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1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
1,1857
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1,1857

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  • 1. 1857Causes? Expansionist policies of colonial rule (political) Economic exploitation (economic) Administration innovation (socio cultural)Affected section?Rulers of Indian states, SepoysZamindars/ Taluqdars, PeasantsTraders, artisansPundits, Maulvis
  • 2. Economic causes• East India company destroyed traditional economic fabric of Indian society• New Revenue settlement impoverished peasantry, heavy taxation imposed, left on mercy of moneylenders/traders, new landlord class emerged through this revenue system, peasant highly indebted• British goods promoted at cost of Indian handicraft, destroyed Indian artisans & handicraftsmen, new jobs not created, no development of modern industry• Traditional landed aristocracy of zamindars & taluqdars destroyed their estates confiscated , condemned to penury• Awadh , storm center of revolt 21,000 taluqdars estates confiscated & were left without any source of income
  • 3. Political causesBritish expansion policiesEffective controlSubsidiary allianceDoctrine of lapseRight of succession was denied to Hindu princesMughal prince Faqirrudin was forced to renounceregal titleLed to collapse of Indian rulers and erstwhilearistocracy
  • 4. Administrative causesRampant corruption in companyadministration
  • 5. Socio religious causes•Activities of Christian missionaries•Socio religious reforms s.a. “sati” , widow re-marriage, woman’s education were consideredas the interference in their socio religious life bythe people• Change in the inheritance laws & othercustoms by legislations like Religious disabilitiesact 1856.
  • 6. External events•First Afghan war 1838-42•Punjab wars 1845-49•Santhal rebellion 1855-57
  • 7. Sepoy’s discontentment/ spark•Service conditions in company’s army in conflict with their religiousbelief, Racial discrimination in promotion and privileges•Lord Canning’s General services enlistment act 1856 made itcompulsory to serve anywhere outside India for new recruits toarmy, Hindu’s considered crossing sea against their caste system•Unhappy with emoluments compared to their British counterparts•No more foreign service allowance (bhatta)to be given•Annexation of Awadh, home of many sepoys (peasant in uniform)led to resentment in them
  • 8. Beginning the spark•Introduction of enfield rifles whose cartridges made ofbeef &pig fat to be bitten off before loading , served as thespark of the revolt•Revolt began at Merrut on 10th may,1857as the mutiny inIndian soldiers, it became epicenter of revolt•Before Merrut also incidents occurred like mutiny in feb1857 at Berhampur, in april 1857 Mangal Pandey killssergeant major in Barrakpore, may 3 Awadh regimentdefied its officers .•Merrut mutiny soldiers killed their officers & set off forDelhi, local infantry in Delhi joined them & killed politicalagent “Simon Fraser”•Bahdur Shah Zafar aged & powerless last Mughal emperorwas proclaimed the emperor of India and leader
  • 9. Participation of all•Delhi became the centre of great revolt•Mughal dynasty the traditional symbol of India’s political unity,Zafar made supreme leader of the revolt•Bengal,Awadh,Rohilkhand,Doab,Bundelkhand, Central India,large part of Bihar, east Punjab center of the revolt•Revolt of the sepoys accompanied by civil population rebellionin north west province and Awadh•Peasants , artisans , shopkeepers , day laborers , zamindars,religious mendicants, priests, civil servants joined the revolt•Peasants attacked moneylenders & destroyed their debtrecords•Of 1,50,000 who died fighting the English in Awadh over1,00,000 were civilians
  • 10. Revolt centers & leaders•Delhi ,Bhahadur Shah , general Bakht Khan led Barreily troops to Delhi•Kanpur,Nana saheb adopted son of last peshwa Baji rao II , was refusedfamily title and banished from poona, proclaimed him peshwaacknowledged Bahadur shah as emperor of India , sir Hugh Wheelercommanding the station surrenders•Lucknow, Begum Hazrat Mahal of the deposed Nawab took reins of revolt•Barreily, Khan Bahadur descendant of former ruler of Rohilkhand ,resentment over meagre pension given by British• Bihar, Kunwar Singh ,zamindar of jagdishpur , Arrah , was deprived off hisestates•Faizabad, Maulvi Ahmadullah•Jhansi, Laxmibai , Lord Dalhousie refused to allow her adopted son tosucceed to throne after her husband Raja Gangadhar rao died & her statewas annexed through “Doctrine of lapse”•Tantia tope close associate of Nana Saheb joined Rani Laxmibai after lossof Kanpur
  • 11. Suppression of revolt• Delhi was captured on Sept 20,1857• Bahadur Shah taken as prisoner,exiled to Rangoon where he died• Nana Saheb defeated in Kanpur escaped to Nepal• Tantia tope was captured and killed• Laxmibai died in battlefield , Jhansi was recaptured by Sir Hugh Rose• Begum of Awadh was compelled to hide in Nepal• By 1859 Kunwar singh,Bakht Khan, Khan Bahadur Khan,Rao Saheb(brother of Nana saheb) & Maulavi Ahmadullah were all dead, by the end of 1859 British authority over India was fully re-established
  • 12. Causes of failure of revolt•Limited territorial spread, north & middle India•Big Zamindars,Taluqdars , rulers, middle classintelligential did not participate•Not more than one fourth of total area and onetenth of population participated•Indian soldiers poorly equipped•Poor organization & coordination•Lack of unity among Indian as no nationalism atthis time
  • 13. Hindu Muslim Unity Factor•Bahadur Shah was Muslim , completecooperation at all levels•Everyone accepted Mughal as emperor•People & politics before 1858 was notcommunal in India
  • 14. Nature of Revolt•Was it mere sepoy mutiny? As per Britishhistorian•Military outbreak ………………. Dr K.Datta•Planned war of national independence…..V.D. Savarkar in his book “First war of Indianindependence”
  • 15. Consequence•British crown took direct responsibility ofadministration , company rule was abolished•Lord canning announced it at Allahabaddurbar in “Queen’s proclamation” issued onnov 1, 1858•British ended era of annexation & expansion•Indian states to recognize paramountcy ofBritish crown•British followed “divide & rule policy”
  • 16. Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856)•Second Anglo Sikh war 1848-49•Annexation of Burma 1852•Introduction of “Doctrine of Lapse” & annexation of Satara(1848), Jaipur ,& Sambhalpur(1849), Udaipur(1852), Jhansi(1853),Nagpur(1854), Awadh(1856)•Wood’s Dispatch 1854 & introduction of Anglo Vernacularschools & colleges•1st Railway line connecting Bombay & Thane 1853•Post office act 1854 & reforms•Telegraph lines to connect Calcutta with Bombay, Madras withPeshawar•Ganges canal opened 1854•Widows remarriage Act 1856
  • 17. Lord Canning 1856-57•3 universities at Calcutta ,Madras, Bombay1857•Revolt of 1857• First Viceroy(representative of crown) cumGovernor general•Transfer of control from East India companyto Crown through Govt of India Act 1858•White mutiny by European troops 1859•Indian council act 1861

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