Course Spatial Data Infrastructures GRS21304 / K075219 Period 1 2003-2004 INTRODUCTION Case ‘SDI-Use’ Week 6 6 October 2003 (10.30 –12.30) Joep Crompvoets (+ Mary-Ellen Feeney)
Overview – SDIs & Decision Support
Introduction & Background
Types of Decision-Making
Supporting Decision Makers through the SDI Hierarchy
Examples & Discussion
Introduction case ‘SDI-Use’
SDI is developed to enable ready access to spatial information to support decision-making at different scales for multiple purposes… SDIs & Decision Support
The purpose of SDI is always to support some form of decision, regardless of the application area SDIs & Decision Support
spatial information is one of the most critical elements underpinning decision- making for many disciplines,
an estimated 90% of all information used by government has spatial characteristics or attributes,
What is significant about Spatial Decision-Making?
70-80 % cost of any GIS project is spent for data collection, maintenance,...
the same data sets will be collected by different agencies again & again.
Spatial Data & Information
Avoiding costly duplication of data c
collection & maintenance
& encouraging access to common &
up-to-date data for all to use in
SDI Decision-Support Motivations
… What is the significance of
Facilitates the Decision Process
Facilitates different Types of
SDI Decision-Support Capability
Data Management Real World Analysis Data Sources Data Collection Input of Data Data Retrieval & Analysis Information for decision-making Take Action SDI and The Decision Process Users
Information for decision-making
Enabling action in the real world
The Decision Process Spatial Data Infrastructure SDI and the Decision Process
Number of Datasets Data options for decision-making SDI and The Decision Process Available to use in decision-making Accessible to the decision-maker Applicable to the problem using available technologies
Different Specialist & Process Knowledge e.g. biophysical & socioeconomic systems Science Management Existing egs of problems to be addressed Different Fields Locations Disciplines Application Areas Available for use in Decision-Making Between departments & organisations
Stakeholders Policies Skills and Training Who ? Incentives ? Needs ? Decision Makers Decision Processes Accessible to Decision Makers Privacy Pricing Access To find, download, use data…
Usability, adaptability, user interfaces Data Models Tools Interface Applicable to the Problem For overlay & analysis Interoperability & flexibility to work with other tools for decision support
Type, content, format, metadata, language, availability, volume etc. Data Biophysical Socioeconomic metadata and meta models Models Applicable to the Problem For overlay & analysis
GIS - statistics, maths, visualization, wayfinding algorithms etc. Tools Graphical user interfaces, visual programming languages, HTML, XML, GML, web based technology etc. Interface Usability, adaptability, user interfaces Interoperability & flexibility to work with other tools for decision support
Data Models GIS Interface Applicable to the Problem – E.G. The combination of basic data, yield modelling, & human demand & location analysis provides a way to evaluate food security + Grain Yield Prediction Demographic & Economic Soils, Climate, Topography etc. Where people live & Grain demand for these settlements etc.
Facilitates the Decision Process
Facilitates different Types of Decision-Making
SDI Decision-Support Capability
SDI Development SDI is an initiative intended to enable all spatial data stakeholders to cooperate with each other & interact with technology in an effective and efficient way to better achieve their objectives within an administrative or political level
SDI Development Global SDI Regional SDI National SDI State SDI Local SDI Corporate SDI Less detailed data More detailed Data The principle objective for any stakeholder is to support their decision-making. More detailed data
What types of Decision-Making ?
Organisational theory classifies decision-making into fundamentally three different types:
Management or Tactical
What types of Decision-Making ? Organisational theory classifies decision-making into fundamentally three different types: Strategic Management or Tactical Operational Strategic decision-making is concerned with long-term goals & policies for resource allocation/management to meet defined objectives
What types of Decision-Making ? Organisational theory classifies decision-making into fundamentally three different types: Strategic Management or Tactical Operational Tactical decision-making is concerned with the acquisition & efficient utilization of resources to achieve defined goals
What types of Decision-Making ? Organisational theory classifies decision-making into fundamentally three different types: Strategic Management or Tactical Operational Operational decision-making is concerned with the effective & efficient use of resources for execution of specific tasks
Types of Decision-Making More structured More Unstructured Tactical/Managerial Strategic Operational Requires detailed data & uses tools for analysis & integration Often less detailed data available & so requires good tools for modeling & forecasting
Types of Decision-Making More structured More Unstructured Requires detailed data & uses tools for analysis & integration Often less detailed data available & so requires good tools for modeling & forecasting Structured Unstructured Semi -Structured
computer-based systems support spatial decision-making through data collection & management visualisation, analysis & integration modelling & forecasting & allowing more effective & efficiently execution… For example GIS, DSS
1970 1985 1995 2000 2005 GIS GI Technology Development Spatially Enabled Databases Mobile Location-based Services & Solutions Web-based DSS Internet GIS Web-based Spatial Data Clearinghouses Time Popularising Use The development of increasingly complex spatial decision-support tools to assist in different types of decision-making is reported in A trend in Automated Cartography (Kelmelis, 2001)
Types of Decision-Making More structured More Unstructured Tactical/Managerial Strategic Operational Emphasis is on analyzing relationships & representing how the world looks/ reality & acting Emphasis is on modeling how the world works/ potential realities & planning Requires detailed data & uses tools for analysis & integration Often less detailed data available & so requires good tools for modeling & forecasting
Types of Decision-Making More structured More Unstructured Increasing decision-making complexity
The number of criteria to be considered
The number of decision makers or
people involved in the decision process
The location of decisions in time &
What do we mean by Decision Complexity?
Strategic vs Managerial/Tactical vs Operational
With different levels of complexity
Utilizing a variety of decision-support tools
Why is it important that SDIs support different types of decision-making? To support the objectives of stakeholders making decisions at different administrative & political levels
Decision-Making & the SDI Hierarchy Global SDI Regional SDI National SDI State SDI Local SDI Corporate SDI SDI Level Strategic Management/Tactical Operational Decision-Making SDI need to support different types of decision-making To support the objectives of & between different political & administrative levels in the SDI hierarchy.
Example 1: Global SDI Regional SDI National SDI State SDI Local SDI Strategic Decision-Making Management/ Tactical Decision-Making Operational Decision-Making Malaria Occurrence Data Continental Malaria distribution Maps Used for planning, intervention & prevention by national & international health officials Malaria Seasonality Data Malaria Endemnicity Data Spatial Models on geographic distribution, seasonality & endemnicity Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa
Example 2: Food Insecurity in Africa Global SDI Regional SDI National SDI State SDI Local SDI Strategic Decision-Making Management/ Tactical Decision-Making Operational Decision-Making Estimates of animal/veg amt & vigour Satellite Imagery 17 countries participate in Famine Early Warning System Market & condition monitoring Predictive rainfall/ weather data Yield data
Example 3: Global SDI Regional SDI National SDI State SDI Local SDI Water Insecurity in Victoria Strategic Decision-Making Management/ Tactical Decision-Making Operational Decision-Making Estimates of distribution & qty reserves Fire risk, Drought risk, Export commitments (e.g. wheat)…etc. Predictive rainfall/ weather data Restriction thresholds & implementation Predictive consumption
Case SDI-Policy DESCRIPTION Yesterday (5 October, 2003), a national disaster happened in Utopia. The East part of the country (Purgatory Town) was hit by an earthquake (7.8 on the scale of Richter). The whole area is in ruins. Thousands of people died and many more are injured. The local fire stations and hospitals are damaged and not operational. Since an implemented SDI is missing and local archives are ruined, access to data sources for (vital) geo-information about the area has become impossible.
Today (8:00 AM), the Minister of State for the Interior received the "master plan" which your SDI-project team had submitted last Friday. During this week he will have several meetings with your team about the proposals included that document, because next Friday he has to present and defend the national SDI master plan in the parliament. After having gone through your report a first time, he asks your team whether the suggested SDI (if implemented) would have suited the current needs of the emergency services for decision-making . In addition, he notices that in his opinion several potential SDI-users and their SDI-requirements are missing. He wants to receive a reply to his question and a revised list of potential users on the shortest possible term.
Assignment Extend the current list of the potential SDI-users. Define for each of these the user requirements for decision-making . Trace, whether the proposed Utopia SDI, if available now, would have survived the earthquake, and if so, whether it could have supported the emergency services for their decision-making under the circumstances the earthquake has caused. Motivate your answer.
Objectives List the (emergency) users Determine their main Level of hierarchy Determine their SDI-requirements for decision-making Analyze (proposed) Utopian SDI suitability to meet these requirements (especially in case of emergency). Determine criteria for analysis