PANKI THERMAL POWER STATION PANKI – KANPUR
PANKI POWER PLANT
[15thJune to 13thJuly 2012]
TABLE OF CONTENT
3 FUNCTION DIAGRAM
Power Consumption In India
The energy sector holds the key in accelerating the economic growth of India.
The energy demands for developing country like India keep on continuously
growing. Energy is a driving force behind rapid economic growth of the
country. India ranks tenth in the world in total energy consumption. It is first
requirement of energy to accelerate the development of the sector to meet its
The pattern of energy production put coal and oil again on top. These account
for 65% of the entire generation. Renewable energy ranks bottom of the total
production just before the Nuclear energy. The distribution of energy resource
like hydro power is skewed towards North-eastern states of the country as 70
% of the total hydro potential is located in the Northern and North-eastern
In India there is a very long chain of thermal power project
including the project in UP. Some of the power projects under
Uttar Pradesh Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd.
(UPRVUNL) are as follows:
S.No. Name of Power Project No. of Units Capacity(MW)
1 Harduganj A 3 90
2 Harduaganj B 4 210
3 Harduaganj C 3 230
4 Panki, Kanpur 2 210
5 Obra 8 550
6 Obra ext. 5 1000
7 Anpara 3 630
8 Anpara ext. 2 1000
9 Parichha 2 220
Panki Thermal Power
Panki Thermal Power Station is a Electricity Generation Station where
Electricity Generated through the steam operation on Turbine & Steam is
Generated by Coal Firing so it is a Typical Coal fired Electricity Generation
It is Located about 16 Kms Away from Kanpur Railway Station ,was Started
with two units(1st & 2nd) of 32 MW each.it was established in 1968.
After Generating Power for about 28-29 years,2*32 MW units had completed
their Rated Life So they were closed on 30th November 1995 & 18th April
So In 1976-77 ,Two Units (3rd & 4th of 2*110 MW each) Manufactured
,Installed Bharat Heavy Electronics Ltd. These units were established in 1976
& 1977 respectively.
Unit 3rd & 4th have been derated to 105 MW each by the Central Electricity
Authority(C.E.A) on 11th January 1990.
So Presently there are two units (3rd & 4th of 105 MW each) working at PTPS.
Resources for power generation
(A) Conventional Resources for power generation
(B) Non conventional Resources for power generation
• Bio Energy
• Solar Energy
• Ocean tidal power plants
• Ocean wave power
• Ocean thermal energy
• Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
Thermal power generation
(B)Diesel, Petrol & Gas Engines
(C) Steam turbines
(E)Combined cycle power plants
(F) Combined heat and power generation (CHP)
STEAM TURBINE BASED COAL FIRED
THERMAL POWER GENERATION
Coal fired Steam Power Plant
There are basically SEVEN main units of a thermal
1. Coal Handling Plant.
2. Water Treatment Plant.
3. Boiler Maintenance Division.
4. Turbine Maintenance Division.
6. Switch yard.
7. Environment protection Division.
Coal handling plant
•The function of coal handling plant is automatic feeding of coal to the
• A thermal power plant burns enormous amounts of coal.
•A 200MW plant may require around 2000 tons of coal daily
COAL FEEDING SYSTEM
Coal is conveyed through rail wagon from out side of plant
and through conveyor system collected in hopper and
ground to a very fine powder by large metal spheres in the
pulverised fuel mill.
Conveyor Coal Hopper
2. VIBRATING FEEDER
The coal stored in a huge hub is collected on the belt through vibrations created
by the vibrating feeder.
3. Magnetic separator
these are used to separate the ferrous impurities from the coal.
4. Metal detector
These are detect the presence of any ferrous and non-ferrous metal in the coal.
5. Reclaim hopper
Reclamation is a process of taking coal from the dead storage for preparation
or further feeding to reclaim hoppers.
Auxiliaries Of Coal Handling Plant
Coal conveyor : This is a belt type of arrangement. With this coal is
transported from coal storage place in power plant to the place near by
Stoker : The coal which is brought near by boiler has to put in boiler furnace
for combustion. This stoker is a mechanical device for feeding coal to a
Pulverizer : The coal is put in the boiler after pulverization. For this pulverizer
is used. A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace
in a power plant. A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in
a furnace in a power plant.
The Water Treatment plant is required at the water from canal can’t be directly Used in
Boiler for Thermal Electricity Generator water is converted into steam at High Pressure &
It is allowed to force Turbine Rotated and the electricity is Generated. Therefore water is
the basic requirement to the thermal Power plant. Generally in the Thermal Power Plant
Is Employed to Refine the Water.
Necessity of Water Treatment:-
Natural Water Contains Solid,Liquid & Gasseous Impurities and Therefore this water can’t
Be used for Generation of Steam in the Boiler ,The different Effect introduced due to use
Of Unrated Water in the boiler.So the water impurities should be removed before its used
as a stream.The following procedure is used in WTP for minimizing the hardness &
removing the impurities:-
Here Alum is added is added to water to Precipitate
Dust Particles In Water.Aluminium in Alum
neutralizes Charge Dust Particle & this gives Result
to a heavy Complex Compound Which is settled
Water Treatment Plant (W.T.P)
Auxiliaries of W.T.P
These Stages of sand filter are putt across the flow so as to remove other Suspended
Particle, If any.
Activated Carbon filter-
This Filter is employed for removal of Bacteria and organic material. Here
anthracite(Coal) is uses for Filter
At this stage ions are observed by ion exchnanger method,HCl and negative resin are
principle ingredient of this chemical filter
Here Negative Ions are observed by Carefully Formulated by positive resin.
Mixed Bed Exchanger:-
Here Remaining a negative ion is removed that is extracted through resin.
The D.M(De mineralized) water is now
ready which has some properties-
Conductivity-0.03 to 0.5 (micro/cm2)
Thermal energy Released by Combustion of Fuel is Transferred to water ,Which
Vaporizes and gets converted water into steam.The boiler is a rectangular furnace
about 50 ft (15 m) on aside and 130 ft (40 m) tall. Its walls are made of a web
of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches
(60 mm) in diameter. Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel
nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns, Forming
a large fireball at the center. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water
that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The water
circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically
driven by pumps. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes
into steam at 3700C and 3,200psi (22.1MPa). Here the steam is superheated to
1,000F (540 C) to prepare it for the turbine. The steam generating boiler has to
produce steam at the
high purity, pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine
that drives the electrical generator.
Boiler Maintenance Division (B.M.D)
T.M.D (TURBINE MAINTENANCE
In a typical larger power stations, the steam turbines are split into three separate stages,
the first being the High Pressure (HP), the second the Intermediate Pressure (IP) and
the third the Low Pressure (LP) stage, where
high, intermediate and low describe the pressure of the steam. After the steam
has passed through the HP stage, it is returned to the boiler to be re-heated
to its original temperature although the pressure remains greatly reduced. The reheated
steam then passes through the IP stage and finally to the LP stage of the turbine.
A distinction is made between "impulse" and "reaction“ turbine designs based on the
relative pressure drop across the stage. There are two measures for pressure drop, the
pressure ratio and the percent reaction. Pressure ratio is the pressure at the stage exit
divided by the pressure at the stage entrance. Reaction is the percentage is entropic
enthalpy drop across the rotating blade or bucket compared to the total stage enthalpy
drop. Some manufacturers utilize percent pressure drop across stage to define reaction.
The turbine generator consists of a series of steam turbines
interconnected to each other and a generator on a common shaft.
There is a high pressure at one end , follower by an intermediate pressure
turbine. A low pressure turbines, and the generator.
As steam moves through the system, it losses pressure and thermal energy
and expands in volume, requiring increasing diameter and longer blades at
each succeeding to extract the remaining energy.
HP Turbine IP Turbine Generator
Exhaust steam to
Exhaust steam to
Steam from IP to LP Turbine
Reheated steam from boiler
Main steam from boiler
Steam to boiler
HP- High pressure
IP- Intermediate pressure
LP- Low pressure
Prime Movers: These depend on the fuel used. Coal fired plants use
Steam Turbines. In case of coal fired plants steam produced in the
boiler is passed through an axial flow turbine. The turbine is
coupled to the generator and thus energy conversion is achieved.
Increasing the unit capacity from 100MW to 250MW results in
saving of about 15% in their capital cost per kW. Moreover units of
this magnitude result in fuel saving of almost 8% per kWh. The cost
of installation is also low for such units.
An electric Generator is a machine which converts Mechanical Energy (or Power) into
Electrical Energy. This Energy Conversion is based on the principle of the production
of dynamically induced e.m.f is Produced in it according to faraday’s law, “Whenever a
conductor is moving in a magnetic Field then it cuts Magnetic Flux and there were an
E.M.F(Electro magnetic Force) Produced ,which is Called Induced E.M.F.”
The Rankine cycle is sometimes referred to as a practical Carnot cycle because,
when an efficient turbine is used, the TS diagram begins to resemble the Carnot
cycle. The main difference is that heat addition (in the boiler) and rejection (in the
condenser) are isobaric in the Rankine cycle and isothermal in the theoretical Carnot
Plant Flow Diagram(Modified
AB- Heating of feed water (i.e. sensible heat addition)
BC- Evaporation of water in boiler (i.e. latent heat addition)
CD- Superheating of steam (i.e. heat addition)
DE- Isentropic expansion of steam in HP turbine
EF- Reheating of steam in Reheaters
FH- Isentropic expansion of steam in IP and LP turbine
Steam after rotating steam turbine comes to the condenser.
The purpose of condenser is to condense the outlet steam from
steam turbine to get the condensed steam in the form of pure
This water is then pumped back to boiler.
Condenser : Steam after rotating steam turbine comes to condenser. Condenser
refers here to the shell and tube heat exchanger (or surface condenser) installed
at the outlet of every steam turbine in Thermal power stations of utility
companies generally. These condensers are heat exchangers which convert
steam from its gaseous to its liquid state, also known as phase transition. In so
doing, the latent heat of steam is given out inside the condenser. Where water is
in short supply an air cooled condenser is often used. An air cooled condenser is
however significantly more expensive and cannot achieve as low a steam turbine
backpressure (and therefore less efficient) as a surface condenser.
The purpose is to condense the outlet (or exhaust) steam from steam
turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to get the condensed steam in the
form of pure water, otherwise known as condensate, back to steam generator or
(boiler) as boiler feed water.
Cooling Towers :The condensate (water) formed in the condenser after
condensation is initially at high temperature. This hot water is passed to
cooling towers. It is a tower- or building-like device in which atmospheric air
(the heat receiver) circulates in direct or indirect contact with warmer water
(the heat source) and the water is thereby cooled. A cooling tower may serve
as the heat sink in a conventional thermodynamic process, such as
refrigeration or steam power generation, and when it is convenient or
desirable to make final heat rejection to atmospheric air. Water, acting as the
heat-transfer fluid, gives up heat to atmospheric air, and thus cooled,
is recirculated through the system, affording economical operation of the
(125MVA UNIT-III & UNIT-IV)
• RATING 125MVA
• TYPE OF COOLING ON/OFF
• TEMP OF OIL 45^C
• TEMP WINDING 60^C
• KV (no load) HV-242 KVA
• LINE AMPERES HV-310 A
• PHASE THREE
• FREQUENCY 50 HZ
• IMPEDANCE VOLTAGE 12.5%
• VECTOR GROUP Y d 11
• INSULATION LEVEL HV-900 KV
• CORE AND WINDING WEIGHT 110500 Kg
• WEIGHT OF OIL 37200 Kg
• TOTAL WEIGHT 187500 Kg
• OIL QUANTITY 38500 lit
A switch yard is a part of an electrical generation, transmission,
system. Switchyard transform voltage from high to low,
or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions.
As we know that electrical energy can’t be stored like cells, so what we generate should be consumed instantaneously.
But as the load is not constants therefore we generate electricity according to need i.e. the generation depends upon load.
The yard is the places from where the electricity is send outside. It has both outdoor and indoor equipments.
• BUS BAR.
• LIGHTENING ARRESTER
• CAPACITATIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER
• EARTHING ROD
• CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
• POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER
• CONTROL PANELS
• CIRCUIT BREAKERS
Normally un-galvanized mild steel flats are used for earthling. Separate earthing electrodes are provided to earth the lightening arrestor whereas
the other equipments are earthed by connecting their earth leads to the rid/ser of the ground mar.
It is essentially a step up transformer which step down the current to a known ratio. It is a type of instrument transformer designed to provide
a current in its secondary winding proportional to the alternating current flowing in its primary.
It is essentially a step down transformer and it step downs the voltage to a known ratio.
Relay is a sensing device that makes your circuit ON or OFF. They detect the abnormal conditions in the electrical circuits by continuously
measuring the electrical quantities, which are different under normal and faulty conditions, like current, voltage frequency. Having detected the
fault the relay operates to complete the trip circuit, which results in the opening of the circuit breakers and disconnect the faulty circuit.
There are different types of relays:
Numerical relay etc.
AIR BREAK EARTHING SWITCH
The work of this equipment comes into picture when we want to shut down the supply for maintenance purpose. This help to neutralize the
system from induced voltage from extra high voltage. This induced power is up to 2KV in case of 400 KV lines.
Ash handling plant
The percentage of ash in coal varies from 5% in good quality
coal to about 40% in poor quality coal
Power plants generally use poor quality of coal , thus amount
of ash produced by it is pretty large
A modern 2000MW plant produces about 5000 tons of ash
The stations use some conveyor arrangement to carry ash to
dump sites directly or for carrying and loading it to trucks and
wagons which transport it to the site of disposal
Electrostatic precipitator : It is a device which removes dust or other finely divided
particles from flue gases by charging the particles inductively with an electric field,
then attracting them to highly charged collector plates. Also known as precipitator.
The process depends on two steps. In the first step the suspension passes through an
electric discharge (corona discharge) area where ionization of the gas occurs. The ions
produced collide with the suspended particles and confer on them an electric charge.
The charged particles drift toward an electrode of opposite.
sign and are deposited on the electrode where their electric charge is neutralized. The
phenomenon would be more correctly designated as electrode position from the gas
Efficiency & Adverse Impacts
of Coal Fired Power Generation
Generation from coal power plants
Step down transformer
Step down transformer
1.75 Unit1.4 kg
Coal 2 kg CO2
Generation from coal power plants
Pros of Coal Power
Cheaper per unit energy than oil or natural gas
Will continue to be an important global resource
Coal is the world’s most abundant fossil fuel
Sufficient reserves for the next 250 years
Cons of Coal Power
o Coal-Fired Power Plants are the largest contributor of
hazardous air pollutants.
o Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
o Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)
o Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Supercritical & Ultra Supercritical Technology of
• Supercritical thermal power plants have greater power output and higher
efficiency levels.These plants also have the best pollution control
technology.Supercritical thermal power plants function at a very high
temperature of 580 degree centigrade and pressure of 23 MPa. This
results in a heat efficiency of 45% as compared to the 38 - 40% generated
by sub - critical coal fire plants. Supercritical thermal power plants have
• advantages like:
• Improved efficiency in plant functioning, Reduced fuel costs,Less
environmental pollution due to less CO2 emission.
• Low NO x, SO x and emission of other particles Can be integrated with CO2