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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
What is solid waste?
Any unwanted or discharged non-liquid waste material
generated from domestic, commercial, industrial and agricultural
activities is known as Solid waste.
Sources of WASTE
Our household garbage generally consist of number of
items, such as left over food, papers, plastic bags, glass metals,
unused medicines, cloth pieces rags , vegetable and fruits
waste, and several other left over materials.
Industrial and Commercial waste
Depending on process different types of waste
Generally it consist of different types of chemicals,
metals, ash, packing materials like thermocol, plastic,
cardboard, paper and etc.
It comes from nursing homes, pathological labs, blood
It consist of metals glass, rubber, various plastic items
and equipments like bottles, syringes, tubes, sheets, gloves etc.
also includes bandages, cotton soiled blood and mercury etc.
Main sources of nuclear waste are nuclear power plants
and testing of nuclear weapons when large amount of
radioactive is generated.
During mining heavy metal residues are found. These
include toxic metal like Lead, Cadmium etc.
Heavy metal particles are found around iron-ore, copper,
gold, silver mines.
Metals mixed with dust pollute the surrounding air.
Types of Waste
Include municipal and household wastes, construction and
commercial wastes etc.
This mostly contains biodegradable and some non-biodegradable
Biodegradable waste is organic waste such as vegetables, meat bones,
leftover food, garden and farm waste etc. These waste are decomposed by
micro-organisms , earthworms, ants, fungi.
Non-biodegradable waste which can not be decomposed by microorganisms , this type of waste remain on earth for years together.
Includes Hospital and Industries waste such as used syringes, chemical
released in rivers and lakes.
These waste are threat to public health as well as environment.
An Autorikshaw takes away discarded computers in Bhopal
E-waste poses a great hazard to health and the environment.
Click to watch video
The accumulation of solid wastes in our environment creates the
following health hazards:
- Accumulation of garbage on roads and lanes attracts rats
- The pathogens may enter the human body through flies
- When rain water mixes in the deposits of fermenting
refuse, it contaminates the surface and ground water.
- Accidental or purposeful combustion of refuse leads to
risk of air pollution.
- Mixing of toxic chemicals released from the solid wastes
are absorbed by soil, which may kill the plants and other living
Management of Solid Waste
i) Industrial Waste:
It can cause water and air pollution. This can be avoided by installing
scrubber or electrostatic precipitators in the chimneys which separates
particular matter from gases.
ii) Nuclear Waste:
Radioactive waste from Nuclear energy stations must be disposed off
by deep burial under very thick protective cover.
iii) Municipal solid Waste
Most of the cities generate large quantities of solid wastes.
Municipal solid wastes management includes waste sanitizing.
Sanitizing is done by microbes present in readymade biocultures or
alternatively it is done by sprinkling with 5% solution of fresh cow dung mixed
with water on everyday fresh heap of solid wastes plus 5 kg rock phosphate
powder per tonne where the solid waste dumped.
People of Ladakh and Goa have refused the use of plastic bags.
Therefore , these regions are almost free from plastic wastes.
When u go to market u should carry handbag made of cotton cloth
and refuse plastic bags.
The best way of the solid waste management is to reduce generation
of solid wastes.
Repairing, reusing and sharing things, help to reduce wastes.
Reuse reduces the generation of solid wastes.
e.x. Reusing jars and metal cans for different purpose will reduce
generation of solid wastes.
Processing of unwanted materials into new, useful products is called
It is made from materials recovered from waste.
Like paper, cans, plastic etc.
Role of an individual
We consume many more things than our basic needs. When we
consume more we generate more waste.
Simple life style generate less waste, because the way in which people
live and the goods they consume has an impact on waste generation.
e.x. Though, India is having the second largest population in the world
produces abut 3% pollution and waste in the world . On the other hand,
though, US has much smaller population, than that of India, produces 25% of
pollution and waste in the world.
All Western countries, due to their higher standard of living and
modern lifestyle generate many times more waste than many Eastern countries
which follow very simple lifestyle.
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