I am very happy to have the opportunity to be in your country. I have traveled to many places in the world but this is the first time that I am in Japan. Before I tell you a little bit about myself and how I got into the field of special education, I would like to know a little about you. Please raise your hand if you are a teacher. Raise your hand if you teach or work with children with the following ages: 3-5 years old, 5-7, 7-9, 9-12, 12-15, 15 years or older. Raise your hand if you are an administrator, a psychologist, a counselor, a teaching assistant. The information I am going to present to you the next few days is research based and are methods that can apply to all age children, regular students as well as students with special needs. The basic principals have been effectively generalized across all ages in the United States. Sometimes I will use examples for younger children and sometimes for older children. You must use your skills as a teacher to try to apply it to the age group that you work with. My expertise is mostly with students 3 – 13 year olds. When I left my classroom, 5 years ago, I had 65 students on my case load, 5-13 year olds. They had the entire range of disabilities: ADD, ADHD, CD, ODD, SED, LD, children with Down Syndrome, Fetal alcohol syndrome, autism etc. There was 1 other teacher and 2 assistants. The children were mainstreamed as much as possible in the regular classroom. We had a great program. First I will show you the agenda for today and then I will tell you about my background.
Creating a Positive, Pro-active Environment for All Students Annemieke Golly, Ph.D., agolly@ uoregon.edu Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior University of Oregon
AgendaIntroduction5 Universal Principles of Positive Behavior SupportPreventive InteractionsDealing with problem behaviorMotivational Systems
•Functional Assessment •Individual Behavior Management Plans •Parent Training and Collaboration 3-5% •Multi-agency collaboration (wrap-around) FEW (High-Risk) Individual Interventions •Intensive social skills teaching •First Step to Success 7-10% •Adult mentors (checking in) SOME •Increased academic support (At-Risk Students)Classroom and Small Group Strategies •Social skills teaching 85-90% •Positive, proactive discipline ALL •Teaching social behavior expectations (All Students) •Active supervision and monitoring •Positive reinforcement systems School-Wide Systems •Firm, fair, and corrective discipline of Support •Data-based decision Making
Five Universal Principles1. Have Very Clear Expectations2. Teach those expectations Use examples and non-examples3. Reinforce the expectations4. Minimize a lot of attention for minor inappropriate behaviors (Don’t make mountains out of mole hills)5. Have clear consequences for unacceptable behavior
Effective Schools & Classrooms:• Clearly Define Expectations in All Settings(e.g., entering classroom, getting drinks, asking for help)• Teach Expected Behaviors in Specific Settings• Reward Expected Behaviors (Catch students doing the “right” thing)• Correct /Provide Clear Consequences for Inappropriate Behavior• Use Data-based Decision Making (Count)
Message• Assume compliance.• Children want to do what you want them to do (if they know how).• Children want to be noticed by adults.
Why do we need clear expectations?• The adjustment to new situations can be confusing and challenging.• Knowing what is expected makes children feel safe and gives a sense of belonging.• Knowing what is expected helps with self- esteem and decision making.
What can we do to help children be more successful?• Clear rules & expectations – What do you want to see & hear• Teach your expectations - This how you do it, this not how to do it• Catch the child doing the right thing• Ignore Minor inappropriate behaviors• Always use a neutral tone Give a clear direction Do not argue Remain calm Use humor, not sarcasm• Use appropriate consequences• Ignore Minor inappropriate behaviors
Basic Concept• Decide what you want to see and hear• Tell students what you want• Teach students what you want• Reinforce them a lot when they are doing it• Minimize a “lot of attention” when they’re not doing it
Why do most children misbehave?• Attention (adult, peer)• Avoidance (Task too hard, too easy, boring)
Verbal & Non-Verbal CommunicationBe aware of your communication styleVideo tape yourself teaching. Watch for:• Shaking finger?• Hands in sides?• Standing in front of the student.• Looking down at the student?• Standing next to the student?• Being at eye level with the student?• Giving the student a clear direction?
Activity• Think of a student who is a weak or non- responder in your classroom/group• What “need” (attention, avoidance) is maintaining the inappropriate behavior for the student.• How do you typically deal with the student when unacceptable behavior occurs.• How might your behavior maintain the problem behavior?
Clear Directions• Use short, clear directions such as:“Open your book to page 5.” or“Go to your seat and complete page 15 quietly.”• Use a neutral tone
What Else Can We Do?• Motivate All Students• Provide lots of positive feedback• Minimize attention for minor inappropriate behavior• Focus on the behavior you want• Use humor, never sarcasm.• Have fun!
Motivation• If the student can’t do the task, it’s a skill problem. You have to teach or re-teach!• If the student won’t do the task, it’s a motivational problem. You have to motivate!In both cases, you have to change your behavior.It is your job to help the student be as successful as possible!
Motivation• Students can earn points for : – Following directions – Working independently – Raising their hand quietly – Lining up quickly & quietly – Cleaning up quickly & quietly – Transitioning quickly & quietly – Etc.
Motivation/Be SpecificUse terms like: – This group is incredible! Your voices were off the whole time while I gave directions. – I see that everyone is on page 5. – You are being so responsible by having your work in your cubby before lunch. – You are showing respect by looking at me and listening. – You lined up quickly and safely with personal space. – That was very responsible the way you went to your seat quickly. – Thank you for raising your hand quietly.
Motivation• Make separate chart with 2 columns YOU e.g. -Snoopy (The students)You/ Other (make believe -Tiger Woods animal or object) -Mr. President• When they are doing the “right thing” they get a point• When someone isn’t doing “the right thing”, the other side gets a point.
• If they have more YOU Snoopy points then the other side at the IIIII II end of the period, they get a mark on the motivational IIIII chart• When motivational chart is filled, there is a surprise for the entire class.
MotivationThis game is an excellent way to keep data on your positive interactions with the kids. You Other side• Students should have at (students) (e.g. Snoopy)least 5 points for every point lllll lllll the other side gets lllll lllll• If not…. lllll lll• Your instructions aren’t clear or.• You are paying too muchattention to inappropriate behavior.
Motivation• Pick a motivational theme (e.g., rocket, thermometer, tree, basketball, map, ladybug, butterfly)• Make a large poster with 10-20 marks• Explain how students can earn a mark (e.g., when they have more points than the other side)• Make it fun!
What works?• Effective classroom management• Knowing what need maintains the inappropriate behavior (e.g., attention, escape/avoidance)• Figure out a way to meet the child’s need in a positive way
What else works?– Stimulus Cue (Attention signal)– Group behavior contingencies (You/other side game)– Differential reinforcement (“You never know when you get a surprise!”)– Teacher approval or disapproval– Token systems– Self-management (you/other game)– Differentiated Instruction– Concentration /Focus Power Game
vs. teachers• Pro-active • Re-active teachers teachers• problem • with problem behaviors behaviors
Reactive Statements– What are you doing!?– Stop that!– Sit down!– Get to work!– No!– You should know how to do that by now!Many times our reactive statements increase anger and escalate behavior.
Punish• Reduce reliance on punishment, time-out, office-referral and suspension, as a primary strategy• If the “punished” behavior occurs again and again, the punisher is reinforcing to the child.• Find out what the child is trying to get (e.g., attention, avoidance/escape or both).
Pro-active/Reinforcing words:“ I noticed……”“I saw…..”“You are being responsible, respectful, safe when you…….”
What can be done?• Be organized• Set up a positive and predictable classroom environment• Develop and teach clear expectations• Use positive classroom systems(Not this: “Turn the card when you misbehave.” Instead: “Turn a card when you’ve done well!”
Neatness and Organization• Teach students respect for their space. – Coats on hangers, hats off, roll up sleeves• When expecting writing tasks: – Reinforce students for putting name & date on right side – Start after the margin – Start each sentence with capital and end with end mark – Stay on the line – Leave a space between words – Keep paper neat
How can we help make children more successful? • Don’t assume anything! • Teach your expectations – “This how you do it, this not how to do it..” • Model, model, model
Be Consistent with Expectations• If you expect students to raise their hand quietly…Only call on students who raise their hand. Do not respond to talk outs.• If you expect students to work quietly, reinforce the students who are working quietly.
Extraneous teacher talk• Start lesson immediately.• Focus on the task• When a student interrupts, use planned ignoring and repeat the task.• When student is off-task, tell student what to do, not what not to do or other discussion.• After a few minutes say: “That’s a good choice. Can I help you?”• Focus on positives! Don’t fall into the criticism trap
Activity: Dealing with Problem Behavior• Think of a student who displays chronic problem behavior in your classroom/group (Keep this child in mind as we go through the rest of the workshop).• Describe the behavior (What does he/she do that is unacceptable?)• Why do you think this child misbehaves?• How do you think you can help this child?
Dealing with problem behavior • Stay calm • Be specific • Use a neutral tone • Be aware of your body language • Avoid a power struggle!
Helpful words:To Encourage & Reinforce: “I noticed…..” & “I saw…..” “Can I help you?”To stay out of a power struggle: “Regardless “ “Never the Less”
What else….. Do NOT hold a grudge! Use humor, not sarcasm• Always treat the child with respect.
Response to Intervention• If you are doing the same thing again and again and the behavior doesn’t change, you must change your intervention/interaction.• The teacher always has to change first before the child will change!
Use Data-based Decisions• Keep track of repeat “offenders” – E.g., turning card, name on board, send to office, call parents. The “punishment” actually maybe reinforcing for the student.
Identify the Problem Put it in observable & teachable terms..“I need to teach the group to raise their hand quietly”. Not: “They should know how to behave.”
How can we help makechildren more successful?• Catch the child doing the right thing Always use a neutral tone Give a clear direction Do not argue Remain calm Use humor, not sarcasm• Always treat the child with respect.
Activity• Recall the student who displayed chronic problem behavior in your classroom/group• What “need” (attention, avoidance) is maintaining the inappropriate behavior meeting for the student.• How do you typically deal with the student when unacceptable behavior occurs.• How might your behavior maintain the problem behavior?
Functional Behavior Assessment• When pro-active, predictable and positive systems are consistently implemented and a few students do not respond, a positive behavior intervention plan based on a functional assessment must get implemented.This is another workshop! Or….Consult the book:“Why Johnny Doesn’t Behave. Twenty Tips and Measurable BIP’s” (www.AttainmentCompany.com)
You are one of the most important adults in your students’ lives. You CAN make a difference!!Have a Fabulous Year!
Resources:• Golly, A. (2006). Five Universal Principles of Positive Behavior Support and the Story of My Life. www.AttainmentCompany.com• Bateman, B, & Golly, A. (2003). Why Johnny Doesn’t Behave : Twenty Tips and Measurable BIPs www.AttainmentCompany.com• Golly, A., & Sprague, J. (2005). BEST Behavior: Building Positive Behavior Supports in Schools. www.Sopriswest.com• First Step to Success Program www.Sopriswest.com• Music Wand: www.treeblocks.com• Class Prompter Computer program email@example.com