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Information technology


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  • 1. Presentation of Information Technology Presented To: Sir Salman Ashar
  • 2. Group Members:• Mirza Ali Raza. 90• Syed Ali Kamran. 50• M.Jafar Tayar. 48• Hussain zain-ul- abiden. 85• Amjad Abbas. 71• Samiullah warrich. 62• Raja shoaib Azam 59
  • 3. Presentation Outline: Networks.(LAN,MAN,WAN) Interconnecting/Linking Devices Signals.
  • 4. Network: A computer network is a system for communication between computers.Components of Networks: People. Hard ware. Software. connectivity. Procedure.
  • 5. Network Diagram:
  • 6. Local Area Network:A local area network is data communicationsystem in a limited geographical area. Like ahome, office, or small group of buildings
  • 7. Metro-Politan Area Network:A Metro-politan area network is a networkdesigned to extend over an entire city.
  • 8. Wide Area Network: A wide area network provides long distance transmission of data over a large geographical areas Comprising a country,a continent or the whole world.The most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet.
  • 9. Network Topology:. The logical layout of the cables and devices that connects the nodes of a computer.
  • 10. Types of Topologies: Star Topology. Bus Topology. Ring Topology. Mesh topology. Tree Topology. Hybrid Topology.
  • 11. Bus Topology:All devices are connected to a centralcable, called the bus or backbone.
  • 12. Star Topology: All devices are connected to a central hub.Nodes communicate across the network by passing data through the hub.
  • 13. Ring Topology:All devices are connected to one another inthe shape of a closed loop, so that eachdevice is connected directly to two otherdevices, one on either side of it.
  • 14. Mesh Topology:In a true mesh topology every node has aconnection to every other node in the network
  • 15. Tree Topology:Tree topologies integrate multiple startopologies together onto a bus.
  • 16. Hybrid Topology:A hybrid topology is always produced whentwo different basic network topologies areconnected. Two common examples for Hybridnetwork are: star ring network and star busnetwork.
  • 17. Linking devices:A type of linking mechanism needed tointerconnect at least two computers.They are usedto create a network. For example Cables,Switchesor Hubs.
  • 18. Connecting Devices Networking Devices Networking Devices Internetworking Devices Internetworking DevicesRepeatersRepeater Bridges Routers Routers Gateways
  • 19. Repeaters : A network device used to regenerate or replicatea signal. Repeaters are used in transmissionsystems to regenerate analog or digital signalsdistorted by transmission loss.
  • 20. Bridges :A Bridge is an interface used to connect thesame types of networks.
  • 21. Bridges Diagram:
  • 22. Types of Bridges:1) Simple Bridge3) Multipoint Bridge5) Transparent / Learning Bridge
  • 23. Router :A Router is a special computer that directscommunicating messages when severalnetworks are connected together.
  • 24. Routing:Routing conceptsLeast cost RoutingNon adaptive RoutingAdaptive Routing
  • 25. Gateways:A Gateway is an interface permittingcommunication between dissimilarnetworks.
  • 26. Other Devices:• Multiprotocol Routers• Brouters• Switches
  • 27. MULTIPROTOCOL ROUTERS:Multiprotocol routers have been designedto route packets belonging to two or moreprotocols
  • 28. BROUTER:A Brouter is a single protocol or multi protocolrouter that sometimes acts as a router and sometimesas a bridge.
  • 29. Switches :Switches are the hardware or software devicescapable of creating temporary links between two ormore devices linking to the switch but not to each.
  • 30. Hubs:A Hub is the simple connection point for differenttype of devices on a network. It sends all the data toall devices connected to it.
  • 31. Nodes:Any device that is attached to a network.A nodemay be a microcomputer,terminal,storagedevice or peripheral device which enhance theusefulness of the network.
  • 32. Signals:The electronic transformation of data andinformation through a medium is called signal.
  • 33. Types of Signals:i) Analog signal.ii) Digital signal.
  • 34. Analog signals:The transformation of data in the form of waves.
  • 35. Digital signals:The signals which travels in form of 0s and 1s .
  • 36. Periodic signal: Periodic signals consist of a continuously repeated pattern.
  • 37. Aperiodic signal:Aperiodic signals consist of a non repeated pattern.
  • 38. Types of Analog signal: Simple signal. Composite signal.
  • 39. Simple Signal:A simple analog signals consist of a single sinewave or a single frequency signals.
  • 40. Composite signals:The signals which composed of more than one sinewaves having different frequencies.
  • 41. Frequency spectrum and bandwidth:The frequency spectrum of a signals isthe collection of all the componentfrequencies that it contain .The bandwidth of a signal is the width offrequency spectrum.
  • 42. Digital Signal:The signals which travels in form of 0s and 1s .
  • 43. Bit interval and bit rate: The bit interval is the time required to send a single bit.The bit rate is number of bit intervals persecond,usually expressed in bits per second.
  • 44. Any Questions?
  • 45. Thank You.