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    Logic Logic Presentation Transcript

    • Presentation of logic:
      • Presented To:
              • Madam Uzma Rehman
      • Presented By:
      • Syed Ali Kamran Abidi. 50 Mirza Ali Raza. 90
      • M. Jaffar Tayar. 48
      • Syed Hussain Zain-ul-Abideen. 85
    • Topic to be described:
      • 1.) The Theory of Deduction.
      • 2.) Categorical Propositions and classes.
      • 3.) Quality, Quantity and Distribution.
      • 4.) The Traditional Square of Opposition.
      • (Contradictories, Contraries, Subcontraries, Subalternation).
    • 1. The Theory of Deduction:
      • “A deductive argument is one whose premises are claimed to provide conclusive grounds for the truth of its conclusion.”
      • Logic is divided into two parts. The first of it is the “classical” or “Aristotelian” Logic. The second is called “Modern” or “Symbolic” Logic.
    • 2. (a) Categorical propositions:
      • Categorical proposition is the base for the Classical Logic. They are called categorical propositions because they are about categories or classes.
      • Such propositions affirm or deny that some class S is included in some other class p, completely or partially.
    • There are four types of categorical propositions which are also called Four Fold Scheme:
      • 1. A (Inclusion). Universal Affirmative proposition.
      • All politicians are liars.
      • 2. E (Exclusion) Universal Negative proposition.
      • No politicians are liars.
      • 3. I (Partially Inclusion) Particular Affirmative Proposition.
      • Some politicians are liars.
      • 4. O (Partially Exclusion). Particular Negative Proposition.
      • Some politicians are not liars.
    • (b) Classes:
      • Classical categories (special kinds) are three:
      • Class Inclusion.
      • Class Exclusion.
      • Class Partially Inclusion and Exclusion
    • 3. (a) Quality:
      • Quality wise any proposition may be called negative or affirmative.
      • If the proposition affirms some class inclusion, whether complete or partial, its quality is affirmative.
      • If the proposition denies some class inclusion, whether complete or partial, its quality is negative.
    • (b) Quantity:
      • Quantity wise any proposition is divided into Universal & Particular.
      • If the proposition refers to all members of the class designated by its subject term, its quantity is Universal.
      • Thus A and E are Universal.
      • If the proposition refers only to some members of the class designated by its subject term, its quantity is Particular.
      • Thus I and O are Particular.
    • (c) Structure of standard form categorical proposition:
      • The general skeleton of proposition is:
      • Quantifier + Subject + Copula + Predicate.
    • (d) Distribution:
      • In distribution we check the class inclusion and exclusion in propositions.
      • A:
      • A distribute its subject only.
      • E:
      • E distributes its subject as well as predicate.
      • I:
      • In I Both terms are not distributed.
      • O:
      • O distributes its predicate only.
    • The Traditional Square of Opposition: The categorical propositions having same subject and predicate terms may differ in quality & quantity or in both. This differing is called “Opposition”. A Contraries E Subalternation Contradictories Subalternation I Sub Contraries O
    • Contraries:
      • Two propositions in contraries both cannot be true or false or truth and falsity of one entails on the other.
      • Relation b/w A and E is called contraries.
      Example: A : All judges are lawyers. E : No judges are lawyers. A E
    • Subcontraries:
      • Both cannot be false both can be true.
      • Relation b/w I and O is called Subcontraries.
      I O Example: I : Some judges are lawyers. O : Some judges are not lawyers.
    • Subalternation:
      • If universal is true than particular must be true. If universal is false than particular may be undecided.
      • Relation b/w A & I and E & O is called Subalternation.
      A I E O Example: A: All teachers are idealistic persons. I: Some teachers are idealistic persons. E: No teachers are idealistic persons O: Some teachers are not idelisti
    • Contradictories:
      • Both can not be true and both cannot be false.
      • Relation b/w A & O and E & I is called Contradictories.
      A : All diamonds are precious stones. O : Some diamonds are not precious stones. E : No diamonds are precious stones. I : Some diamonds are precious stones. A O E I
    • Any Questions?