3,inc 1885 (History)--Abhishek Sharma

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  • 1. Early Congress (1858-1905)Indian nationalism was result of following:1. Worldwide concept of nationalism & right of self determination initiated by French revolution2. Indian Renaissance3. Modernization initiated by British, western thoughts4. Reaction to British colonial & imperialistic policies5. Unification of the country done under British rule (political, administrative, economic) hitherto cultural unity from Himalayas in north to Cape camorin in south, from Assam in east to Khyber in west
  • 2. Reactionary policies of Govt.•1876 Lord Lytton reduced age of ICS exam from 21to 19 years•1877 grand Delhi Durbar when country wassuffering from famine•1878 Vernacular press act & Arms act provokedopposition in the country• 1883-84 Ripon & Ilbert bill controversy, he wantedto abolish judicial disqualification on racial basisthrough this bill & give the Indian members ofcovenanted civil service same powers as theirEuropean colleagues, but Ripon was forced tomodify bill under severe opposition from Europeancommunity which further increased hate amongIndian for foreigners
  • 3. Pre-congress associations•1866 Dadabhai (Grand old man of India) Naoroji inLondon set up East India association to influenceEnglish men there for Indian welfare•1875 Sisir Kumar Ghosh started Indian league to instillnationalism among people•1876 Indian association of Calcutta superseded Indianleague by Surendernath Banerjee & Anand MohanBose to unify people on common political ground•1867 Ranade’s Poona Sarvajanik Sabha•1885 Badruddin Tyabji, Pherojshah Mehta,K.T.Telangformed Bombay presidency association•1884 Viraraghavacharya, Subramanyam Aiyer, AnandCharlu founded Madras mahajan sabha
  • 4. INC• A.O Hume retired ICS officer organized 1st session of INC in dec 1885 in Bombay• Prelude to it Surendernath Banerjee & Anand Mohan Bose had conducted Indian National conference• 1st session of INC was attended by 72 delegates presided over by Womesh Chandra Bannerjee , INC annual meetings took place in Dec every year after it.• Dadabhai Naoroji was thrice president of INC• Lord Dufferin considered INC to be “safety Valve” but earlier congress leaders used Hume as “lightening conductor”
  • 5. Moderate Leaders• Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozshah Mehta, Wacha, W.C Bonnerjee, S.N Banerjee believed in liberalism & moderate methods in comparison to the neo- nationalist(extremist like Tilak, Lal,Bal,Pal) of 19th century• Moderates wanted slow but organized political progress used methods of resolutions, petition , meetings with govt. for demands & reforms• They wanted to arouse strong public opinion using INC as the political platform, educate them, unite them• Dadabhai Naoroji spent long time campaigning India’s cause abroad
  • 6. Contribution of Moderates• Exploitative nature of colonial power was revealed , “Drain theory of wealth” was brought in public, Dadabhai, R.C.Dutt, Wacha• Self sufficient Indian economy was reduced to be mere importer of finished British goods & supplier of raw materials
  • 7. Act of 1858• Indian administration taken over by British crown, viceroy to be crown’s representative• Office of secretary of state & Council of India created, Secretary of State communicated with Viceroy• GG was made Viceroy 1st Viceroy was Lord Canning
  • 8. Indian council act 1861• 1st time Indian were associated with the administration & governance of country• Legislative councils set up at the center and provinces and presidencies but with non official members• High courts in Calcutta, Madras , Bombay
  • 9. Important sessions of INC• 1885 Tejpal sanskrit pathsala Bombay W.C.Bonnerjee (Indian christian)• 1886 Calcutta Dadabhai Naoroji (Parsee) 3 times presided , grand old man of India, theory of Drain of wealth , father of Indian economic nationalism• 1887 Madras Badrudin Tyabji (1st muslim)• 1888 Allahabad George Yule (1st European)• 1889 Bombay William Wedderburn (2nd European)• 1891 Nagpur P.Anand Charlu (1st Hindu president)• 1893 Lahore Dadabhai
  • 10. Important sessions of INC• 1905 ,Varanasi ,Gopal Krishan Gokhale, political guru of Gandhi, difference between moderates & neo nationalists on issue of swadeshi & boycott• 1906 Calcutta Dadabhai , 1st time Vande Matram was sung on INC platform• 1907 Surat , Rashbihari Ghosh, surat split• 1908 Madras, Rashbihari Ghoshsame session reconvened, neonationalists were expelled from INC , 1908-1915 moderates dominanace• 1916 Lucknow Ambika charan Majumdar Lucknow pact between INC & Muslim League• 1917 Calcutta Mrs Annie Besant, 1st woman president ,4th European• 1918 Delhi Pt Madan Mohan Malviya• 1919 Amritsar Motilal Nehru (jaliyanwala bagh trajedy in 1919)
  • 11. Important sessions of INC• 1922 Gaya ,C.R Das, Congress khilafat swaraj party , CR Das president , Motilal Nehru General Secretary• 1924 Belgaon Mahatma Gandhi• 1928 Kanpur Sarojini Naidu 2nd woman president, 1st Indian woman, 1st lady governor of independent India• 1929 Lahaur, Jawaharlal Nehru, Pooran sawaraj resolution, Civil disobedience movement launched• 1938 Haripura, Subhash Bose• 1939 Tripuri, Subhash Bose re elected but resigend after one month• 1940 Ramgarh, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad longest serving president (1940-45), No annual session held,Quit India movement started in 1942 all leaders in jail• 1946 Merrut , Acharya J.B.Kriplani, president at the eve of Independence, launched Kisan Majdur Prajaparty• 1948 Jaipur Pattabhi Sitaramiya , 1st session after Independence
  • 12. Lord Rippon(1880-84)• Contrast to his predecessor Lord Lytton• Liberal & Democrat• Repealed vernacular press act 1876 of Lytton• Undertook progressive measure• 1st Factory act 1881 labour legislation to improve condition of industrial labour, children below age of 7 were prohibited from working in factory• 1st sample census done in 1881 ,Rippon as father of Census organization• 1891 1st all India Census done• Father of Local self govt 1882 held direct elections for the local bodies in India• Appointed Hunter Commission on education in 1882, focus on primary education, female education, grant in aid schools to support western education , proposed Vocational & technical education in India led to growth in technical education in India• Ilbert Bill controversy ,this bill proposed racially non discriminatory system of judicial procedure , proposing common judicial procedure for both Indian & Europeans which was opposed by Europeans but supported by Indian Association of Surender Nath Bannerjee so it was amended in favour of Europeans
  • 13. Chronology of events• 1906 ,Fallout of Bengal Partition in 1905 is Muslim League founded by Nawab Salim Mulla of Dhaka , being 1st communal party in India• 1909 Minto Morley reform & Indian Council act , granted Separate electorate for Muslims• 1911, 2nd Delhi Durbar coronation ceremony of Emperor George V , Lord Hardinge made announcement of Annulment of partition of bengal & transfer of capital from Calcutta to Delhi, Calcutta capital from 1772-1912, same time bomb was thrown on Lord Hardinge when entering Chandani Chowk by Rasbehari Bose who later formed INA• 1913 Foundation of Gaddar Party in San Fransisco (USA) by Sardar Sohan Singh Bakhna, most revolutionary movement outside India• 1914 WWI• 1915 ,9th jan Mahatma Gandhi advent , from South Africa , Gandhian Era ,death of Gopal Krishna Gokhale• 1916 Annie Besant & Tilak decided to found Home Rule League , INC & ML signed Lucknow pact• 1917 Montague declaration that British political policy for India is gradual evolution of self governing institutions so as to achieve responsible govt.
  • 14. Chronology of events• 1918 Sydney Rowlat report, Rowlatt act draconian act opposed by everyone, Gandhi launched anti Rowlat act Satyagraha sabha , 1st all India movement launched by Gandhi• 1919 , April 6th Countywide strike against Rowlatt act• 1919, 13th April Jalianwala bagh trajedy• 1919 Khilafat movement launched• 1920 special session of INC at calcutta passed Non Cooperation Movement• 1922, feb, Chauri-chaura gorakhpur incident movement suspended• 1922 Gaya session presided by CR Das , congress khilafat swaraj party floated to contest elections under Govt of India act 1919• 1923 Swaraj party with CR Das president & Motilal nehru as Gen Secretary• 1924 Foundation of CPI at Kanpur under leadership of Tamil leader Sangarvelu Chetiyar, leftist became 3rd political force in India after nationalist & communalist• 1925 Kokori conspiracy train decoity by revolutionary of HSRA ( hindustan socialist republican army), Ramprasad Bismil
  • 15. Chronology of events• 1926-31 Gandhi Irwin Pact• 1927 seven member all white simon commision appointed by British PM headed by John simon to enquire about working of 1919 act & propose further constitutional reforms• 1928 simon comision visited India , Lala Laj Patrai died in procession at Lahore in Lathicharge , Bhagat Singh shot dead Saunders ASP Lahore who lathicharged Lala Laj patrai ,All Party committee under ML Nehru (Nehru Committee) drafted all party constitution known as nehru report , calcutta session of INC ratified Nehru report gave ultimatum to govt to accpet or reject it within year• 1929 Lahore session Jawahar lal Nehru presided since govt didn’t respond to Nehru Report so Pooran swaraj resolution passed, 26th jan 1930 to be observed as pooran swaraj day• 26th Jan 1930 people celebrated it as the pooran swaraj day Nehru unfurled tricolour at the bank of Ravi river in Lahore
  • 16. Chronology of events• Feb 1930 Congress passed Civil Disobedience Resolution at Sabarmati ashram Ahmadabad• March 12, 1930 Dandi Yatra by Gandhi to launch CDM to violate salt laws at Dandi on april 5, 1930• 1930 Report of Simon commision discussed at London in round table conference INC boycotted 1st RTC• 1935 discussion at RTC led to Govt of India act 1935
  • 17. Chronology of events• 1st phase of CDM march12,1930-march 5,1931• Nov 1930 1st RDC convened at London to discuss Simon commission report ,INC boycott• March 5,1931 Gandhi, Irwin pact1. Congress decides to suspend CDM2. Agrees to join 2nd RDC in London• Execution of Bhagat Singh,Sukhdev,Rajguru in Ferojpur jail• Sept-Dec 1931 2nd RTD attended by Gandhi as sole representative of INC, it proved to be failure• Lord Willington (1931-36) Calls Mahatma as “Seditious Faquir”• 2nd phase of CDM 1932-1934, Willington declares INC as illegal organization, all congress leaders arrested• August 16,1932 British PM Ramsay Mcdonald announces his communal award granting separate electorate to dalits /SC• Sept 20,1932 Gandhi launches Fast unto death in Yerveda jail (Poona)against communal award which was amended by Poona Pact between Ambedkar & various political & caste leaders , initiated by Madan Mohan Malviya
  • 18. Chronology of events• Nov 1932 3rd RTC boycotted by INC• 1933 Gandhi launches 21 days fast in prison for his self purification & create public opinion to the cause of Harizans, CDM was suspended & never revived• 1934 Bihar earthquake, Gandhi retires from active politics for the cause of Harizans, undertook Harizan Yatras & started weekly “Harizan” to arouse nation for the eradication of untouchability, Resumed active politics in 1939 Tripuri session of INC• 1935 Govt of India act passed by British Parliament, constitutional measures till Indian Independence• 1936-1937 elections under GOI act 1935 , congress secured majority in 8 provinces, congress ministries remained in power till 1939• 1938 Haripura session Subhash Bose elected as the president of INC decided to found National Planning Committee a forerunner of planning commission
  • 19. Chronology of events• Lord Lillithgow (1936-44) longest serving• 1939 Tripuri session Subhash re elected president defeating Gandhi’s candidate Pattabhi Sitaramaiyah , Gandhi resumes active politics , Subhash resigned from president ship found party “the forward block”• Sept,1939 WWII Britain unilaterally involves India on behalf of allied powers , INC protest• Oct-Dec1939 Congress ministeries in provinces resigned against British war policies• Dec 1939 ML celebrates Deliverance day rejoicing the resignation of congress ministeries• March 1940 Lahore session of ML passes Pakistan Resolution• Aug 1940 Lord Lilithgow made Aug offer to congress to resolve constitutional deadlock persisting since resignation of ministeries• Oct 1940 congress launches Individual satyagraha inaugurated by Vinoba Bhave
  • 20. Chronology of events• Jan 1941, Subhash escapes to Berlin• March 1942,British PM Wiston Churchil announces dispatch of Cripps Mission to India to resolve Constitutional deadlock• July 1942 Quit India resolution passed by INC from Verdha Ashram, ratified later by AICC at Agast Kranti maidan Mumbai, congress declared illegal & all leaders arrested• Aug 1942 great august uprising people reacted violently , led to launch of QIM• Sept 1942 Subhash takes command of INA set up HQ at Singapore later shifted to Rangoon• Dec 1943 Karachi session of ML gave slogan “Divide & Quit”• Lord Wavel(1944-1947) announces “wavel plan” to resolve deadlock & convened “Simla Conference”, ML vetoed it• Feb 1946 Royal British India Navy Mutinied in Bombay known as “Rating’s mutiny”, next day British PM Clement Attlee sends Cabinet Mission to India
  • 21. Chronology of events• March 1946, Cabinet Mission comprising AB Alexander , Pathic Lawrence& Stafford Cripps reach India & announce cabinet mission plan on may 1946• As per plan Lord Wavel invites Nehru to head the interim Govt as Vice Chairman of the interim govt which took oath of office on sept 2,1946, ML boycotts which had rejected Cabinet plan• Dec 9,1946 1st session of constituent assembly of India , ML boycotts• Feb20,1947 PM Attlee declares terminal date of British withdrawal from India to be June30,1948• Lord Mountbatten (march1947-june 1948) last GG & viceroy of India , 1st GG of Independent India , after him C Rajgopalacharya became GG• June 3 1947, Partition plan discussed , which led to Indian Independence act, last constitutional provision regarding India to be passed by British parliament on July 4,1947• August 14,15 1947 India Partition• Nehru Made historic speech “Tryst with destiny”
  • 22. Indian council act 1892• Enlarged the size & functions of central & provincial councils• Element of indirect election introduced 1st time• Councils to have right to discuss budget under certain conditions• Member of councils granted right to ask questions
  • 23. Indian council act 1909• Known as Morley Minto reforms• 1st attempt to introduce a representative element, indirest elections introduced• Separate electorate for Muslims , after a group of muslims known as Shimla Deputation led by Agha Khan met Lord Minto in August 1906 & demanded separate electorate for muslims & representation in excess of their numerical strength, muslim league was formed in dec 1906 by Nawab Salimullah of Dacca & Nawab Mohsin ul mulk & Waqar ul Mulk
  • 24. Lucknow Session INC 1916• Readmission of extremists to INC• Presided over by moderate Ambika Charan Majubdar readmitted extremists led by Tilak• Annie Besant & Tilak made effort for reunion into INC• Gokhale & Pherojshah Mehta both moderates died who were opposed to their reunion• ML & INC presented common demands• Khilafat issue made ML come closer to INC• Repression of govt another reason, Maulana Azad’s Al Hilal & Mohammad Ali’s Comrade faced repression
  • 25. Govt. of India act 1919• Montague Chelmsford reform,in line with Montague’s August 1917 statement• Dyarchy (rule of two)introduced in provinces, relaxation of central control over provinces• Popular ministers & governors to be executive head• Reserved (by governor) & transferred (by ministers) subjects• Reserved subjects s.a. finance, Law & order , land revenue, irrigation, to be administered by governor through its executive council & was not responsible to legislature• Governor could veto the bill• Women were given right to vote• Transefered subjects s.a. health, education,industry,local govt.• Indian legislature made more representative & bicameral , Legislative assembly and Council of state to consist of 140 & 60 members
  • 26. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi• Born oct 2,1869 Porbander in princely state of kathiawar• Went to South Africa for his client Dada Abdullah• Fought for the cause of indentured Indian labourer in SA suffering from white racism• He first started his Satyagrah or passive resistance in SA between 1906-1914• Satyagrah against Registration certificate• Satyagrah against restriction on Indian migration• Set up Tolstoy Farm to house satyagrahis• Campaign against Poll tax & invalidation of Indian marriages• Techniques of Satyagrah was Truth & non violence
  • 27. Gandhi in India• Returned on 9th jan 1915• During 1917-1918 involved in champaran, ahmedabad, Kheda before he launched Rowlatt satyagraha(his 1st all India movement)• Champaran 1917 (1st Civil disobedience ) indigo planters in champaran Bihar suffering from 3/20 teen kathia system , European planters forcing them to plant indigo , Rajendar Prasad, Mazhar ul Haq,Mahadeo Desai,Narhari Parekh, JB Kriplani, Gandhi defied order of authorities to leave the area, civil disobedience of the unjust order
  • 28. Gandhi in India• Ahmedabad Mill Strike (1918) 1st Hunger strike• Dispute between mill owners & workers over plague bonus , demanded 35% hike in wages• Fast unto death to strengthen the resolve of workers• Kheda (1918) 1st Non cooperation, drought , crop failed in kheda distt of Gujarat if yield is less than 1/4th then farmer entitled for remission but authorities refused to remit , so Gandhi fought for peasant cause & asked them to withhold revenue, authorities secretly issued instructions that only those who could pay should pay , Sardar Patel , Indulal Yagnik became follower of Gandhi
  • 29. Rowlatt Act 1919• Govt on one hand gave carrot of constitutional reforms in form of Govt of India act 1919 on the other armed itself with extraordinary powers to suppress the violaters• March 1919, passed Rowlatt act• It authorised govt to imprison any person without trial & conviction in court of law thus suspended right of “habeas corpus” which is foundation of the civil liberty• Gandhi called for Nationwide hartal & protest in feb 1919• Satyagrah was to be launched on April 6, 1919 but before that itself mass scale resistance grew in India against British rule , especially in Punjab due to many reasons so Army was called in Punjab which put martial law there
  • 30. Govt. of India act 1935• Introduced federation & provincial autonomy, envisaged federation never came into being• Bicameral central legislature to consist of Federal assembly &Council of state• Federal , provincial & concurrent list of legislative powers made
  • 31. Indian independence act, 1947• Sovereignty & responsibility of British parliament abolished• Dominion legislature becomes sovereign• Governor- general & provincial governors become constitutional heads• Crown cease to be source of authority