Indusriverbasinpaper hasrat-130119064313-phpapp02


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This presentation deals with the Indus Water Treaty between India and Pakistan in 1960.

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Indusriverbasinpaper hasrat-130119064313-phpapp02

  1. 1. Indus River Basin System • 21st largest river in the world in terms of annual flow • 60% of Indus basin lies in Pakistan and Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (POK), 10% in Tibet, 25% in India and India- Administered Kashmir, and 7% in Afghanistan • Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Himalayas, Karakoram and the Hindu Kush ranges • 80% of water for Upper Indus Rivers comes from Himalayan glaciers • 25 amphibian species and 147 fish species of which 22 are endemic • Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab and Sindh plains
  2. 2. Introduction • Indus is a river system that sustains 200 million people in India and Pakistan • Both India and Pakistan have extensively dammed the Indus River • With competing demands of water both sides, the conflicts sustain since 1947, year of partition • Indus Water Treaty (IWT) agreed in 1960 • Transboundary water conflicts on climax now • Climate change is supposed to add to conflicts • New challenges to governance and institutions • Need to reform the international legislation and governance to cope with uncertainties
  3. 3. • Status Quo– East and West Punjab signed standstill agreement in 1947. • Dispute over the worth of Pakistan’s irrigation canal network • East Punjab (Indian side)suspends water supply to West side • Partition created issues – taking things in their own hands
  4. 4. • Came to light on April 1,1948 after partition of Punjab • Cut across the rivers and canals • India cutoff flow of canal water to West Punjab • Stopped the water of the rivers Ravi and Sutlej • India wanted to damage Pakistan economically
  5. 5. Competing Water Demands & Transboundary Conflicts • Water disputes between Punjab and Sind provinces during British India • Conflict in the basin started in 1947 when India stopped water flowing through its canals to Pakistan • Dispute over Salal dam was settled in 1978 • Controversy on the Wullar Barrage/ Tulbul Navigation project and Kishanganga hydroelectric dams remains unsettled. • Baglihar dam created severe conflicts, but the issue was settled by recourse to Neutral Expert • Recent Conflicts created around: 57-metre high Nimoo-Bazgo dam in Leh (India); 42-metre high Chuttak dam on Suru river (India-Kashmir); Tulbul Navigation Project in India-Kashmir
  6. 6. Need for developmental infrastructure Both countries needed massive water infrastructure to support population • East Punjab had 21 million with no food supply • It needed storage devices to develop arid but fertile land • West Punjab needed to ensure water supply
  7. 7. Some Major Dams on India’s Part of Indus River Basin
  8. 8. Transboundary Governance System • Inter-Dominion Accord of May 4, 1948: required India to release sufficient waters to Pakistani regions • Pakistan wanted to take the matter to the International Court of Justice but India refused • In 1951, David E. Lilienthal, former chairman of Tennessee Valley Authority, visited India and Pakistan. • Lilienthal wrote an article with suggestions that Indus Basin be treated, exploited, and developed as a single unit
  9. 9. Involvement of The World Bank • The bank is reluctant to get involved initially • World bank refuses loans to both countries even though they were economically viable • Offered an impartial third party • Offered an option taking into account both countries’ needs
  10. 10. Principles of Involvement The bank offered a deal in 1954 based on 3 principles. • There was enough water for both countries in the basin. • While considering the Sutlej River the entire basin would be considered as one and all rivers would be under discussion. • The negotiations would retain a technical focus rather than political focus
  11. 11. • Distribution on the basis of number of rivers – 3 major eastern tributaries(Sutlej, Beas, and Ravi) – India – 3 major western tributaries(Chenab , Jhelum and the Indus) – Pakistan • India pays $ 174 million over 10 years • Canal and reservoir construction financed through the Bank • Commission to resolve future disputes Features of the deal
  12. 12. • World Bank mediated from 1952 onwards, and Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) was signed in September 1960 although Pakistan, not fully convinced ,refused to sign until 1958 • IWT conferred rights over 3 western rivers of Indus river system (Jhelum, Chenab and Indus) to Pakistan, and over 3 eastern rivers (Sutlej, Ravi and Beas) to India
  13. 13. ChronologyofIndusWaterTreaty (adaptedfromJutlaandDewayne,2009)
  14. 14. Reasons for success A unique mix of circumstances contributed to the success of the effort. • Leadership • Timeline • Finances • Restricted Discussion
  15. 15. Problems with the treaty • Does not account for the increase demand in India/Pakistan. • India cannot build dams without consultation on 3 tributaries • Higher demand due to economic growth cannot be addressed by major rivers of the region • Delays in projects
  16. 16. Some Adverse Effects • It was a grave blow to agriculture of Pakistan • Pakistan’s agriculture vitally and entirely depend on canals drawn from Indus • Rain fall is scanty and undependable • Effected agriculture very badly • Pakistan also purchased water from India to avoid economic disaster.
  17. 17. • It is in the interest of India and Pakistan to follow the treaty in letter and spirit • Undisturbed flow from the western rivers is must for survival of the country – no one should be allowed to play with it as it is matter of life and death for Pakistan. • We must have a strategy to ensure so. Absence of such strategy could spell disaster for the entire region!!!!