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Seed Quality Enhancement technology of major vegetable crops

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  • Prospects and Retrospectes of oil palm cultivation in India
  • Seed quest, 2009
  • Author
  • Feisterritzer, 1975
  • Principle involved in seed hydration
  • TIME
  • Toxicity of chemicals
    Limited O2 supply to seed
    Disadvantage in handling large quantity of seed
  • Table 1: Effect of seed fortification on seed quality
    enhancement in Brinjal
  • ( Bradford, 1986 )
  • Photos
  • Toxicity of chemicals
    Limited O2 supply to seed
    Disadvantage in handling large quantity of seed
  • 2hr-Soaking
    ‘Guangxi 5’
  • Water uptake ( g/ g. seed )
  • Figures not sharing the same letters in a column differ significantly at p 0.05; FGP = final germination percentage; GI = germination index; MGT = mean germination time; T50 = time taken to
    50% germination.
  • A
  • ( Copeland and Mc Donald 2001)
  • Toxicity of chemicals
    Limited O2 supply to seed
    Disadvantage in handling large quantity of seed
  • CW=Calcium paste consists of CaSO4 + wheat bran at the ratio 1:5 (w/w). CWH=Calcium paste consists of CaSO4 + wheat bran + humic acid at the ratio 2:10:1 (w/w/w).
    SFW= Shoot fresh weight, SDW= Shoot dry weight
  • ADHESIVE
  • Toxicity of chemicals
    Limited O2 supply to seed
    Disadvantage in handling large quantity of seed
  • Polykote @ 3g/kg of seeds, Halogen mix @ 3g/kg of seeds.
    carbendazim @ 2g/kg of seeds, DAP @ 2g/kg of seeds

Transcript

  • 1. Welcome
  • 2. Seed Quality Enhancement Technology of Vegetable Crops KITTUR RANI CHANNAMMA COLLEGE OF HORTICULTURE, ARABHAVI
  • 3. TOPIC DIVISION
  • 4. Global Seed Market Split Vegetable seed Seed Soybean 12% Tomato fresh indet. 11% Vegetables 18% Cabbage 7% Canola 5% Sweet pepper 7% Cotton 3% Corn 32% Rice 10% Wheat 4% Barley 2% Other 6% Potato 4% Sugar Beet 2% Lettuce 7% Tomato fresh set. 3% Carrot 4% Hot pepper 5% Sunflower 2% INDIAN SEED INDUSTRY • Total Seed Industry is worth about 7500-8000 crore • Vegetable seed industry is worth 1500 crore Chinese cabbage 5 % Watermelon 5 % Onion 5% Melon 5 % (Seed quest, 2009)
  • 5. Seed Quality Enhancement Definition Post harvest treatment that improve germination or seedling growth or facilitate the delivery of seeds and other materials required at the time of sowing (Taylor et al., 1998)
  • 6. Seed Quality Concept Sowing Environmental Pre-harvest Factors Seed Quality Health Physiological Harvest Genetic Physical Harvest & Post-harvest Factors Seed ready for sowing Factors Seed quality Enhancement Sowing Aagarwal, 1992
  • 7. Role of impr oved seed • It serves as a carrier of new technologies • It serves a basic tools for secured food supply crop yields • It serves as mean of security in less favorable production area • It act as medium for rehabitation of agriculture in case of natural disaster ( Feistritzer, 1975 )
  • 8. Where & when it is needed? • Problematic seed • High value of seed • Specific planting technique • Biotic stresses • Direct seeding • Adverse climatic conditions
  • 9. History • Recorded references in Vedas and Bible Ex. Beejamruta, • Coated and pelleted seeds traced in Egyptian pyramids • China farmers use to coat paddy seeds with mud balls while sowing in flooded fields • Our ancestors use to practice it – Application of ash, mud or cow dung slurry on seeds
  • 10. History
  • 11. Seed Quality Enhancement Techniques 1. Seed hydration technology (pre hydration, priming) 2. Seed coating (pelleting, film coating) 3. Integrated seed enhancement
  • 12. Seed hydration technology / Seed hardening It is process of soaking the seeds in water or dilute solution of growth regulating compounds to induce early germination, better root growth and seedling growth and also enhances the yield potential of the crop variety. TYPES OF HYDRATIONS 1.Pre-hydration [ a). Seed fortification b). seed infusion ] 2.Priming [a). Osmo conditioning b). Halo priming c). Bio priming c). Hydro priming d). Solid Matrix Priming or matriconditioning ]
  • 13. PHYSIOILOGY INVOLVED IN HYDRATION POST-GERMINATION UPTAKE OF WATER GERMINATION TIME (Bewley, 1997)
  • 14.  Seed fortification It is pre hydration technique were seeds are soaked either in water or dilute solution of bioactive chemicals such as micro nutrients, growth regulators, vitamins and seed protectants.  Seed infusion It is a method of impregnation of seeds with bioactive chemicals through organic solvents instead of water this technique of infusion which helps to avoid the damage caused to the seed due to soaking in water. hence this method is highly suitable to the seeds that suffer from soaking or seed coat injury (pulses). (Halmer, 2006)
  • 15. Advantages of Pre hydration  Faster water Imbibition  Imbibition causes swelling of seeds  Pre hydration promotes early germination and good crop stand. Disadvantages of Pre-hydration Toxicity of chemicals Limited O2 supply to seed Disadvantage in handling large quantity of seed
  • 16. Table 1: Effect of seed fortification on seed quality enhancement in Brinjal. Treatment Control Water Cowpea extract 2% Horse gram extract 3% Bone meal extract 2% Gelatin 1000ppm KH2PO4 1% KNO3 2% ZnSO4 0.1% FeSO4 0.2% NaSO4 0.1% MnSO4 0.2% IBA 100ppm SA 200ppm Mean S.Ed C.D (P=0.5) Germination % 58.05 58.69 61.34 60.00 60.66 66.42 64.89 67.21 60.00 60.66 60.00 62.72 60.00 65.65 62.02 1.439 3.087** Dry matter production ( Mg seedligs-10 ) 11.28 11.41 11.83 11.70 11.82 12.51 12.40 12.67 11.77 11.90 11.62 11.88 11.79 12.45 11.93 0.053 0.114** Vigour index 807 833 890 872 899 1051 1017 1078 883 899 866 939 878 1033 925 17.72 38** (Ponnuswamy and Vijayalakshmi, 2011, Coimbatore)
  • 17. Table-2: Effect of seed fortification on seed quality enhancement in Tomato Treatment Control Water Cowpea extract 2% Horse gram extract 3% Bone meal extract 2% Gelatin 1000ppm KH2PO4 1% KNO3 2% ZnSO4 0.1% FeSO4 0.2% NaSO4 0.1% MnSO4 0.2% IBA 100ppm SA 200ppm Mean S.Ed C.D (P=0.5) Germination % 61.34 63.43 65.65 64.15 65.65 68.02 67.21 68.86 64.15 64.89 64.15 65.65 64.15 67.21 65.65 1.017 2.18** Dry matter production (Mg seedligs-10 ) 11.59 12.32 12.54 12.39 12.53 12.86 12.75 12.96 12.43 12.47 12.54 12.68 12.51 12.87 12.53 0.0511 0.1095** Vigour index 887 980 1034 1004 1034 1106 1084 1128 1001 1017 1010 1046 1007 1094 1031 15.49 33.23** (Ponnuswamy and Vijayalakshmi, 2011, Coimbatore)
  • 18. Table-3: Effect of seed fortification on seed quality enhancement in Chilli Control 54.33 Dry matter production ( Mg seedligs-10 ) 11.11 Water 56.16 11.55 797 Cowpea extract 2% Horse gram extract 3% 58.05 11.74 846 56.79 11.70 819 Bone meal extract 2% 58.05 11.79 843 Gelatin 1000ppm KH2PO4 1% 60.00 12.55 946 60.00 12.52 939 KNO3 2% 61.34 12.64 967 FeSO4 0.2% 56.79 11.79 826 NaSO4 0.1% 54.16 11.93 823 IBA 100ppm 54.16 11.90 815 SA 200ppm 60.66 12.57 955 Mean 58.05 11.98 859 S.Ed 1.457 0.059 16.81 C.D (P=0.5) 3.17** 0.12** 36.64** Treatment Germination % Vigour index 734 (Ponnuswamy and Vijayalakshmi, 2011, Coimbatore)
  • 19. Seed Priming  It is a presowing treatment in which seeds are soaked in osmotic solution that allows the seeds to imbibe water and go through the first stages of germination but does not permit radicle protrusion through the seed coat  It is based on the principle of controlled Imbibition, to a level that a permits pre germination metabolism to proceed, but prevents actual emergence of radicle ( Bradford, 1986 )
  • 20. Hydro priming (drum priming) It is achieved by continuous or successive addition of limited amount of water to the seeds is the cheap and useful technique that is practiced by incubating seeds for a limited time in warm water. Halo primingHalo priming involves the use of salts of chlorides, sulphates, nitrates etc. Osmopriming (Osmoconditioning) It is the standard priming technique. Seeds are incubated in well aerated solutions with a low water potential, and later washed and dried. (Halmer, 2006)
  • 21. Matric priming (Solid matrix conditioning) It is the incubation of seeds in a solid, insoluble matrix with a limited amount of water. This method confers a slow imbibition. (McDonald, 2000) matric carriers are- (Calcinated clay, Vermiculite ,Peat Moss ,Sand, Micro-Cel ) Bio-priming (Seed conditioning) It is a process of biological seed treatment that refers to combination of seed hydration (physiological aspect of disease control) and inoculation (biological aspect of disease control) of seed with beneficial organism to protect seed with the help of beneficial fungi and bacteria. (Halmer, 2006)
  • 22. Fig :2 Physiological basis of seed priming. (Agarwal, 2002)
  • 23. • Osmotic potential of solution. • Priming temperature and light • Duration of priming • O2 availability • Drying method (Halmer, 2006)
  • 24. Advantages of Priming  Controlled water Imbibition  Imbibition injury prevented  Salt priming supply seeds with nitrogen and other nutrients for protein synthesis Disadvantages of Priming Toxicity of chemicals Limited O2 supply to seed Disadvantage in handling large quantity of seed
  • 25. Germination percentage (%) 2hr-Soaking ‘Guangxi 5’ 2hr-Soaking ‘Gold Prince’ Fig-3: Germination of ‘Guangxi 5’ and ‘Gold Prince’ Triploid water melon after Hydropriming treatments at different aeration times (Rukui et al., 2002,Thailand)
  • 26. Table-4 : Germination percentage and mean germination time (MGT) of triploid watermelon seeds after soaking in water for 2 hrs following 24 or 48 hours incubation. NS- non significant, MGT- Mean germination time. (Rukui et al., 2002, Thailand)
  • 27. Fig-3: Change in seed moisture content under different drying conditions (Rukui et al., 2002, Thailand)
  • 28. Table-5 : Germination percentage and mean germination time (MGT) of hydroprimed triploid watermelon seeds after redrying. (Rukui et al., 2002, Thailand)
  • 29. Table-6 : Means of pinto bean seed quality parameters affected by hydropriming duration and cultivar Treatments Electrical conductivity (µS/ cm/g) Mean germination time (day) Germination percentage Seedling dry weight (mg) Hydro-priming P1 10.51a 3.03a 95.33b 84.92b P2 9.65b 2.51b 99.00a 94.42a P3 9.60b 2.65b 97.00ab 91.75a P4 9.50b 3.07a 94.67b 83.67b Cultivar ‘Talash’ 9.84a 2.77b 96.25a 88.62a ‘COS16’ 9.75a 2.73b 96.75a 88.87a ‘Khomain’ 9.83a 2.95a 96.50a 88.56a Different letters at each column for each treatment indicating significant difference at p≤0.05. P1, P2, P3 and P4 : non – primed and hydro-primed seeds for 7.14 and 21 h. respectively. (Kazem et al., 2010, Iran)
  • 30. Table-7 : Means of pinto bean field traits influenced by hydro-priming duration and cultivar Treatments Seedling emergence percentage Mean emergence time (day) Grains per plant 1000 Grains/ Grain m2 weigh t (g) Grain yield per plant (g) Grain yield/m2 (gm2) Hydro-priming P1 55.11b 29.68a 33.52a 896.2b 326.8a 7.553a 209.1b P2 68.22a 25.75b 34.94a 1106.0a 324.7a 7.630a 251.7a P3 64.22a 26.80b 34.06a 1040.0a 324.7a 7.612a 236.8b P4 54.00b 30.57a 33.48a 884.4b 327.0a 7.581a 205b Cultivar ‘Talash’ 60.16a 27.92a 38.63a 1115.0a 317.0b 8.385a 248.1a ‘COS16’ 60.83a 27.87a 39.52a 1128.0a 305.4b 8.400a 252.5a ‘Khomain’ 60.16a 28.80a 23.86b 701.7b 5.997b 176.9b 355.1a Different letters at each column for each treatment indicating a significant difference @ ≤0.05 P1, P2, P3 and P4 : non-primed and hydro-primed seeds for 7.14 and 21 h. respectively ( Kazem et al., 2010, Iran)
  • 31. Table-8: Effect of osmopriming on the germination ability of tomato cv. Riogrande improved and Roma. T50 (days) MGT (days) FGP (%) GI GE(%) Control 5.50a 6.30 a 45.33 c 16.50 c 16.65 d Osmopriming (PEG) 3.07 c 5.17 b 65.67 b 24.50 b 24.57 c Osmopriming (NaCl) 3.77 b 5.13 b 74.00 a 25.50 a 37.45 b Osmopriming (KNO3) 2.17 d 4.10 c 83.33 a 32.00a 46.28 a LSD at 0.05 0.221 0.148 12.36 2.43 8.03 Control 5.15 a 6.70 a 48.33 c 16.50 c 15.25 c Osmopriming (PEG) 3.57 c 5.01 c 64.67 b 23.50 c 25.57 b Osmopriming (NaCl) 3.87 b 5.23 b 72.00a 27.50 b 37.45 a Osmopriming (KNO3) 2.87 d 4.60 d 78.33 a 33.00 a 44.08 a LSD at 0.05 0.254 0.188 11.36 2.33 9.13 Treatments Riogrande improved Roma FGP = final germination % ; MGT = mean germination time; T50 = time taken to 50% germination; GI=germination index; GE=Energy of germination (Farooq et al., 2005, Faisalabad)
  • 32. Table-9 : Effect of seedling vigour of tomato cvs. Riogrande improved and Roma. Seedling Seeding fresh dry weight weight (mg) (mg) Root length (cm) Shoot length (cm) 7.51 a 31.41 d 45.05 d 30.88 d 1.12b 20.29 d Riogrande Osmopriming (PEG) 7.33 a 54.00 c improved Osmopriming (NaCl) 5.15 b 62.19 b Osmopriming(KNO3) 4.55 c 74.97 a LSD at 0.05 0.593 4.342 Control 7.91 a 43.41 d Osmopriming (PEG) 7.13 a 54.00 c Roma Osmopriming (NaCl) 5.45 b 62.19 d Osmopriming(KNO3) 4.75 c 74.97 a LSD at 0.05 0.575 4.232 54.45 c 64.52 b 77.87 a 6.112 43.05 c 54.45 c 62.52 b 76.87 a 6.112 49.77 c 69.29 b 76.75 a 5.126 34.88 d 49.77 c 64.29 b 73.75 a 5.126 1.15 b 1.17 b 1.42 a 0.221 1.12 b 1.13 b 1.02 b 1.49 b 0.213 27.77 c 30.00 b 35.05 a 0.712 21.29 d 27.77 c 30.00 b 37.05 a 0.714 Treatments Control FEP = final emergence % ; MET (days) FEP (%) MET = mean emergence time. (Farooq et al., 2005, Faisalabad)
  • 33. Table-10: Effect of Halopriming on the germination of tomato cv Nagina & Pakit. cultivar       Nagina           priming Control Hydropriming Halo Priming in 10mM NaCl Halo Priming in 25mM NaCl Halo Priming in 50mM NaCl Halo Priming in 10mM KNO3 Halo Priming in 25mM KNO3 Halo Priming in 50mM KNO3 LSD at 0.05 Control         Pakit         Hydropriming Halo Priming in 10mM NaCl Halo Priming in 25mM NaCl Halo Priming in 50mM NaCl Halo Priming in 10mM KNO3 Halo Priming in 25mM KNO3 Halo Priming in 50mM KNO3 LSD at 0.05 FGP MGT (days) T50 (days) Root length(cm) Shoot length(cm) 61.33c 7.31a 6.13b 5.30c 4.93b 69.33b 7.18abc 6.52a 5.30c 5.58a 70.66b 7.00bc 6.28ab 5.50bc 5.24ab 69.33b 7.25ab 6.22b 4.20d 5.13ab 72.00b 7.24ab 6.38ab 5.56bc 5.27abc 74.66b 6.93cd 6.13b 6.06a 5.18ab 81.33a 6.58e 5.19d 5.76ab 5.20ab 71.36b 5.6531 52.00f 6.68de 0.2637 7.43a 5.80c 0.2322 6.52a 5.33c 0.4255 5.06c 5.34ab 0.5271 4.93bc 57.33e 7.20ab 6.16b 5.33bc 5.60a 62.66cd 6.93bc 6.22b 5.40b 5.23abc 66.66bd 6.96bc 6.28ab 5.23bc 4.76c 58.66de 7.43a 6.38ab 5.23bc 4.76c 68.00b 6.86c 6.23b 5.30bc 5.20abc 78.66a 6.33d 5.17d 6.00a 5.20abc 70.66b 6.90c 5.90c 5.16bc 5.33ab 4.4129 0.2998 0.2522 0.3277 0.5631 FGP = final germination % ; MGT = mean germination time; T50 = time taken to 50% germination. (Nawaz et al., 2011, Faisalabad)
  • 34. Table-11: Effect of Halopriming on the fresh wt & dry wt of tomato cv Nagina &Pakit. cultivar Nagina Pakit Priming Fresh weight(mg) Dry weight (mg) control Hydropriming Halo Priming in 10mM NaCl Halo Priming in 25mM NaCl Halo Priming in 50mM NaCl Halo Priming in 10mM KNO3 Halo Priming in 25mM KNO3 Halo Priming in 50mM KNO3 LSD at 0.05 23.10cd 24.30bc 25.20b 24.80b 22.53d 25.00b 28.96a 24.06bc 1.3328 6.33e 7.36cd 7.80bc 8.00b 6.70e 7.00de 8.53a 7.26d 0.4908 control Hydropriming Halo Priming in 10mM NaCl Halo Priming in 25mM NaCl Halo Priming in 50mM NaCl Halo Priming in 10mM KNO3 Halo Priming in 25mM KNO3 Halo Priming in 50mM KNO3 LSD at 0.05 22.30cd 23.30bc 24.20b 25.80b 23.53d 26.00b 27.56a 23.04bc 1.2315 6.33e 7.25bcd 7.75bc 8.10ab 6.50de 7.02de 8.66a 7.21cd 0.5013 (Nawaz et al., 2011, Faisalabad)
  • 35. Non-reducing sugars (mg/g of seed) Reducing sugars (mg/g of seed) B C D E F G H Total sugars (mg/g of seed) A A B C D E F G H A B C D E F G H A- Control B- Hydropriming C- NaCl 10mM D- NaCl 25mM E- NaCl 50mM F- KNO3 10mM G- KNO3 25mM H- KNO3 50mM Fig-4: Effect of Halopriming on the Reducing, Non-reducing and Total sugar content of tomato seeds cv Nagina & Pakit. Nawaz et al., 2011, Faisalabad
  • 36. Application of coating substance to the seed to enhance seed placement and performance with out altering shape or placing chemicals on the seed coat which regulate and improve germination. ( Copeland and Mc Donald 2001)
  • 37. SEED COATINGS It is the coating applied to the seed that does not obscure its shape. It may be fungicide, microbiological treatments and micronutrients Its major benefit is that the seed enhancement material is directly placed on the seed as compared to the broad casting. FILM COATINGS It’s a sophisticated process of applying precise amount of active ingredients in form of thin film along with the liquid material directly on to the seed surface without obscuring its shape. (Copeland and Mc Donald, 2001)
  • 38. Advantages of seed coating  Enables accurate and even dose of chemicals and reduces chemical wastage  Improve the appearance and dust free handling  To apply fungicides, insecticides, micronutrients directly to seed.  Allow easy flow of seed in automatic seeding  Act as a temperature switch and water intake regulator Disadvantages of coating Coated seeds fetch high cost, than the bare seeds Improper coating and improper dilution of coating material may deteriote the whole seed lot
  • 39. Table-12 : Effect of seed application with calcium paste on the plant growth , yield and Chlorophyll content in pea plants grown under salinity stress (n = 10). Parameters Treatment Green pod Green seed 100-seed yield pot-1 yield pot-1 weight (g) (g) (g) Shoot Total SFW SDW length chlorophyll (g) (g) (cm) Control 58.9b 18.4b 40.1c 221.7b 1.65b 7.98c 4.18c CW 92.3a 20.6a 45.3b 24.1a 1.70b 8.67b 5.79b CWH 98.4a 21.4a 49.9a 28.1a 1.97a 9.32a 7.70a NaCl (150mM) 14.8e 10.7d 5.6f 12.3d 0.83d 4.16f NaCl + CW 39.9d 13.8c 14.0e 18.4c 1.46c 6.59e 3.54d NaCl + CWH 46.8c 17.7b 19.9d 21.8b 1.78b 7.27d 4.20c 2.57e CW=Calcium paste consists of CaSO4 + wheat bran at the ratio 1:5 (w/w). CWH=Calcium paste consists of CaSO4 + wheat bran + humic acid at the ratio 2:10:1 (w/w/w). SFW= Shoot fresh weight, SDW= Shoot dry weight (Saad et al., 2012, Egypt)
  • 40. Table-13 : Influence of Polykote film coating and accelerated ageing on vigour index of cluster bean. Film coating treatments (T) Control Dry coating (3g/kg) Slurry coating 3g/kg + 5ml of water) Slurry coating + Halogen mixture(3g/kg) Slurry coating + Bavistin (2g/kg) Mean S.Ed CD (P=0.05) days after accelerated ageing (D) 0 2 4 6 8 Mean 2737 2900 2571 2804 2014 2244 1323 1605 863 1318 1650 1959 3036 2932 2391 1713 1274 2048 3117 2958 2577 1848 1479 2179 3187 2995 T 116 238 3024 2858 D 128 261 2763 2398 T X D 244 NS 2059 1710       1619 1310       2310 2029       (Renugadevi et al., 2008, Coimbatore)
  • 41. Table-14 : Influence of Polykote film coating and accelerated ageing on germination of cluster bean Film coating treatments (T) Control Dry coating (3g/kg) Slurry coating 3g/kg + 5ml of water Slurry coating + Halogen mixture(3g/kg) Slurry coating + Bavistin (2g/kg) Mean S.Ed CD (P=0.05) Days after accelerated ageing (D) 0 2 4 6 8 Mean 89(70.63) 87(68.87) 75(60.00) 60(50.77) 49(44.43) 65(53.73) 92(73.57) 92(73.57) 80(63.43) 65(53.73) 57(49.02) 73(58.69) 95(77.08) 93(74.66) 83(65.65) 66(53.33) 61(51.35) 75(60.00) 97(80.03) 94(75.82) 85(67.21) 67(54.94) 61(51.35) 77(61.34) 94(75.82) 95(77.08) 90(71.57) 73(58.69) 65(53.73) 80(63.43) 94(75.82) 92(73.57) 83(65.65) 69(56.17) 59(50.18) 74(59.34) T 0.758 1.547 D 0.830 1.695 TXD 1.856 NS             (Figures in parentheses indicate arc sine transformed values) (Renugadevi et al., 2008, Coimbatore)
  • 42. Table-15 : level of contamination, percent of germination, relative speed of germination and index of vigour as influenced by matriconditioning plus clove oil seed treatments applied on hot pepper seed lots infected by Colletotrichum capsici. Seed treatments Contamination (%) Germination (%) Relative speed of germination (%) Index of vigor (%) Untreated 50a 69c 57b 5c Clove oil 0.06 % 6b 80a 69a 31b Clove oil 0.1 % 4b 66c 50b 8c Matric + clove oil 0.06 % 4b 76b 71a 47a Matric + clove oil 0.1 % 3b 80a 74a 49a Note : Means in the same rows suffixed with different letters are different at 5% levels of significance according to DMRT. (Untary, 2003, Coimbatore)
  • 43. Seed Pelleting It is the process of enclosing a seed with a small quantity of inert material just large enough to facilitate precision planting Or It is the mechanism of applying needed materials is such a way that they affect the seed or soil at the seed soil interference. (Halmer, 2006) Why inert material? It creates natural water holding media and provide small amount of nutrients to younger seedlings. (Halmer, 2006)
  • 44. Seed Pelleting Process adhesive seed Coating of seed with adhesive Filler material Filler material sprinkled on coated seeds Pelleted seeds Shade drying sowing sowing (Halmer, 2006)
  • 45. Pelleting material FILLER MATERIALS ADHESIVE Clay limestone Calcium carbonate Vermiculate Tamarind leaf powder Gum Arabic Gelatin Methyl cellulose polyvinyl alcohol Maida / starch gruel Along with Inoculants, Growth regulators & Fungicides etc. (Halmer, 2006)
  • 46. Types of Seed Pelleting Type Material Used Innoculant Pelleting BiofertilizerViz., Rhizobia, PSB, Azospirillum, Azatobactor, VAM Protective Coating Biocontrol agent like Rhizobacteria bataticola, Bacillus sp. Streptomycis sp., pesticides, fungicides. Herbicide Coating Filler antidote or absorbent coating, Herbicide antidote like 1.8 napthalic anhydride (NA) Nutrient Coating Coating with micro and macronutrients eg.ZnSo4, FeSo4, Borax Hydrophillic Coating Starch graft polymers, magnesium carbonate Oxygen Supplier Coating Peroxides of zinc and calcium (Halmer, 2006)
  • 47. Advantages of pelleting  Increase in size and shape  Singling of seeds to prevent clogging  Precision placement  Moisture absorption  Supply of nutrients  Protection from birds/animals Disadvantages of pelleting Pelleted seeds fetch high cost & weights more, than the bare seeds. Empty pellet/ multi seed pellet if proper machine are not used.
  • 48. Table-16: Effect of seed pelleting with micronutrients and leaf powder on growth & yield component of cowpea Seed TREATMENT Days to 50% Plant Height No. of No. Of Seed yield/ ha yield/plant (S) flowering Harvest (cm) pods / plant seeds/pod (Kg) (g) S1 22.04 43.62 27.92 12.33 30.91 1478.6 S2 22.90 43.76 29.10 12.49 31.80 1536.30 S3 23.70 44.67 29.80 12.37 31.68 1529.30 S4 24.05 45.29 22.30 12.25 25.04 1370.00 S5 24.10 45.40 24.01 11.84 26.84 1347.70 S6 23.45 45.29 22.80 11.80 26.29 1258.70 S7 24.05 45.43 22.65 11.73 26.79 1240.30 S0 26.16 41.15 18.57 10.94 18.51 1119.00 23.56 44.51 24.67 11.97 27.26 1360.00 Mean 0.62 0.35 0.70 0.23 0.72 0.86 S.Em± 1.95 1.34 2.15 0.69 2.16 3.40 CD @ 5% S1 : ZnSO4 @ 250 mg / kg of seed S4 = S1 + S2, S7 = S1 + S2 + S3 S2 : Borax @ 100 mg / kg of seeds S5 = S1 + S3 S0 = Control(without pelleting) S3 : Arappu leaf powder @ 250 g/kg of seeds, S6 = S2 + S3 (Masuthi et al., 2009, Dharwad)
  • 49. Table-17: Effect of seed pelleting with micronutrients and leaf powder on Seed quality of cowpea TREATMENT (S) S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S0 Mean S.Em± CD @ 5% Germination (%) 98.47 (82.91)* 98.57 (83.14) 98.30 (82.52) 98.26 (82.44) 97.73 (81.34) 97.86 (81.60) 97.43 (80.86) 97.40 (81.71) 97.99 (81.94) 0.93 NS Seedling vigour index 4277.00 4269.00 4208.00 4004.00 4103.00 4069.00 4088.00 3735.00 4058.00 113.00 339.00 EC (dSm-1) 1.01 1.09 1.10 1.16 1.20 1.07 1.09 1.37 1.14 0.02 0.05 Seedling dry wt (g) 0.595 0.572 0.573 0.536 0.536 0.520 0.539 0.493 0.547 0.011 0.033 S1 : ZnSO4 @ 250 mg / kg of seed S4 = S1 + S2 S7 = S1 + S2 + S3 S2 : Borax @ 100 mg / kg of seeds S5 = S1 + S3 S0 = Control(without pelleting) S3 : Arappu leaf powder @ 250 g/kg of seeds S6 = S2 + S3 (Masuthi et al., 2009, Dharwad)
  • 50. Table-18: Effect of seed pelleting treatments, storage containers and periods of storage on speed of germination of bitter gourd cv. CO 1 seeds period of storage (months) Treatment P0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 T x C Mean T Mean container T0 C1 C2 T x P Mean T1 C1 C2 T x P Mean T2 C1 C2 T x P Mean T3 C1 C2 T x P Mean T4 C1 C2 T x P Mean T5 T x P Mean P x C Mean P Mean S.Ed CD (P=0.05) C1 C2 C1 C2 4.1 4.1 4.1 5.6 4.3 4.9 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.1 4.5 4.1 4.3 7.5 4.9 6.2 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.4 4.0 4.3 4.9 4.6 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.7 5.1 4.4 4.7 5.0 4.7 4.9 8.2 6.3 7.3 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.7 4.4 4.6 6.2 4.7 6.0 5.4 5.0 5.3 5.7 5.1 5.4 6.2 5.8 6.0 11.2 7.7 9.5 4.9 4.2 4.6 5.4 5.2 5.3 8.4 7.5 8.0 6.4 6.3 6.4 7.1 6.2 6.6 P 0.12 0.14 C 0.08 0.15 T 0.14 0.26 PxC NS NS 9.6 9.4 9.5 13.4 12.2 12.8 8.0 6.1 7.1 9.6 8.2 8.9 12.4 11.6 12.0 10.7 10.2 10.5 10.7 9.7 10.2 9.7 9.5 9.6 13.5 12.8 13.2 8.3 7.0 7.7 10.4 9.6 10.0 12.8 12.5 12.7 10.8 10.2 10.5 10.9 10.3 10.6 12.6 12.1 12.3 15.4 14.6 15.0 10.5 7.2 8.9 11.6 10.8 11.2 14.9 14.2 14.6 12.9 12.7 12.8 12.9 11.9 12.5 7.4 7.1 7.3 10.7 9.0 9.9 6.3 5.2 5.7 7.1 6.6 6.9 9.1 8.6 8.9 7.9 7.6 7.8 8.1 7.4 TxC PxT PxCxT 0.19 0.36 0.50 0.37 0.70 (Thiruseduraselvi et al., 1.00 Coimbatore) 2007,
  • 51. Table-19: Effect of seed pelleting treatments, storage containers and periods of storage on Vigour index of bitter gourd cv. CO 1 seeds period of storage (months) PxCxT Treatment P0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 T x C Mean Mean container 1393 1719 1393 1544 T x P Mean 1393 1632 C1 1549 2469 T1 -A. amara C2 1549 2145 T x P Mean 750 2307 C1 750 1154 T2 C2 750 982 A.Indica T x P Mean 1197 1068 C1 1197 1517 T3 C2 1197 1216 V. negunda T x P Mean 1784 1366 C1 1784 2086 T4 C2 1784 1857 P. Pinnata T x P Mean 1087 1972 C1 1087 1886 T5 C2 1087 1656 A. calamus T x P Mean 1293 1771 C1 P x C Mean 1293 1805 C2 1293 1567 P Mean 1293 1686 P C S.Ed 56.4 30.15 conc of leaf powder @(200g/kg of seed) CD (P=0.05) 112.16 59.95 T0 -Contol C1 C2 2038 2685 3840 4613 4494 2970 2728 1675 2018 2838 3860 4082 2487 1856 2351 3339 4236 4288 2864 4139 5399 6030 6313 4109 3823 2401 3287 4320 5376 5688 3538 2632 3713 4859 5703 6000 1372 2106 3223 3866 3905 2339 2061 1125 1354 2012 3213 3044 1783 1248 1730 2618 3540 3475 1751 2710 2819 4144 3432 2510 2368 1483 2128 2601 3521 3432 2225 1617 2419 2710 3833 3432 2314 3781 4936 5448 5824 3739 3477 2247 2800 3933 4624 5263 3215 2281 3291 4434 3036 5544 2179 3040 4286 4836 5124 3205 3016 2045 2290 3419 4467 4815 2826 2112 2665 3853 4652 4969 2086 3077 4084 4823 4849 3145 1829 2313 3187 4177 4387 2679 1958 2695 3635 4500 4618 T PxC TxC PxT PxCxT 52.22 79.76 73.85 138.15 195.35 (Thiruseduraselvi et al., 2007, Coimbatore) 103.84 158.61 146.85 274.73 388.53
  • 52. Integrated Seed Enhancement Techniques Priming + Pregermination Seed coating + Pelleting Priming + Pelleting Osmoticum/solid matrix carrier + GR/nutrients/ pesticides PEG + GA3 Effects Early emergence, increased shoot weight Improve plantability of flat seeds, addition of bioactive chemicals, nutrients & microbes Complements individual effects Additive effect Improved germination & prevented induction of secondary dormancy Reference Pill, 1986 Halmer, 1988 Valdes et al. 1985; Bennett, 1988 Khan 1992; Osborn & Schroth 1989; Salvage & Cox 1992 Khan 1992
  • 53. Table-20: Effect of seed treatments in combination with polykoting on seed quality parameters of chilli cv. K2 Treatment T0- Control T1- Polykote T2[T1+ Carbendazim] T3-[T1+ DAP] T4[T1+Halogen] T5 [T2+ DAP] T6 [T2+ Halogen] T7-[T4+DAP] T8-[T5+Halogen] S.Em± Field Root Shoot Seedling Pathogen Plant Vigour emerge Rate of Speed of Germinat length length dry wt infection height 30 imbibition germination ion % index nce % -1 (cm) (cm) (mg 10 ) % DAS (cm) (30 DAS) 41.9 46.5 2.52 2.68 66 73 5.80 5.58 6.30 5.99 0.031 0.037 843 950 7 4 48 50 5.05 5.34 48.7 2.42 80 6.54 6.02 0.037 1029 1 55 5.23 42.5 2.71 72 6.58 6.11 0.041 913 4 53 4.54 52.8 2.82 76 6.21 6.06 0.039 938 3 57 6.14 52.9 2.64 79 5.93 6.83 0.039 926 2 59 5.28 56.2 2.80 82 6.93 6.34 0.041 1044 1 62 7.89 54.0 52.6 0.14 2.48 2.24 0.05 73 72 4.57 5.81 5.83 5.86 5.71 0.32 0.30 0.039 0.037 - 872 804 78 4 2 0.23 57 60 0.13 6.00 6.36 0.64 Polykote @ 3g/kg of seeds, Halogen mix @ 3g/kg of seeds. Carbendazim @ 2g/kg of seeds, DAP @ 2g/kg of seeds. (Geetharani et al., 2006, Coimbatore)
  • 54. Table-21: Percent germination and index of vigor as affected by priming or matriconditioning plus biological agents as seed treatments applied on hot pepper seed lots infected by Colletotrichum capsici Bio control agents Germination (%) Index of vigor (%) Priming Matriconditioning Priming Matriconditioning Untreated 71 bA 65 aB 56 dA 54 abB Bacillus sp. 79 aA 60 abB 72 bcA 58 aB P. fluorescence 72 bA 57 bB 67 cA 49 bcB T. harzianum 78 aA 60 abB 81 aA 56 aB T. psudokonongii 78 aA 61 abB 75 abA 54 abB Gliocladium sp 67 bA 51 cB 70 bcA 43 cB Note : Means in the same rows suffixed with different letters or in the same column with different lowercase are different at 5% levels of significance according to DMRT. (Kumalasari et al., 2005, Andhra Pradesh)
  • 55. Advantages of Seed Quality Enhancement Technology  Reduced seed rate  Early emergence and reduced time of emergence under stress conditions  Supply of growth regulators/nutrients/beneficial microbes  Better nursery management  Helps seedling to dominate weeds in competition for nutrition  Field stand and uniformity  Minimum exposure to toxicant  Direct seeding of seeds.  High turnover conventionally transplanted vegetable
  • 56. Seed Quality Enhancement is a MUST to benefit both
  • 57. Conclusion It doesn’t END here High germination and vigour are not the only determinants There is lot more to do, a long way to go..
  • 58. Conclusion • Advances in polymer technology • Seed testing research (Products in pipeline) – X ray, Chlorophyll fluorescence, Q2 technology, Ethanol assay – Molecular technology: Flow cytometry, Luminex® MAPS, Genomics, Proteomics, Metabolomics – Electrification • Of course good seeds are produced in field (breeding), enhancement is by seed technologists