5,1939-47(History)--Abhishek Sharma


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5,1939-47(History)--Abhishek Sharma

  1. 1. Freedom & Partition• Sept 1939, Germany attacks Poland-- WW2• Britain declares war against Germany & declares India’s support in war without consulting Indian ministers• Congress demanded promise that constituent assembly be convened to decide political structure of free India & immediately some genuine govt be set up at center• This demand was rejected by linlithgow• Ministers resign leads to constitutional deadlock
  2. 2. Pakistan Resolution (Lahore) 1940• Ml passed resolution for independent Pakistan
  3. 3. August Offer• Hitler defeated Belgium,France,Holland• British Viceroy offered August offer• Offered dominion status• Set up constituent assembly after war• No future constitution to be adopted without minority consent• ML happy to get veto power & felt that partition was only solution of the deadlock
  4. 4. Individual Satyagrahas• Gandhi didn’t want to start full fledged satyagraha• Vinoba Bhave 1st & Nehru 2nd to offer it
  5. 5. Cripps Mission• March 1942 Stafford Cripps sent to India• An Indian union with dominion status (Self governing territory of British commonwealth) would be set up• After the war constituent assembly will be convened• Any province not willing to join union could have separate constitution & form separate union• Congress rejected it as it wanted full independence & not dominion status
  6. 6. QIM• After Cripps mission departure Gandhi asked British to go & made plans for non violent non cooperation movement against Japan invasion• CWC meeting at Wardha accepted resolution for struggle• AICC meeting Gowalia Tank Bombay QI resolution was passed & it demanded immediate end to British rule in India• Gandhi gave “Do or Die “ mantra , free India or die in attempt
  7. 7. Rajaji’s Formula• Formula for ML & INC cooperation• It was tacit acceptance of ML demand for Pakistan• Ml to endorse congress demand for independence• Ml to cooperate with congress in forming provincial govt at centre• After war entire population of Muslim majority areas to decide by plebiscite about separation• In case of separation agreement to be made jointly for safeguarding defence, commerce , communication• But Jinnah rejected formula as he wanted only Muslims of these areas to participate in plebiscite
  8. 8. Desai- Liaqat Pact• Equal number of people to be nominated by congress & ML in central legislature• 20 % seats reserved for minorities• But it was not accepted & it had consequence that parity between ML & congress was drawn
  9. 9. Wavel’s Plan• Churchill govt in Britain wanted to resolve deadlock• Possibilities were kept open for negotiations on a new constitution once the war is over• Gave Ml power to decide for Indian Muslims , it used veto
  10. 10. Cabinet’s Plan• PM Attlee sent three member team including Pethick Lawrence, Stafford Cripps,AV Alexander to India to find out ways for peaceful transfer of power• After Cripps offer little was left to offer other than full independence• Now British wanted united & friendly India & active partner in defence of Commonwealth• It gave it’s plan• Rejected demand of Pakistan• Country can’t be divided on communal lines as Sikh will demand separation in Punjab too• It will create administrative problems to govern such divided nation• It suggested grouping of the existing provincial assemblies into three sections A,B,C• Meanwhile an interim govt to be formed from constituent assembly
  11. 11. Attlee’s Statement 20 Feb 1947• British PM Attlee kept June 30,1948 as deadline to transfer power• Mountbatten would replace Wavell
  12. 12. Mountbatten Plan June3,1947• Immediate transfer of power on basis of grant of dominion status(with right of secession)• Divide India but retain maximum unity by making Pakistan as small as possible• Boundary commission was to be set up for partition• Independence of princely states ruled out• Accession of Hyderabad to Pak ruled out as Mountbatten supported congress on this• Sindh will make it’s own decision• Punjab & Bengal assemblies to meet in Hindu & Muslim members separately & decide about partition• Referendum in NWFP & Syllhet distt of Bengal
  13. 13. Indian Independence Act• July 18,1947 British Parliament ratified Mountbatten plan as the “Independence of India Act 1947” & was implemented from 15th Aug 1947• Act provided for the creation of two independent dominions of India & Pakistan each dominion to have GG• Constituent assembly of each dominion to serve as legislature of that dominion till the new constitution comes into force govt of India act 1935 to be in operation• MA Jinnah became GG of Pakistan & India requested Mountbatten to continue it’s GG