They are not only being employed in sensitive surgeries & operations but in aiding patients with disabilities to move about. They are noticeably employed for patients who need their vital signs & other scales constantly monitored. Robo wheelchairs can help them in moving about without an assistant & will also keep updating their inputs
Not only can robots be employed in battlefield to fight & act like a typical warrior but they can also serve to hunt down wounded or killed soldiers. They are also used to provide first aid to injured & food & ammunition to soldiers in need.
This is the biggest industry that relies on robots for better performance. They are not only used to do primary tasks such as assembling automobiles, etc. but they can do more background stuff like carrying or lifting material from a place to the other or fixing & repairing equipment.
The farms that employ robots are not the kinds we get to see commonly. They are farms which spread on acres & acres of land. They need special integration of services to function properly. An agrobot here, can make sure about sowing, watering, & spraying pesticides
ROBOTICS & ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE by, A.Deepika Sri Subha. C.Selva Lakshmi. II IT.Engineering College,sivakasi
ROBOTICS“Robotics” is the science and technology ofRobots, their design, manufacture, andapplicationThe word “Robotics” was first used in printby Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction shortstory "Runaround" (1941).
DEFINITION:• Reprogrammable• Multifunctional manipulator• To move material, parts, tools -(Robot Institute of America) •Automatic Device •performs functions normally ascribed to humans •or a machine in the form of a human -(Webster dictionary)
History &Development •The word robot was introduced by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossums Universal Robots) • written in 1920 •derived from the word “Robotovat” which means “to slave” or “to work” •first recorded designs of a humanoid robot -Leonardo da Vinci (1495) •early automation - Jacques de Vaucanson(1738) •humanoid robot known as Elektro -Westinghouse(1930)
1. Pick and place -Moves items between points2. Continuous path control -Moves along a programmable path3. Sensory -Employs sensors for feedback
• Moves items from one point toanother• Does not need to follow aspecific path between points
• Moves along a specific path• Uses include welding, cutting,machining parts.
• Uses sensors for feedback.• Closed-loop robots usesensors in conjunction withactuators• to gain higher accuracy –servo motors.
General Components of an industrial Robot:-Manipulator The part of the robot that performs the taskController Brain or computer center which coordinates the robot’s movementsPower supply 1. Hydraulic 2. Pneumatic 3. Electric 4. Vacuum 5. Often a combination; the end-effectors mostly pneumaticVehicle Used to move the robot on a track, free wheels, treads,or some type of legs/feet
Tasks which are: Dangerous • Space exploration • chemical spill cleanup • disarming bombs • disaster cleanup Boring and/or repetitive • Welding car frames • part pick and place • manufacturing parts. High precision or high speed • Electronics testing • Surgery • precision machining.
Space Exploration Two important devices exist which are proven space robots Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Remote Manipulator System (RMS)
Applications of RobotsThis pictureshows a HistoricSpaceHandshakebetween Shuttleand SpaceStation Robots -Image Courtesyof CSA
Applications of RobotsRobotic Wheelchair can facilitate patient locomotion
Applications of RobotsManufacturing Probably theindustry which usesrobots the most.Robots are useful inrepetitive tasks andalso work for longerdurations withoutbreaks. e.g. Robots in carproduction assemblyline
Applications of Robots• Agriculture Robots can do the work that took a dozen harvesters to do at the same time. Robots are used for harvesting, reaping and sowing purposes. They are sometimes called, ‘Agrobots’.
Shortcomings of Robots1. Are not creative or innovative2. Do not think independently3. Do not make complicated decisions4. Do not learn from mistakes5. Do not adapt quickly to changes in their surroundings
Introduction To Artificial Intelligence OVERVIEW: •Introduction / Terminology •Examples of Agencies •SPOT & Fresh Kitty •RoboCup •Applications of AI and Robotics •More Examples •The Humanoid COG
Terminology• Artificial Intelligence – The collective attributes of a computer, robot, or other device capable of performing functions such as learning, decision making, or other intelligent human behaviors.• Autonomous Agent – A hardware (or software) based system that has the following properties: autonomy - able to operate without the direct intervention of humans or others social ability - able to interact with other agents and possibly humans reactivity - able to perceive their environment and respond to changes that occur in it• Agency – A particular system composed of intelligent agents, such as computers or robots, that cooperate in order to solve a problem.• Behavior Engineering – A methodology used to develop behavior- based autonomous agents.
Fresh Kitty • Modular, inexpensive, autonomous mobile robot • 4 wheel toy car design • Max. speed of 1 foot/sec • On-board microcomputer supervises and supports the exchange of information • Rotating turret holds 4 sonars • Turret also holds an infrared sensor to detect infrared rays • 32 light sensors detect objects in front of the robot • Bumpers all around the robot used to follow walls • Radio modem to communicate with remote agents
SPOT • Autonomous mobile robot • 2 independent wheel design • Max. speed of 1 foot/sec • On-board microcontroller supervises and supports the exchange of information • Turret that holds infrared emitters that can be detected at a distance of up to 20 feet • Bumpers all around the robot used to follow walls • Radio modem to communicate with remote agents
How do SPOT and Fresh Kitty work together?• SPOT also holds a small brush on its back• SPOT finds a wall and uses its bumper system and sensors to follow edges and collect dust with its brush• Through radio frequency and infrared communication SPOT can bring the dust back to Fresh Kitty who has a vacuum cleaner waiting to suck it up
RoboCupRoboCup is an international research effort to promoteautonomous robots. • Robots must cooperate in… – Strategy acquisition – Real-time reasoning – Multi-agent collaboration – Competition against another team of robots
• Each robot has… – Pentium 233MHz – Linux OS – Video camera and frame grabber – Sensor System – Kicker
How to the robots make decisions?• Control is based on a set of behaviors• Each behavior has a set of preconditions that either… – Must be satisfied – Are desired• A behavior is selected when all of the “musts” become true• A behavior is selected from several behaviors based on how many desired conditions are true
Applications of AI and Robotics• Industrial Automation• Services for the Disabled• Vision Systems• Planetary Exploration• Mine Site Clearing• Law Enforcement• And Many Others…
The Humanoid COG • MIT’s finest • Broken down COG is just a bunch of sensors and actuators • Except for legs and a flexible spine, COG has all the major degrees of freedom of the human upper body • Sight exists through video cameras • Hearing, touch, hand motion, and speech are being added soon
REACHED CLIMBBECAUSE OF: • Working volume • Accuracy • Repeatability • Speed and acceleration • Resolution
Got idea about the “ALL ROUNDER OFTHE FUTURE GENERATION”??????
CONCLUSION Why build a human-like robot?• Our bodies are critical to the representations that we use for internal thought and language• If a robot is looks like a human then it will be natural for humans to interact with it in a human- like way• To develop similar task constraints
Thank you Deepika srisubha.A, Selva Lakshmi.C B.TECH,I.T II YR
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