><ul><li>Brouters </li></ul><ul><li>Switches </li></ul>
  27. 27. MULTIPROTOCOL ROUTERS: Multiprotocol routers have been designed to route packets belonging to two or more protocols
  28. 28. BROUTER: A Brouter is a single protocol or multi protocol router that sometimes acts as a router and sometimes as a bridge.
  29. 29. Switches : Switches are the hardware or software devices capable of creating temporary links between two or more devices linking to the switch but not to each.
  30. 30. Hubs: A Hub is the simple connection point for different type of devices on a network. It sends all the data to all devices connected to it.
  31. 31. Nodes: Any device that is attached to a network.A node may be a microcomputer,terminal,storage device or peripheral device which enhance the usefulness of the network.
  32. 32. Signals: The electronic transformation of data and information through a medium is called signal.
  33. 33. Types of Signals: <ul><li>Analog signal. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital signal. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Analog signals: The transformation of data in the form of waves.
  35. 35. Digital signals: The signals which travels in form of 0s and 1s .
  36. 36. Periodic signal: Periodic signals consist of a continuously repeated pattern.
  37. 37. Aperiodic signal: Aperiodic signals consist of a non repeated pattern.
  38. 38. Types of Analog signal: <ul><li>Simple signal. </li></ul><ul><li>Composite signal. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Simple Signal: A simple analog signals consist of a single sine wave or a single frequency signals.
  40. 40. Composite signals: The signals which composed of more than one sine waves having different frequencies.
  41. 41. Frequency spectrum and bandwidth: The frequency spectrum of a signals is the collection of all the component frequencies that it contain . The bandwidth of a signal is the width of frequency spectrum.
  42. 42. Digital Signal: The signals which travels in form of 0s and 1s .
  43. 43. Bit interval and bit rate: The bit interval is the time required to send a single bit. The bit rate is number of bit intervals per second,usually expressed in bits per second.
  44. 44. Any Questions?
  45. 45. Thank You.

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