The physical features of India can be
under the following physiographic
(i) The Himalayan Mountains
(ii) The Northern Plains
(iii) The Peninsular Plateau
(iv) The Indian Desert
(v) The Coastal Plains
(vi) The Islands
THE HIMALAYAN MOUNTAIN: The
Himalayan ranges contain several high peaks.
Mount Everest is the highest peak in the world.
Himalayan Mountains stretch in a long curve from
Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Arunachal Pradesh
in the east.
is about 2000 kilometers and width
between 230 and 400 kilometers.
ADVANTAGES OF THE
High mountain ranges and peaks act a barrier for enemies and so play a great role
in the Defense of India.
The Himalayas protect the country against the cold winds blowing from Siberia
through central Asia.
The Himalayas check rain bearing wind and cause heavy rainfall. The eastern part
of the mountain prevents the monsoon
clouds from escaping northwards out of India. This causes rain in the whole of
There are dense forests up to an altitude of 1500 meters. Different types of trees,
bushes and wild animals are found in these forests.
Images of Himalayas
Higher Himalayan range
THE SHIVALIK RANGES
The Shivalik Hills or Range are the southernmost and
geologically youngest east-west mountain chain of the
The Sivalik extends about 1,689 km from southwest
Kashmir through northern India into southern Nepal.
The Shivaliks crest at 600 to 1,200 metres and have many
They extend 1,600 km from the Teesta River in Sikkim,
westward through Nepal and Uttarkhand, continuing into
Kashmir and Northern Pakistan.
physical features and the climatic conditions
of this region have played an important role in
shaping and making it an important part from the
rest of the country.
Shivalik form a belt, which runs continuously
from Jammu, Kangra valley, Sirmur district to
Dehradun and finally ending up in the Bhabbar
tracts of Garhwal and Kumaon.
Images of Shivalik Ranges
A view of Shivalik Range
has been made by the three major river systems:- The Indus
- The Ganga
It plain is formed by alluvial soil.
The area covered by this plain is 7 lakh kilometers.
The plain is about 2400 km long and 240 to 320
km broad is a densely physiographic division.
- PUNJAB PLAIN
- GANGA PLAIN
- BRAMHAPUTRA PLAIN
PLAIN IS BROADLY
DIVIDED INTO THREE SECTIONS-
THE PUNJAB PLAIN
Western Part of the northern plain is called the
is formed by Indus and its tributaries. The large
part of this plain lies in Pakistan.
Indus and its tributaries :-the Ravi, the Chenab.
section of the plain is dominated by Doabs.
THE GANGA PLAIN
It extends between Ghaggar and testa river.
The Ganga-Yamuna Doab comprising the
Rohilkhand and the Avadh Plain is the tile
area that is drained by the tributaries of
The North Bengal Plains: the Plains
extending from the foot of Eastern Himalayas
to the northern limb of Bengal basin cover an
area of 23,000km .
THE BRAHMAPUTRA PLAIN
spreads over the states of North India , Haryana,
Delhi , Bihar, U.P. , Jharkhand ,and West Bengal,
particularly in Assam lies the Brahmaputra
is a low level plain, rarely more than 80km
broad, surround by High Mountain on all sides except
on the west.
of the Great Plains: Riverine region,
Fertile soil, favorable climate, flat surface,
constructions of roads, extensive system of irrigation.
THE PENINSULAR PLAIN
is formed due to the breaking and
drifting of the gondwana land.
has a broad and shallow valleys and
peninsular plateau is a tableland
composed of the old crystalline,
igneous and metamorphic rocks.
consists of two major divisions
- Central highlands
- Deccan plateau
The part of peninsular plateau lying to the
north of the narmada river covering a major
area of the malwa plateau is known as the
The extend of central highlands is from vindhya
to aravalli hills.
The slope of central highlands is from southwest to north-east
The deccan plateau is a triangular landmass that
lies to the south of the river narmada.
The deccan plateau is higher in the west and
slopes gently eastwards.
It is separated by fault from the chotanagpur
THREE PROMINENT HILLS FROM THE EAST
THE INDIAN DESERTS
A place that receives less than 10 inches (25
centimeters) of rain per year is considered a desert.
Deserts are. part of a wider classification of regions
called "dry lands .
These areas exist under a moisture deficit, which
means they can frequently lose more moisture
through evaporation than they receive from annual
Deserts cover more than one fifth of the Earth's
land, and they are found on every continent.
INDIA THERE ARE TWO
TYPES OF DESERTS THAT
- HOT DESERT
- COLD DESERT
deserts usually have a large diurnal and seasonal
temperature range, with high daytime temperatures, and
low nighttime temperatures (due to extremely low humidity).
hot deserts the temperature in the daytime can reach 45
°C/113 °F or higher in the summer, and dip to 0 °C/32 °F or
lower at nighttime in the winter.
areas in deserts lack large (more than 14 °C/25 °F)
daily temperature variations, partially due to the urban heat
deserts are formed by rain shadows; mountains
blocking the path of precipitation to the desert (on the lee
side of the mountain).
The common conceptions of deserts as dry and hot, there are
cold deserts as well.
Desert animals have adapted ways to help them keep cool and
use less water.
FOR EXAMPLE, camel can go for days without food and
water. Many desert animals are nocturnal, coming out only
when the brutal sun has descended to hunt. Some animals,
like the desert tortoise in the southwestern United States,
spend much of their time underground. Most desert birds are
nomadic, crisscrossing the skies in search of food. Because of
their very special adaptations, desert animals are extremely
vulnerable to introduced predators and changes to their
THE COSTAL PLAINS
Coastal plains are a geologic feature found around
the world and on both the eastern and western
coasts of India. Coastal plains are characterized by
an area of flat low lying land that is situated adjacent
to a water body often a sea or ocean. It is also of
note that coastal plains are separated from the
interior of the larger land mass by other unique
features. Coastal plains have limited vegetation;
however grasses and trees are not uncommon. The
coastal plains of India are relatively expansive
regions which contribute significantly to the
geography of the region.
THE INDIAN ISLANDS
island is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded
by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features
on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or
lake may be called an eyot , or holm. A grouping of geographically
or geologically related islands is called an archipelago.
An island may still be described as such despite the presence of an
artificial land bridge, for example Singapore and its causeway, or
the various Dutch delta islands, such as Ijssel monde. Some places
may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after
being connected to a larger landmass by a wide land bridge, such
as Coney Island. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated
from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example
thePeloponnese by the Corinth Canal, it is generally not considered
island is any piece of sub-continental land that is
surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent
land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An
island in a river or lake may be called an eyot , or holm. A
grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is
called an archipelago.
island may still be described as such despite the presence of
an artificial land bridge, for example Singapore and
its causeway, or the various Dutch delta islands, such
as Ijssel monde. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated
from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example
thePeloponnese by the Corinth Canal, it is generally not
considered an island.