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  • 1. Dr ABHISHEK SOLANKI Dr PARVIND GUMBER Guided By
  • 2. Contents  Objectives  Introduction  Dentition  Tooth numbering systems  General Oral & Dental Anatomy  Surfaces of teeth  Line angles and point angles  Depressions and Elevations on teeth  Division in thirds  Occlusal Curvatures  Axial Position  Crown Surface Form  Contact Area, Embrasures & Interproximal Spaces  Height of contour  Cervical lines
  • 3. Objectives  Introduction of dental terminology and its application  Understanding dental anatomy  To study and facilitate communication about various aspects of teeth
  • 4. Introduction  Midline: imaginary vertical line which divides each arch as well as body into approx. equal halves  Maxillary teeth: teeth arranged in upper arch  Mandibular teeth: teeth arranged in lower arch
  • 5. MAXILLARY TEETH MANDIBULAR TEETH
  • 6.  Quadrants: two approximately equal portions of each arch divided by midline  Four in entire mouth & termed as: 1. maxillary (upper) right 2. maxillary (upper) left 3. mandibular (lower) left 4. mandibular (lower) right 1st 2nd 3rd4th
  • 7.  Occlusion: manner in which mandibular teeth contact maxillary teeth  Mastication: term for process of biting or chewing of food
  • 8. Important terminologies Mid line: An imaginary line dividing the upper and lower arches into two equal halves Anterior: Pertaining to or towards the front plane of the body Posterior: Pertaining to or towards the back plane of the body Superior: Situated above another or towards the head Inferior: Situated beneath another or towards the feet
  • 9. Anterior Teeth Posterior Teeth Canine to canine Premolars & molars
  • 10. DENTITION  In human two dentitions are present: 1. Deciduous (Primary) 2. Permanent (Secondary)  Transitional phase when both deciduous & permanent teeth are present is called Mixed dentition period
  • 11. Deciduous Teeth  so named because they are shed like the leaves of deciduous trees in autumn  Erupts from 6 months to 2 years  20 total deciduous teeth  Other non-scientific names for deciduous teeth include “milk” teeth, “baby” teeth & “temporary” teeth
  • 12. Permanent dentition  Teeth of the second, or adult dentition  There are 32 permanent teeth  Erupt from 6-21 years of age
  • 13. Classification of Teeth(Primary) Tooth Name Position Function Number Incisors Central & Lateral Incisors Two teeth of each quadrant which are closest to midline Biting, cutting, incising & shearing 08 Canine (Cuspid) Canine 3rd tooth from midline in each quadrant Cutting, tearing, piercing & holding 04 Molars 1st & 2nd Molars 4th tooth from midline Grinding 08
  • 14. PRIMARY TEETH
  • 15. Classification of Teeth(Permanent) Tooth Name Position Function Number Incisors Central & Lateral Incisors Two teeth of each quadrant which are closest to midline Biting, cutting, incising & shearing 08 Canine (Cuspid) Canine 3rd tooth from midline in each quadrant Cutting, tearing, piercing & holding 04
  • 16. Tooth Name Position Function Number Premolars (Bicuspid) 1st & 2nd Premolars 4th and 5th teeth from midline Tearing, holding & grinding 08 Molars 1st , 2nd & 3rd Molars 6th , 7th , 8th teeth from midline Grinding 12
  • 17. PERMANENT TEETH
  • 18. Dentition Period Dentition Age Teeth Present Primary dentition period 6 months to 6 years of age Only Primary teeth Mixed dentition period 6 years to 12 years of age Both Primary & Permanent Teeth Permanent dentition period 12 years of age & continues rest of life Only Permanent Teeth
  • 19. Succedaneous teeth  Simply means "succeeding" deciduous teeth  Twenty deciduous teeth to be replaced, there must be twenty succedaneous teeth  Incisors and canines - replace their deciduous counterparts
  • 20.  Premolars - which replace deciduous molars  Molars are not considered as succedaneous teeth
  • 21. Dental Formulae Primary dentition Permanent dentition
  • 22. Eruption pattern Primary Teeth
  • 23. Permanent Teeth
  • 24. Tooth Numbering Systems  Tooth numbering or “shorthand” system of tooth notation is necessary in clinical practice for recording data and communication.  The various tooth notation systems are as follows: 1.Palmer notation system 2.Universal notation system 3.FDI system 4.Viktor Haderup
  • 25. Zsigmondy Palmer notation system  1861 - Adolph Zsigmondy  Primary teeth- EDCBA ABCDE EDCBA ABCDE  Permanent teeth- 87654321 12345678 87654321 12345678  Permanent max. Right canine : 3
  • 26. Universal notation system  ADA : 1968  Permanent dentition: maxillary teeth - 1 to 16 (starts with right 3rd molar) mandibular teeth -17 to 32 (starts with lower left 3rd molar)
  • 27.  Primary teeth- 1d 2d3d4d5d 6d7d8d9d10d 20d19d18d17d16d 15d14d13d12d11d  Permanent teeth- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 32 3130 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17  Primary max. right canine : #3d  Permanent max. left 1st premolar : #12
  • 28. FDI system (Federation Dentaire Internationale)  Two digit system  First digit indicates the quadrant and the second digit indicates the tooth within the quadrant.  1 to 4 and 5 to 8 as the first digit indicates permanent and primary dentition respectively.  1 to 8 and 1 to 5 as the second digit indicates permanent and primary teeth respectively.
  • 29.  Primary teeth- 55 54 53 52 51 61 62 63 64 65 85 84 83 82 81 71 72 73 74 75  Permanent teeth- 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38
  • 30. General Oral & Dental Anatomy:  Anatomical crown - Portion of tooth which is covered by enamel  Clinical crown - Portion of tooth which is visible in mouth  Clinical crown may, or may not correspond to anatomical crown, depending on level of soft tissue & may also include a portion of anatomical root Anatomical Crown Clinical Crown
  • 31.  Anatomical root - Portion of tooth which is covered with cementum  Clinical root - Portion of tooth which is not visible in mouth  Clinical root is an ever changing entity and may, or may not correspond to anatomical root Clinical root Anatomical root Gums
  • 32.  Enamel - hard, mineralized tissue which covers dentin of anatomical crown of a tooth & hardest living body tissue  Dentin - hard tissue which forms main body of tooth and surrounds pulp cavity & is covered by enamel in anatomical crown and by cementum in anatomical root
  • 33.  Cementum - layer of hard, bonelike tissue which covers dentin of anatomical root of a tooth  Cervical line - identifiable line around external surface of a tooth where enamel and cementum meet & also called cemento-enamel junction or CEJ  Cervical line separates anatomical crown & anatomical root and is a constant entity Cementum Cervical line
  • 34.  Dentino-enamel junction or DEJ - internal line of meeting of dentin & enamel in anatomical crown of a tooth  Pulp - living soft tissue which occupies pulp cavity of a vital tooth & contains tooth's blood vessels & nerve supply Enamel Dentin DEJ Pulp
  • 35.  Pulp Cavity- entire internal cavity of a tooth which contains the pulp & consists of the following entities: a. Pulp canal- portion of pulp cavity which is located in root of the tooth (also called as root canal) b. Pulp chamber- enlarged portion of pulp cavity which is found mostly in anatomical crown c. Pulp horns- usually pointed incisal or occlusal elongations of pulp chamber which often correspond to cusps, or lobes of teeth Pulp horns
  • 36.  Alveolar process- entire bony entity which surrounds & supports all teeth in each jaw member  Alveolus- bony socket, or portion of alveolar process, into which an individual tooth is set AlveolusAlveolar process
  • 37.  Periodontal ligament (membrane) - fibrous attachment of tooth cementum to the alveolar bone  Gingiva- "gum" or "gums", or fibrous tissue enclosed by mucous membrane that covers alveolar processes & surrounds necks of teeth PDLGINGIVA
  • 38. Surfaces of teeth Crowns of all teeth have 5 surfaces 1. Facial Surface Facial surface can be labial surface or buccal surface. a. Labial surface-The surfaces of incisors and canines that are towards lip b. Buccal surface- The surfaces of premolars & molars that face cheek.
  • 39. 2. Lingual Surface (Palatal surface) Surfaces facing towards tongue. Mandibular teeth Maxillary teeth
  • 40. 3. Proximal Surfaces a. Mesial Surface Surfaces towards midline. b. Distal Surface Surfaces away from midline.  collectively called “Proximal surface”
  • 41. 4. Incisal or Occlusal surface a. Incisal surface: The surface of incisors and canines that come in contact with those in the opposite jaws during the act of closure are called incisal surfaces b. Occlusal surface: The surface of premolars and molars that come in contact with those in opposite jaws during act of closure are called occlusal surfaces.
  • 42. Line & Point angles  When two surfaces of a tooth meet, a line angle is formed and when three surfaces meet a point angle is formed Line anglePoint angle
  • 43. Line angles of anterior teeth 1. Mesio-labial 2. Disto-labial 3. Mesio-lingual 4. Disto-lingual 5. Labio-incisal 6. Linguo-incisal
  • 44. Line angles of posterior teeth 1. Mesio-buccal 2. Disto-buccal 3. Mesio-lingual 4. Disto-lingual 5. Mesio-occlusal 6. Disto-occlusal 7. Bucco-occlusal 8. Linguo-occlusal
  • 45. Point angles of anterior teeth 1. Mesio-labio-incisal 2. Disto-labio-incisal 3. Mesio-linguo-incisal 4. Disto-linguo-incisal
  • 46. Point angles of posterior teeth 1. Mesio-bucco-occlusal 2. Disto-bucco-occlusal 3. Mesio-linguo-occlusal 4. Disto-linguo-occlusal
  • 47. Depressions on tooth surface 1. Pit - A sharp pinpoint depression on the surface of enamel 2. Fossa - An irregular depression or concavity on surface of tooth 1 2
  • 48. 3. Sulcus- A long depression on the surface of a tooth. 4. Groove- is a shallow linear depression on the surface of a tooth. A developmental groove is a shallow groove or line between the primary parts of the crown or root. A supplemental groove is less distinct and does not mark the junction of primary parts. Developmental grooves
  • 49. Elevations on tooth surface 1. Cusp: An elevation or mound on the crown of a tooth
  • 50. 2. Cingulum: is the lingual lobe of an anterior tooth and makes up the bulk of the cervical third of the lingual surface Cingulum
  • 51. 3. Lobe: is one of the primary sections of formation in development of crown • Cusps & mamelons are representative of lobes 4. Mamelons: are three rounded protuberances found on incisal ridges of newly erupted incisor teeth Lobes Mamelons
  • 52. 5. Ridge: A linear elevation on the surface of a tooth A. Marginal ridges: are rounded borders of enamel that form mesial & distal margins of occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth & mesial and distal margins of lingual surfaces of anterior teeth
  • 53. B. Triangular ridge: is a ridge that descends from the tips of the cusps of molars and premolars towards the centre part of the occlusal surface C. Transverse ridge: is formed by the union of buccal and lingual triangular ridges Triangular ridge
  • 54. D. Oblique ridge: is a ridge obliquely crossing the occlusal surfaces of maxillary molars
  • 55. E. Cusp ridges:  Each cusp has four cusp ridges extending in different directions (mesial, distal, facial, lingual) from its tip  Normally, the cusp ridge which extends toward central portion of occlusal surface is also a triangular ridge  Named by the direction they extend from the cusp tip
  • 56. F. Inclined planes:  The sloping area found between two cusp ridges  Planes are named by combining names of two cusp ridges between which they lie  Each cusp exhibits four inclined planes
  • 57. THIRDS OF TOOTH  To make study and communication easier the crown and root are divided into three halves Division in thirds occluso-gingivally (Crown) 1. Cervical third 2. Middle third 3. Incisal/Occlusal third
  • 58. Division in thirds mesio-distaly (Crown) Crown when viewed from front 1. Mesial third 2. Middle third 3. Distal third 123 Towards Midline
  • 59. Division in thirds facio-lingually (Crown) Crown when viewed from the side : 1. Facial third 2. Middle third 3. Lingual third 1 3 2
  • 60. Thirds-root 1. Cervical third 2. Middle third 3. Apical third c m a Apex Cervical line
  • 61. OCCLUSAL CURVATURES Curve of Spee  Curvature which begins at the tip of canines & follows buccal cusp tips of premolars & molars posteriorly, when viewed from their facial aspect  Two dimensional  Curves upward from anterior to posterior
  • 62.  Maxillary molar roots are inclined mesialy & mandibular molar roots distally.
  • 63. Curve of Wilson  The medio-lateral curvature of the occlusal plane of posterior teeth.  Two dimensional & approax. right angles to that of the Curve of Spee.  Complement paths of condyles during movements of mandible.
  • 64.  The crowns of mandibular posterior teeth must incline to lingual, while crowns of maxillary posterior teeth must incline toward buccal  This curve becomes deeper posteriorly, so that molars inclination is greater than that of premolars
  • 65.  Because of this curve & associated tooth inclinations, buccal cusps of mandibular molars & lingual cusps of maxillary molars usually appear to be longer
  • 66. Sphere of Monson  The three dimensional curvature of occlusal plane, which is combination of Curve of Spee & Curve of Wilson.  This curvature is in form of a portion of a ball, or sphere. This curvature is concave for mandibular arch & convex for maxillary arch
  • 67. Axial Position TEETH DIRECTION INCLINATION (ROOT) ANT. MAXILLARY TEETH FACIOLINGUAL LINGUAL ANT. MAXILLARY TEETH MESIODISTAL INCISORS : MESIAL CANINE : DISTAL
  • 68. TEETH DIRECTION INCLINATION (ROOTS) MAXILLARY PREMOLARS FACIOLINGUAL LINGUAL MAXILLARY PREMOLARS MESIODISTAL DISTAL MAXILLARY MOLARS FACIOLINGUAL LINGUAL MAXILLARY MOLARS MESIODISTAL MESIAL
  • 69. TEETH DIRECTION INCLINATION MANDIBULAR INCISOR & CANINES FACIOLINGUAL LINGUAL (ROOT) MANDIBULAR INCISOR MESIODISTALLY MESIAL (ROOT) MANDIBULAR CANINES MESIODISTALLY DISTAL (ROOT)
  • 70. TEETH DIRECTION INCLINATION MANDIBULAR PREMOLAR MESIODISTALLY DISTAL (ROOT) MANDIBULAR PREMOLAR 1st FACIOLINGUAL LINGUAL (ROOT) MANDIBULAR PREMOLAR 2nd FACIOLINGUAL BUCCAL (ROOT) MANDIBULAR MOLAR MD & FL DISTAL & BUCCAL
  • 71. Facial and Lingual Surfaces TOOTH SHAPE ALL ANTERIORS (LABIAL & LINGUAL) TRAPEZOID ALL POSTERIORS (BUCCAL & LINGUAL) TRAPEZOID
  • 72. Mesial and Distal Surfaces: TEETH SHAPE ANTERIOR TEETH TRIANGULAR MAXILLARY POSTERIOR TEETH TRAPEZOIDAL MANDIBULAR POSTERIOR TEETH RHOMBOIDAL
  • 73. Contact Areas:  In a complete arch, each tooth touches or contacts two adjacent teeth (exception : most posterior tooth)  These proximal contact areas are normally b/w mesial surface of one tooth & distal surface of tooth just anterior to it ( except central incisors)
  • 74.  Normally, contact areas increase in size with age.  Initially as a point in size, as age increases broadens  Broadening is d/t abrasion, when proximal surfaces of teeth rub against each other.
  • 75.  Due to abrasive action, mesio-distal length of dental arches continuously becomes shorter  It is a slow but dynamic process, as teeth become narrower mesiodistally, they are actually moving mesially, or closer to the midline
  • 76.  Importance of Proper location of contact area : 1. Stabilizing the dental arch 2. Prevention of food material from slipping b/w teeth 3. In dental restorations MORE DISTALY MORE CERVICALY Anterior to Posterior Size of Contact Area increases Midline
  • 77. lnterproximal Spaces:  Triangular shaped area b/w adjacent teeth in same arch cervical to contact area & which is best observed from facial aspect.  Interproximal space is covered with the gingival tissue (interdental papilla)
  • 78.  The triangle is formed by alveolar bone at its cervical base, proximal surfaces of adjacent teeth on its sides & contact area of adjacent teeth at its apex.  These structures are boundaries of interproximal space.
  • 79. Embrasures  Open space b/w proximal surfaces of two adjacent teeth in same arch, where they diverge facially or lingually, & incisally (occlusally) or cervically from contact area.  Embrasures are named according to their location, which depends on aspect from which teeth are being viewed  When viewing teeth from either facial or lingual aspects, two embrasures which may be observed are incisal (occlusal) & cervical (gingival) embrasures
  • 80.  Cervical embrasure corresponds to interproximal space, & is normally larger in area than incisal (occlusal) embrasure  When viewing teeth from incisal or occlusal aspect, two embrasures which are visible are named labial (buccal) & lingual embrasures Gingival Embrasures Incisal Embrasures
  • 81. Facial & Lingual Heights of Contour:  The height of contour (crest of curvature) is the greatest area of contour inciso (occluso) cervically on the facial & lingual surfaces  Best observed by viewing from a proximal aspect  Aid in proper protection & stimulation of gingival tissue
  • 82. TYPE OF CONTOUR CONSEQUENCES EXECESSIVE Flow of food material will be deflected away from gingival, Inadequate stimulation of these tissues may result in their breakdown INSUFFICIENT Not provide adequate protection, overstimulation or insult to gingival tissues may also result in their deterioration
  • 83. TEETH SURFACE HEIGHT OF CONTOUR (LOCATION) ANTERIOR & POSTERIOR TEETH LABIAL CERVICAL 3rd ANTERIOR TEETH LINGUAL CERVICAL 3rd POSTERIOR TEETH LINGUAL MIDDLE OR OCCLUSAL 3rd
  • 84. CERVICAL LINES  Line around the tooth where enamel and cementum meet  It is a stable entity, in contrast to the gingival line, which may be ever changing  The gingival line (gingival margin or gingival crest) is imaginary line which marks level of termination of non- attached soft tissue surrounding tooth Cementum Cemento-enamel junction Enamel
  • 85.  Gingival line level is variable & usually is above cervical line early in life, often receding to a lower level as individual becomes older  Gingival line separates clinical crown & root, whereas cervical line separates anatomical crown & root  Gingival line is always observable clinically, while cervical line is observable only when not covered by soft tissue, which is in a limited number of teeth
  • 86.  Cervical line is normally curved (convex) or bulges toward apical on facial & lingual surfaces of teeth  Cervical line is normally curved (convex) toward incisal (occlusal) on mesial and distal surfaces of teeth
  • 87.  Amount (depth) of cervical line curvature on any individual tooth is normally greater on the mesial, as compared to distal surface  Cervical lines on adjacent proximal surfaces of adjacent teeth have approximately same depth of curvature  Depth of curvature on all surfaces is greatest on central incisors & decreases posteriorly
  • 88. References  CONCISE DENTAL ANATOMY & MORPHOLOGY : JAMES L FULLER  DENTAL ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY & OCCLUSION: WHEELER’S  TEXTBOOK OF DENTAL ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY & OCCLUSION: RASHMI GS (PHULARI)  INTERNET
  • 89. THANK YOU