Ch10 1

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Ch10 1

  1. 1. Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund Chapter 10:Survey Research: BasicCommunication Methods
  2. 2. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Requests forpermission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to the following address: PermissionsDepartment, Harcourt, Inc., 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, Florida 32887-6777.
  3. 3. SURVEYSSURVEYS ASK A RESPONDENT FORINFORMATION USING VERBAL ORWRITTEN QUESTIONING Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. COMMUNICATING WITH RESPONDENTS• PERSONAL INTERVIEWS • DOOR-TO-DOOR • SHOPPING MALL INTERCEPTS• TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS• SELF-ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRES Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. PERSONAL INTERVIEWS Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Good Afternoon, my name is _________. I am with _________survey research company. We areconducting a survey on_________. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Door-to-Door Personal InterviewSpeed of Data Collection Moderate to fastGeographical Flexibility Limited to moderateRespondent Cooperation ExcellentVersatility of Questioning Quite versatile Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Door-to-Door Personal InterviewQuestionnaire Length LongItem Nonresponse LowPossibility of Respondent LowestMisunderstandingDegree of Interviewer HighInfluence of AnswerSupervision of Interviewers Moderate Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Door-to-Door Personal InterviewAnonymity of Respondent LowEase of Call Back or Follow-up DifficultCost HighestSpecial Features Visual materials may be shown or demonstrated; extended probing possible Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Mall Intercept Personal Interview Speed of Data Collection FastGeographical Flexibility Confined, urban biasRespondent Cooperation Moderate to lowVersatility of Questioning Extremely versatileQuestionnaire Length Moderate to Long Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Mall Intercept Personal InterviewItem Nonresponse MediumPossibility of Respondent LowestMisunderstandingDegree of Interviewer HighestInfluence of AnswersSupervision of Interviewers Moderate to high Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Mall Intercept Personal InterviewAnonymity of Respondent LowEase of Call Back or DifficultFollow-upCost Moderate to highSpecial Features Taste test, viewing of TV Commercials possible Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Telephone Surveys Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Telephone SurveysSpeed of Data Collection Very fastGeographical Flexibility HighRespondent Cooperation GoodVersatility of Questioning Moderate Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Telephone SurveysQuestionnaire Length ModerateItem Nonresponse MediumPossibility of Respondent AverageMisunderstandingDegree of Interviewer ModerateInfluence of AnswerSupervision of Interviewers High, especially with central location WATS interviewing Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Telephone SurveysAnonymity of Respondent ModerateEase of Call Back or Follow-up EasyCost Low to moderateSpecial Features Fieldwork and supervision of data collection are simplified; quite adaptable to computer technology Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. TELEPHONE SURVEYS• Central Location Interviewing• Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing• Computerized Voice-Activated Interviews Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. MOST UNLISTED MARKETS• Sacramento, CA• Oakland, CA• Fresno, CA• Los Angeles/Long Beach, CA Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. MAIL SURVEYS Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Mail SurveySpeed of Data Collection Researcher has no control over return of questionnaire; slowGeographical Flexibility HighRespondent Cooperation Moderate--poorly designed questionnaire will have low response rateVersatility of Questioning Highly standardized format Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Mail SurveyQuestionnaire Length Varies depending on incentiveItem Nonresponse HighPossibility of Respondent Highest--no interviewerMisunderstanding present for clarificationDegree of Interviewer None--interviewer absentInfluence of AnswerSupervision of Interviewers Not applicable Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Mail SurveyAnonymity of Respondent HighEase of Call Back or Follow-up Easy, but takestimeCost Lowest Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. How to Increase Response Rates for Mail Surveys• Write a “Sales Oriented” Cover Letter• Money Helps - As a token of appreciation - For a charity• Stimulate Respondents’ Interest with Interesting Questions• Follow Up - Keying questionnaires with codes• Advanced Notification• Sponsorship by a Well-known and Prestigious Institution Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Increasing Response Rates• Effective Cover Letter• Money Helps• Interesting Questions• Follow-Ups• Advanced Notification• Survey Sponsorship• Keying Questionnaires Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. SELF-ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRES• MAIL• PLACE OF BUSINESS• DROP-OFF• COMPUTERIZED• E-MAIL• INTERNET• OTHER VARIATIONS Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. INTERNET SURVEYS• Speed of Data Collection – instantaneous• Geographic Flexibility – worldwide• Respondent Cooperation – varies depending on web site Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. INTERNET SURVEYS• Versatility of questioning – extremely versatile• Questionnaire Length – modest• Item Nonresponse – software can assure none Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. INTERNET SURVEYS• Possibility for Respondent misunderstanding – high• Interviewer Influence of Answers – none• Supervision of Interviewers – none Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. INTERNET SURVEYS• Anonymity of Respondent – Respondent can be anonymous or known• Ease of Callback or Follow-up – difficult• Cost – low• Special Features – allows graphics and motion Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. INTERNET SURVEYS• Item Nonresponse software can assure none• Possibility for Respondent misunderstanding – high• Degree of Interviewer Influence of Answers – none• Supervision of Interviewers – none Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. INTERNET SURVEYS• Anonymity of Respondent • Respondent can be anonymous or known• Ease of Callback or Follow-up – difficult• Cost – low• Special Features – allows graphics and motion Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. There is no best form ofsurvey; each has advantages and disadvantages. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. Selected Questions to determine the appropriate technique:• Is the assistance of an interviewer necessary?• Are respondents interested in the issues being investigated?• Will cooperation be easily attained? Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. Selected Questions to determine the appropriate technique:• How quickly is the information needed?• Will the study require a long and complex questionnaire?• How large is the budget? Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. Pre-testing• A trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the instructions or survey design Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. “Practice is the bestof all instructors.” Publilius Syrus Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

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