Evolution of mittal steel

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Evolution of Mittal steel , Mittal steel Success Story Growth Map, Acquisition

How mittals have setup such bug steel empire by its core competencies

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Evolution of mittal steel

  1. 2. Evolution of Mittal Group <ul><li>The extraordinary story of Mittal Steel </li></ul><ul><li>The Growth Approach </li></ul><ul><li>The Growth Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mittal Steel International Growth Process: The M&A Process </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. Steel: Global Scenario (1989) <ul><li>Profits were secondary; production was primary </li></ul><ul><li>Highly fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme volatility in steel prices and low growth </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform belief that Steel would always be regional </li></ul><ul><li>1989: Mittal Group in had less than .05% of the global steel industry (Indonesia Operations) </li></ul>
  3. 4. Why is steel less globalized? <ul><li>Yield factor </li></ul><ul><li>Yield per tonne of Steel is much less compared to White Goods </li></ul><ul><li>Hence need to minimize transportation element of steel </li></ul><ul><li>That does not mean more efficient factors of production like manpower, technology, finance, operations cant be moved </li></ul><ul><li>Mittal Philosophy was to build a global steel enterprise by reaching out to the consumers where they were </li></ul>
  4. 5. Building Global Enterprise Strategic Choices Value Chain Configuration Measuring Value Chain Optimization Imperatives Global Presence Global Competitive Advantage
  5. 6. Mittal Group Strategic Choice Need for Local Responsiveness Need for Global Integration Low High Low High Global strategy Transnational strategy Multidomestic strategy Central Resource Pool Europe United States Middle East/ Africa Asia Central Europe Latin America Mittal’s Multidomestic – Integrated Manufacturing Strategy
  6. 7. Building Global Presence Growth Strategies
  7. 8. Mittal Steel The Growth Roadmap
  8. 9. Trinidad & Tobago (1989) Lease/Purchase Agreement of Iscott <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Slow pace of Organic Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Raw material for Indonesia Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclical Nature of Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Steel Industry collapsed at the end of the 1980s </li></ul>
  9. 10. Trinidad & Tobago (1989) Lease/Purchase Agreement of Iscott <ul><li>Country Evaluation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Role: Iscott, a plant built </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by the government was struggling, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and ministers were looking for outside help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm’s Strategy, Structure & Rivalry: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global strategy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal Competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand Conditions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looking for a supply of raw iron to feed its Indonesia Plant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related & Supporting Industries: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High access to sea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor Conditions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant in operational mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode: Take over lease and operations of Trinidad mill for ten years--with an option to buy out the mill after five years </li></ul>
  10. 11. Mexico (1992) Acquisition of Sibalsa <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Access to North America </li></ul><ul><li>Country Evaluation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Role: Privatization focus & Mexican Finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minster sought Mittal’s help to revive the fortunes of Sibalca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm’s Strategy, Structure & Rivalry: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use closeness to Caribbean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Revenue Sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on integrated production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not a constraint – Large opportunity in North America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related & Supporting Industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant in operational mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to North America by Road & Sea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor Conditions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant in operational mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to large DRI Facilities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Mexico (1992) Acquisition of Sibalsa <ul><li>CAGE Analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Distances: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Company seen as outsider </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caribbean operations minimized cultural difference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative or Political Distances: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative from Mexico Govt. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic Distances: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Closeness to Caribbean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Closeness to US Market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive access to waterways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Distances: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free trade agreement with US </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode : Sicarsta steel mills purchased for $220 million (mill built in the 1980s for some $2 billion.) </li></ul><ul><li>Speed: Purchase of backend DRI facility -Ispat world's largest DRI producer </li></ul>
  12. 13. Canada (1994) Acquisition of Sidbec-Dosco <ul><li>Imperative: Foothold in the North American market </li></ul><ul><li>Product Synergy: Mexico/Canada prod. based DRI as raw material </li></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode: Bought from the Government of Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>Speed: Canada’s fourth largest steel producer </li></ul>
  13. 14. Germany (1995) Acquisition of Hamburger Stahlwerke <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Limited access Western European </li></ul><ul><li>Limited understanding of European market </li></ul><ul><li>Product Synergy: </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding scope of business: Wire rod </li></ul><ul><li>Building Value Chain Configuration: </li></ul><ul><li>Renowned for mini-mill expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode: Hamburger Stahlwerke in Germany acquired </li></ul><ul><li>Speed: Germany's fourth largest producer of wire rod </li></ul>
  14. 15. Mittal Group Strategic Choice Need for Local Responsiveness Need for Global Integration Low High Low High Global strategy Transnational strategy Multidomestic strategy Central Resource Pool Europe United States Middle East/ Africa Asia Central Europe Latin America Evolution of Mittal’s Transnational – Integrated Manufacturing Strategy
  15. 16. Kazakhstan (1995) Acquisition of Karmet <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location Advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to huge coal & iron reserves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity to China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Country Evaluation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Role: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive Government Involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm’s Strategy, Structure & Rivalry: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Manufacturing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Multiple Revenue Options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand Conditions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Huge demand in China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related & Supporting Industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal Infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor Conditions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant Manpower </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant Iron/Coal Mines eg. Shatinskaya </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited access to modern manufacturing equipment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Kazakhstan (1995) Acquisition of Karmet <ul><li>Risk Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Perspective: </li></ul><ul><li>Two rescue attempts by Western companies, US Steel and VAI of Austria, failed. </li></ul><ul><li>Banks did not lend money </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Hedging: Develop secondary revenue </li></ul><ul><li>stream by selling coal from </li></ul><ul><li>Shatinskaya directly to China </li></ul>
  17. 18. Kazakhstan (1995) Acquisition of Karmet <ul><li>VOIDS: There was no power or water supplies to the town </li></ul><ul><li>PESTEL Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Political factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Soviet era township, along with 70,000 employees and Temirtau and its 170,000 inhabitants, all of whom relied on the plant for a living, faced a bleak future. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the preconditions of the deal was that Mittal couldn’t reduce employment by much as it was the Kazakh president’s pet project. Hence, huge political problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High government involvement as pet project of President </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet-style barter trading prevalent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wages weren’t being paid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access Chinese market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social factors: Socialistic mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Technological factors: Poor access to modern technology & trained manpower </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors: Incredibly harsh weather with temperatures reaching +40C in the summer and -40C in the winter </li></ul>
  18. 19. Kazakhstan (1995) Acquisition of Karmet <ul><li>Entry Mode: </li></ul><ul><li>Bought the plant outright, putting in his own cash </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Value Chain: </li></ul><ul><li>Brought international management from India & other plants to instill new management practices </li></ul><ul><li>Scrapped Soviet-style barter trading </li></ul><ul><li>Invested in plant and the town, restoring heat, light and water </li></ul><ul><li>Speed: Developed One of world’s largest integrated manufacturing facility </li></ul>
  19. 20. USA (1998) Acquisition of Inland Steel <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Entry into US Market </li></ul><ul><li>Access to technology </li></ul><ul><li>Product Portfolio: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to Nippon technology to manufacture cold roll sheet, strip sheet & special quality bar products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized in cold-rolled sheet and strip steel for motor vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic Choice: </li></ul><ul><li>Inland was one of the world's largest integrated steel operations </li></ul><ul><li>Developing the Value Chain: </li></ul><ul><li>The steel mill's shoreline location enabled it to take in steelmaking commodities & Inland Steel operated its own fleet of bulk carrier vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Entry Approach: </li></ul><ul><li>Departing from its low-cost acquisition position, Ispat paid $1.43 billion for the East Chicago, Indiana-based steelmaker Inland Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of Market Acquisition: </li></ul><ul><li>Inland Steel - fourth largest steel maker in US. Inland acquisition, bolted Ispat International into the world's top ten steel producers </li></ul>
  20. 21. France (1998) Acquisition of Unimétal <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Access to French Market </li></ul><ul><li>Product Synergy: </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation of the European long products sector </li></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode: </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of Unimétal from Usinor </li></ul><ul><li>Speed: </li></ul><ul><li>Mittal Steel became the largest producer of high-quality wire rods in Europe </li></ul>
  21. 22. Algeria (2001) Acquisition of ALFASAID <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Entry to Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Country Evaluation: </li></ul><ul><li>PESTEL Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Political factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil War Underway(1991-2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Association Treaty in 2001 with European Union to lower tariffs and increase trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinitiating Economic Reforms Process after previous failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of GDP & and over 95% of export earnings from hydrocarbons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social factors: Total Social Disarray </li></ul><ul><li>Technological factors: Outdated equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Factors: New legislative framework </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Mode: Bought 70% of Alfasid from the Algerian government </li></ul><ul><li>Speed: Alfasid is the largest producer of steel in North Africa </li></ul>
  22. 23. Romania (2001) Acquisition of Sidex <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies to Germany/Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Country Evaluation: </li></ul><ul><li>Government Role: </li></ul><ul><li>Active role of government: Sidex to be precursor to Romanian </li></ul><ul><li>privatization process & entry to Central European Free Trade Area (CEFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Firm’s Strategy, Structure & Rivalry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop new export destination through Danube River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Manufacturing: Acquire the local coal and iron ore mines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demand Conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand in Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Galati steelworks is also the main provider of raw material for domestic ship-builders, truck and car manufacturers, machine builders and construction companies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Related & Supporting Industries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor access to waterways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factor Conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant Manpower & RM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited access to modern manufacturing equipment </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Romania (2001) Acquisition of Sidex <ul><li>PESTEL Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Political factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political commitment to economic reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant role/control of EU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrenchment fear: Resistance against privatization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2001: Collapse of Communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sidex to be precursor to Romanian privatization process & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>entry to Central European Free Trade Area (CEFTA). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortage of Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevalence of Barter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrealized wages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialistic mindset & first shot at privatization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardcore Christian following </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological factors: Outdated equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal framework under development: 1 st initiative towards economic reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not part of Central European Free Trade Area (CEFTA) or EU </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. South Africa (2002) Business Alliance with Iscor <ul><li>Imperative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to Southern Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to Asia/America’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode: Business assistance deal </li></ul><ul><li>To provide business assistance over a three-year period in exchange for Iscor shares - provided certain cost-saving thresholds were met </li></ul><ul><li>PESTEL Analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political: South African government's growth objectives in the manufacturing sector, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal: Approval from the country's Competition Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speed: Mittal Group took control of Iscor in June 2004 </li></ul>
  25. 26. Czech Republic (2003) Acquisition of Nova Hut <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidate in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Bordering Germany </li></ul><ul><li>PESTEL Analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political: Multi-party parliamentary representative democracy since 1993 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing since formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on privatization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieved developed nation status in 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode: Bought from the government </li></ul><ul><li>Speed: Nova Hut-largest steel producer in the Czech Republic </li></ul>
  26. 27. USA (2004) Acquisition of International Steel Group(ISG) <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Global Presence </li></ul><ul><li>Access to ISG spread </li></ul><ul><li>Developing the Value Chain: </li></ul><ul><li>Combined Entity: Around 30% of its assets in North America, 30% in Europe and the remaining 40% split between Asia and Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode: Acquisition of ISG </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of Market Acquisition: Created the world's largest steel maker </li></ul>
  27. 28. Macedonia (2004) Acquisition of Skopje <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Add to downstream activities </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen the position as the leading steel producer in Central and Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding Business Scope: </li></ul><ul><li>Hot strip mill has a capacity of 1.2 million tonnes </li></ul><ul><li>Cold rolling mill a capacity of 1 million tonnes </li></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode: Skopje, Macedonia acquired from Balkan Steel </li></ul>
  28. 29. Bosnia-Herzegovina (2004) Acquisition of BH Steel <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidate Eastern Europe Presence </li></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode: Controlling stake in Bosnia's BH Steel purchased in a deal approved by the government of Bosnia-Herzegovina LNM will replace the Kuwaiti Investment Agency as BH Steel's majority owner </li></ul>
  29. 30. Poland (2004) Aquizition of Polskie Huty Stali <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Unique product-line -wide variety of flat products </li></ul><ul><li>Location advantage to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode: Purchase from government </li></ul><ul><li>Speed: 70% of Polish steel production. Acquisition transforms the group into the leading steel producer in central and Eastern Europe </li></ul>
  30. 31. China (2005) Acquisition of stake in Hunan Valin <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Entry into China </li></ul><ul><li>Country Evaluation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Role: Foreign ownership restricted to minority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm’s Strategy, Structure & Rivalry: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter China through JV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large No. of small producers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World’s largest producer & consumer of steel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related & Supporting Industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate Infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor Conditions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant in operational mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to large DRI Facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode: JV with Hunan Valin </li></ul><ul><li>Speed: Hunan Valin is amongst top 10 steel producers in China </li></ul>
  31. 32. India (2005) JV with Jharkhand Government <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Entry into India </li></ul><ul><li>Country Evaluation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Role: Foreign Investment welcomed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm’s Strategy, Structure & Rivalry: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large Investment to counter delay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large No. of small & large producers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World’s fastest growing economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related & Supporting Industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support industry not developed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor Conditions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Plant in operational mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to large DRI Facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode: JV with Jharkhand Government for $9 Billion </li></ul>
  32. 33. Ukraine (2005) Acquisition of Kryvorizhstal <ul><li>Imperative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter Ukraine Market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tap more than one billion tonnes of iron ore resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode: Bought from Public auction in from Ukraine Govt. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed: Kryvorizhstal is Ukraine's leading steelmaker </li></ul>
  33. 34. Liberia (2005) Mining agreement with government <ul><li>Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Access to West Africa </li></ul><ul><li>One billion tonnes of iron ore resources </li></ul><ul><li>Entry Mode: Mining agreement with Liberian government </li></ul>
  34. 55. Global Integration
  35. 56. ACQUISITION OF ARCELOR STEEL(2006) <ul><li>Mittal Steel Arcelor acquired for $32.9 billion in cash & shares </li></ul><ul><li>ArcelorMittal key financials for 2007 show revenues of US$ 105.2 billion & 10% of world steel production of 116 million tones </li></ul><ul><li>As of May 17 2008, the market capitalization of ArcelorMittal was $144.37 billion </li></ul>
  36. 57. LNM Group’s Approach Highlights <ul><li>Buy distressed steelmakers , with a view to geographically diversify the acquisitions </li></ul><ul><li>Apply basic modern management principles and techniques to run them profitable </li></ul><ul><li>Employ a core team of experts, moving them around from one location to another , to implement cost-cutting measures, marketing changes and market reorientation </li></ul>
  37. 58. LNM Group’s Approach DNA Transfer <ul><li>In Mittal’s words </li></ul><ul><li>” The Next step for a business leader is to communicate one’s aspirations to the workforce, especially those who have only known government bosses. The trouble with states owning businesses is that the workers can’t see any direction. When we go in we communicate and show leadership. When people can see which direction the leaders are going in it becomes easier to motivate them .” </li></ul>
  38. 59. Value Chain Optimization Approach <ul><li>Three factors set Mittal Steel’s management approach apart from that of its peers: </li></ul><ul><li>its knowledge sharing programme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management Programme(KMP) This kind of expertise is now being exported around Mittal’s far-flung plants through a process of forced and shared learning. Incorporates: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monday Meeting : At strategic Level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tuesday Meeting : At Operational Level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ e-room’: If a plant is having a particularly tricky problem, it will post details in an ‘e-room’ — an internal online noticeboard. Managers all over the world are then expected to come up with solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>its commitment to technology leadership </li></ul><ul><li>its encouragement of talent at every level. </li></ul>
  39. 60. Global Competitive Advantage <ul><li>First is creating a global customer base and thus being better able to predict market trends. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, the company has a strong manager integration program - an approach that &quot;is unheard of in the steel industry. We have people getting together and talking about how they can improve processes.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Third is global purchasing power </li></ul>
  40. 61. Learnings <ul><li>Capability: </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to be flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining a global employee </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture of nationalities and the cultural mix </li></ul>
  41. 62. Learnings <ul><li>Focus entirely on integrated production </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance speed of entry by buying leading player in domestic market </li></ul><ul><li>Buy from government to minimize opposition </li></ul><ul><li>Build political affiliation & support </li></ul><ul><li>Build investor support </li></ul><ul><li>Remove backend & front end voids </li></ul><ul><li>Enter & consolidate </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple sources of revenue to hedge risks </li></ul>

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