Induction(Product) training programme for Schneider-electric , Goa
Welcome to Schneider-Electric
India pvt. Limited, Goa
Product training presentation
Q1. What is “twisted pair”?
Ans: Twisted pair is a simple, oldest and low cost cable medium. Two copper strands/wires, each
encased in its own color-coded insulation, are twisted together to form a twisted pair.
Multiple twisted pairs are packaged in an outer sheath, or jacket, to form twisted-pair cable.
The purpose to twist is to reduce electrical interference or noise from similar close pairs.
Unsheilded twisted pair (UTP)
• UTP cable is a medium that is composed of pairs of wires. UTP cable is used in a variety of
•When UTP used as a networking medium, UTP cable has four pairs
of either 22 or 24 gauge copper wire.
•UTP used as a networking medium has an impedance of 100
ohms, whereas other types of UTP wiring used for telephone wiring
has an impedance of 600 ohms.
•UTP is considered the fastest copper-based medium today. (speed varies from 10-1000Mbps)
•Cheaper then other media.
•It is the most compatible cabling and can be used with most other major networking systems
and does not require grounding.
• UTP cables are more prone to electronic noise and interference than other forms of cable.
• Limited bandwidth, which restricts long distance transmission with low error rates.
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
•STP cables have all the property same as UTP cables but the difference is of
shielding and screening of cable.
• Shielding provides a means to reflect or absorb electric fields that are present
•The four pairs of wires then are wrapped in an overall metallic braid
or foil, usually 150-ohm cable, here in Schneider Electric pairs are
wrapped in a aluminum foil and thus we call it S/FTP.
•Higher transmission rates over longer distances.
•Less susceptible to electrical interference caused by nearby wires
•More expensive than UTP.
•Difficult to install and proper grounding is required. If it is improperly grounded, the shield
acts like an antenna and picks up unwanted signals.
CAT 5 CAT 6
Bandwidth Upto 100Mhz
Upto 250Mhz & in CAT 6a Bandwidth is upto
Copper Strands few(4-5) copper strands in a inner insulated wire
Comparably more copper strands (i.e cable is thick)
than CAT 5
Transfer Speed Upto 100Mbps and 1000Mbps in case of Cat5e Upto 10Gbps(Cat 6a)
Commonly used in LANs, 100Mbps &
Suitable for 10Mbps, 100Mbps (Fast Ethernet),
1000Mbps/1Gbps(Gigabit Ethernet) and 10Gbps
Commonly used types of UTP cabling are as follows:
•CAT 1—Used for telephone communications. Not suitable for transmitting data.
•CAT 2—Capable of transmitting data at speeds up to 4(Mbps).
•CAT 3—Used in 10BASE-T networks. Can transmit data up to 10 Mbps.
•CAT 4—Used in Token Ring networks. Can transmit data up to 16 Mbps.
•CAT 5—Can transmit data at speeds up to 100 Mbps.
•CAT 5e —Used in networks running at speeds up to 1000 Mbps
•CAT 6—Category 6 cable is currently the fastest standard for UTP 10 Gbps
Different categories of Copper Cables
Actassi copper patch cord
Boot for Actassi patch cord
Unshielded Boot for patch cord
Copper Patch panels
Copper patch panel
On the basis of
1. On the basis of category:
The only difference is in design of the panel structure.
2. On the basis of Shielding:
Unshielded Patch panel
Shielded Patch panel
2. On the basis of number of ports:
24 Ports Loaded patch panel
48 Ports Loaded patch panel
Testing of copper cable
Copper patch cord is been tested by fluke networks testing instrument.
Three types of testing are there: Component testing, Channel testing & permanent testing
Wire map can be known
from the test and we can
also know length of the
Through NEXT test we come to
know the difference of
between the pairs
Return loss is the ratio of
total transmitted power to
reflected power. The more
is the return loss the better
is the patch cord
Q. What is Fiber optics?
Ans. Fiber optics is a medium through which signals/data can be sent from one
location to another in form of light guided wave through a hair like thin glass fiber
Working principle of Fiber optic cable is “Total Internal reflection”
Light pulse Light pulse
Transmitter ReceiverWorking of Fiber system
A transmitter is at one end. This is the origin for information coming on to fiber-optic lines. The
transmitter accepts coded electronic pulse information coming from copper wire. It then
processes and translates that information into equivalently coded light pulses. A light-emitting
diode (LED) or an injection-laser diode (ILD) can be used for generating the light pulses. Using a
lens, the light pulses are passed through the fiber-optic medium where they transmit light
pulses to receiver end and receiver converts that light pulses in desired output.
Advantages of fiber :
•SPEED: Fiber optic networks operate at high speeds - up into the gigabits
•BANDWIDTH: large carrying capacity
•DISTANCE: Signals can be transmitted further without needing to be "refreshed" or strengthened.
•RESISTANCE: Greater resistance to electromagnetic noise such as radios, motors or other nearby cables.
(Core dia 50-62.5 micron)(Core dia 8-10 micron)
•Single mode cable provides less signal
attenuation, Higher transmissions speeds, and
up to 50 times greater transmission distance
than multimode cable.
•Higher transmissions speeds, and up to 50
times greater transmission distance than
•Single mode cable can transmit data at
terabits per second over 100km without
requiring re-amplification of the signal.
•Multimode fiber optic cable and components are
less expensive and easier to work with than their
•High transmission is limited to shorter distances
than single mode.
•Multimode cable is also available as low-cost
Plastic Optical Fiber (POF), which offers
performance similar to glass cable for very short
High cost of Fiber cable and connectors and adaptors
as compared to Multimode
More distortion in signal as compare to Single mode
Applications Long high speed LANs
Multimode fiber optic cable is well suited for systems
that have short fiber optic links, such as Local Area
Networks (LANs) and Storage Area Networks (SANs).
Fiber Patch cord/pigtails
In fiber patch cord the connectors
are attached to the fiber cable at
both the ends, whereas in pigtails
only one end is attached with
connector and other end is open.
Single Mode(SM) simplex patch cord Multi-Mode(MM) simple patch cord
Single-mode fiber is generally
yellow, with a blue connector
and used for long transmission
Multi-mode fiber is generally
orange or aqua, with a beige
colored connector and used for
short transmission distance.
Single Mode(SM) Duplex pigtail
Single Mode(SM) Simplex pigtail Multi-Mode(SM) Simplex pigtail
Single Mode(SM) Duplex ACTASSI patch cord
ST – “Straight Tip” connector
that connects with a half-turn
0.40 dB (Single-Mode)
0.50 dB (Multi-Mode)
cap is for
Red color cap
is for Multi-
ST connector without cap
ST connector with cap
SC - “Subscription
A push-pull type of
•High packing density
•Low loss & low cost
•Low back reflection
LC Duplex connector
LC - Precision PC(physical contact)
polished Zirconia cermic ferrule. RJ45
push-pull style housing and latching.
0.15 dB (SM)
0.10 dB (MM)
LC Simplex connector
FC Connectors and MT-RJ connectors
FC - A threaded optical
connector. Good for single-
mode or multimode fiber
and applications requiring
low back reflection.
• Used in telephone
• Instruments & Telecomm.
FC simplex connector MT-RJ connector
MTRJ connectors are, a
type of hybrid connector
b/w fiber optic cable and
an Ethernet cable.
•most commonly used in
•Solar cable is the interconnection cable used in photovoltaic power generation.
•Solar cable interconnects solar panels and other electrical components in the photovoltaic