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The russian revolution

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  • 1. + RUSSIAN REVOLUTION ABHISHEK SINGH IX - B
  • 2. + Vladimir Lenin  May 4th 1870- January 21st 1924 ABHISHEK
  • 3. + ABHISHEK
  • 4. + Young Lenin Son of Ilya Nikolaevich Ulyanov and Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova.  When Lenin went on to study law at the University of Kazan, he was exposed to radical thinking and would interact with members of the revolutionary group, which caused his expulsion.  Influenced by teachings of Karl Marx, who believed in an international revolution of the lower-class workers (proletariat) who would lead the way to a new system of power, where property would be owned by the workers and not by an individual.  ABHISHEK  1895: Exiled to Siberia for involvement in revolutionary activities after moving to St. Petersburg to promote.
  • 5. + Beginning of Political Career  March 1898: formed the Social Democratic Party, Russia’s first Marxist political party.  1900: after the exile, he went to Europe and met Plekhanov. Together they created the newspaper “Iskra” or “Spark”, which targeted the economists and polices of serving the capitalists. They accused the policy framers of ignoring the interest of the masses. It later became the official journal of the Social Democratic Labor Party.  1903: Lenin’s party became known as the Bolsheviks after a difference of opinion between him and his friend Jues Martov, who became the Mensheviks.  1917: Revolution broke out and Lenin led his group to control the government.  1907: Monarch crushed the revolutions, and Lenin was sent to exile. Until the revolutions of 1917, he spent the majority of his time exiled in Europe. ABHISHEK
  • 6. The Pravda  The Pravda was the Russian newspaper. The first issue was published since Being closed down as a result of its peaceful stance on World War I on March 5, 1917
  • 7. Proclamation of Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee By: Vladimir Lenin Translation To Citizens of Russia The Provisional Government is deposed. The state power is transferred into the hands of the Military Revolutionary Committee, an organ of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, which heads the Petrograd proletariat and garrison. The cause for which the people has been struggling — immediate call for democratic peace, liquidation of ownership of land by landed nobility, workers' control over the industry, creation of the Soviet government — is ensured. Long live the revolution of workers, soldiers and peasants! •Lenin finished writing this document on September 12, 1917. It was said to be his most theoretical work.
  • 8. +October Revolution  Led October Revolution- coup d’etat  After almost 3 years of civil war, Bolsheviks took over the country  November 8, 1917, Lenin was elected as the Chair of the Council of People’s Commissars by the Russian Congress of Soviets. ABHISHEK
  • 9. The Winter Palace  November 1917, armed factory workers stormed the Winter Palace in Petrograd.
  • 10. + Economic Policies  Lenin was ruthless and pragmatic  Introduced:  New Economic Policy: measure of private enterprise was permitted to revive the declining economy of Russia  Policies included government’s seizing of land from its owners and redistributing it to the peasants, forming a peace treaty with Germany, and the nationalization of banks and industry  Concerned with creating a free health care system  From 1919 to 1921 famine and typhus (an infectious disease) left over 27 million people dead ABHISHEK
  • 11. + Lenin’s  1918  May Death he survived an assassination attempt 1922: suffered first stroke  Last two years of he life he tried to correct some extremes of the regime  Tried to ensure that Trotsky and not Stalin succeeded him  Failed > Stalin was far too clever and astute  1923> paralyzed and speechless from another stroke  Died ABHISHEK of a cerebral hemorrhage on January 21, 1924
  • 12. + ABHISHEK
  • 13. + Joseph Stalin ABHISHEK
  • 14. + ABHISHEK
  • 15. + Young Stalin Stalin was born into a dysfunctional family. Grew up in a modest household, and as a child contracted smallpox, and was teased by other children. Contributed to Stalin’s intense need for respect.  He was sent to study at the Tiflis Thelogical Seminary, never completed his education, as he became in involved in the city’s Marxist underground, and was expelled.  ABHISHEK  Worked at first as a private tutor, and later as a clerk, all while remaining devoted to his revolutionary ideals.
  • 16. + Beginning of Political Career  Stalin joined the Russian Social Democratic Party in 1898.  Although he was never an intellectual like Trotsky or Lenin, he worked on the home front to support the cause by distributing illegal literature and helping to organize workers in demonstrations and strikes.  In 1912, Stalin as appointed by Lenin to the first Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party. He also edits the Bolshevik newspaper, Pravda.  Stalin did not have a huge part in the Bolshevik revolution of 1917, he is appointed General Secretary by Lenin, a seemingly unimportant position, but which allowed him to appoint people and build support. ABHISHEK
  • 17. + Ascent To Power  When Lenin had a stroke, Stalin formed a troika with Kamenev and Zinoviev.  Lenin recovers and asserts power, saying that “Stalin is too rude”. Lenin did not believe that Stalin was well suited for a position of power.  The Party did not act in favor of Lenin’s warnings, and Stalin remained general secretary after Lenin’s death.  The troika again became powerful, but Stalin eventually breaks with the other too members. ABHISHEK
  • 18. + Stalin’s Purges  Stalin ended up in a fit of paranoia, destroying all of the old leaders of the Party, using a methodical divide and conquer approach.  After exiling did not work, Stalin held a vast amount of false trials, where he would trick the defendant into admitting that they were and “enemy of the people”, and then would be executed.  The purges scoured much deeper then top party members, and at least one million people were executed for political offenses.  The purges left Stalin at the very top of the Communist party, and as virtually the only one with any power at all. ABHISHEK
  • 19. + Stalin’s Policies   The Soviet Union did succeed in creating Stalin’s desired industry, but about 14.5 million people died because of it.  ABHISHEK Stalin invoked five-year plans upon the people, in which he sought rapid industrialization, and forcefully collectivized the agriculture. There was massive famine among peasants, because Stalin was exporting too much food, creating the worst ever man made famine.
  • 20. STALIN DURING WWII Made a non-aggression pact with Hitler, consisting of an agreement to divide Poland and leave each other alone. Stalin trusted Hitler and did not listen to warning that the Wehrmacht was planning to attack. The Soviet army was unprepared and was defeated multiple times when the attack did come. The military had been purged, and was severely lacking in brainpower. Eventually the Red Army did regroup and pushed Hitler back. During post-war negotiations Stalin argued alongside Roosevelt and Churchill, and urged that Eastern Europe would be under communist power. The Soviet Union emerged as a great power. ABHISHEK
  • 21. + Stalin’s Death  In 1953 a plot to kill Stalin was discovered within the Kremlin, and a new purge seemed to be on the horizon.  Stalin’s health was steadily deteriorating, and the purge never occurred because he died.  Supposedly, there is some debate as to the promptness with which a doctor was called after Stalin originally fell ill, and whether his death could have been prevented, but wasn’t because the people closest to him were afraid of becoming victims of the next great purge. ABHISHEK
  • 22. + ABHISHEK
  • 23. Results of the Revolution      Within days after the revolution, Lenin began to take charge. He ordered all the farmland to be distributed to the peasants . The Bolsheviks decided to give control of the factories to the workers. They also signed a truce with Germany to stop all of the fighting in Russia during WWI, and they began peace talks. In March of 1918, Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. This treaty made Russia surrender large parts of its territory to Germany and its allies . Russians were very angry about the embarrassing terms of the treaty, and they objected to the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks now had to deal with solving more problems. Their opponents were known as the White Army. The White Army was made up of different groups, some wanted the czar to return, some wanted a democratic government, and there were socialists who opposed Lenin’s form of socialism. The three groups didn’t get along very well, the only thing uniting them was their desire to defeat the Bolsheviks. Leon Trotsky commanded the Bolshevik Red Army. For about three years there was civil war in Russia. Many died in the civil war, around 14 million. Russia was left in chaos after the war, there was loss of life from fighting, hunger, and a flu epidemic. The Red Army won on the end, and defeated all its opponents. This showed that the Bolsheviks were able to seize power and keep it. War and Revolution destroyed Russia’s economy, Lenin started to revive the economy and restructure the government. Russia slowly recovered because of new policies and the peace that followed the civil war. Russia was organized into several self-governing republics all under the Central government. The Bolshevik revolution tried to destroy the existing political structures. They used violence to control people, and millions were killed. A positive effect was that Russia had established a state controlled society that lasted for decades.
  • 24. THANK YOU! ABHISHEK
  • 25. ABHISHEK