4.
History of Wireless Power: <ul><li>In 1899, Sir Nikola Tesla Proposed a method of Wireless Power Transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>As it is in Radiative mode, most of the Power was wasted and has less efficiency. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Able to light lamps over 25 miles away without using wires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High frequency current, of a Tesla coil, could light lamps filled with gas (like neon) </li></ul></ul>
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Tesla’s ingenious design for the wireless transmission of energy
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China, the rate of power consumption increased by 9% in 2001 and continued to increase year-over-year reaching a rate of 14.8% in 2004, according to the China Electric Power Research Institute. The rate of increase of power consumption in the United States during the same period was approximately 2% to 3% per year.
8.
<ul><li>Electricity is a general term that encompasses a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetism is a force that acts at a distance due to a magnetic field. This field is caused by moving electrically charged particles or is inherent in magnetic objects such as magnet. </li></ul>
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<ul><li>Electromagnetic induction is the production of voltage across a conductor moving through a magnetic field. </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetism is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature, along with strong interaction, weak interaction and gravitation. It is the force that causes the interaction between electrically charged particles; the areas in which this happens are called electromagnetic fields </li></ul><ul><li>Energy/Power Coupling : Energy coupling occurs when an energy source has a means of transferring energy to another object </li></ul>
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<ul><li>R esonance : is the tendency of a system to oscillate with larger amplitude at some frequencies than at others. These are known as the system's resonant frequencies (or resonance frequencies). At these frequencies, even small periodic driving forces can produce large amplitude oscillations </li></ul><ul><li>Resonant Magnetic Coupling: Magnetic coupling occurs when two objects exchange energy through their varying or oscillating magnetic fields. Resonant coupling occurs when the natural frequencies of the two objects are approximately the same . </li></ul>
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Basic Principle: The basic principle involved in Witricity concept is, Two objects having same resonating frequency and in Magnetic resonance at Strongly coupled regime tend to exchange energy , while dissipating relatively little energy to the extraneous off-resonant objects.
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<ul><li>SOLDIERS MARCHING ON A BRIDGE. </li></ul><ul><li>If the frequency of their stepping reaches to the natural frequency of the bridge, it may collapse due to ‘RESONANCE’. </li></ul>
13.
Electrical Resonance • Tendency of a circuit system to oscillate at a maximum amplitude for a certain resonance frequency. • Likely to occur when impedance between input and output is minimized. • Increases the strength of interaction between two related devices • Natural Frequency f =1/2p(LC)0.5
14.
<ul><li>There’s something new coming up to play </li></ul><ul><li>with ‘ Wireless Electricity’. </li></ul><ul><li>In the first successful trial of its kind, the </li></ul><ul><li>team was able to illuminate a 60-watt light </li></ul><ul><li>bulb 7ft away . </li></ul><ul><li>The team from Massachusetts Institute </li></ul><ul><li>of Technology , who call their invention </li></ul><ul><li>‘ WiTricity‘. </li></ul>
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<ul><li>The inspiration came when the lead </li></ul><ul><li>researcher, Dr Marin Soljacic, was standing </li></ul><ul><li>in his kitchen at night staring at his mobile </li></ul><ul><li>phone. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists have known for nearly two </li></ul><ul><li>centuries that it is possible to transfer an </li></ul><ul><li>electrical current from one coil of wire to </li></ul><ul><li>another without them touching. </li></ul><ul><li>The phenomenon, called electromagnetic </li></ul><ul><li>induction , is used in power transformers </li></ul><ul><li>and electric motors around the world. </li></ul>
18.
Range & Rate of Coupling: Using Coupled Mode Theory (CMT), we can give some frame work to the system. The field system of the two resonant objects 1, 2 is F(r,t)=a1(t)F1(r)+a2(t)F2(r) Where F1,2(r) are the resonating modes of 1 and 2 alone, and then the field amplitudes a1(t) and a2(t).The lower order representation of the system is given by : Where ω1, 2 are the individual frequencies, Γ1, 2 are the Resonance widths (Decay rates) due to the objects’ intrinsic (absorption, radiation etc.) losses, and ‘κ’ is the coupling coefficient .
19.
<ul><li>The solution of the equation show that at exact resonance at </li></ul><ul><li>ω1=ω2 and Γ1=Γ2 </li></ul><ul><li>the normal modes of the combined system are split by 2κ. </li></ul><ul><li>The energy exchange between the two objects takes place in time Pi/κ and is nearly perfect, apart for losses, which are minimal when the coupling rate is much faster than all loss rates (κ>> Γ1, 2). </li></ul><ul><li>It is exactly this ratio {κ /sqrt (Γ1, 2)} shows that, it will set as figure-of-merit for any system under consideration for wireless energy-transfer, along with the distance over which this ratio can be achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>The desired optimal regime {κ/sqrt (Γ1,2)>>1} is called “ Strong-Coupling ” regime. There is No change in Energy , unless κ/Γ>>1 is true . </li></ul>
20.
Consider two loops at distance D between their centers, radius r1 and r2 of conducting wire with circular cross-section of radius ‘a’ and diameter ‘d’.via a dielectric of relative permittivity ε and everything surrounded by air. To calculate the RLC parameters used the method called Finite-Element Frequency-Domain (FEFD) simulations (for Maxwell’s equations solving purpose) and Perturbation methods, we get the following formulae. Formulation for Simulation: κ= ωM/2*sqrt(L1L2) L= μ0 r[ln(8r/a)] C= ε0ε a/D η=sqrt(μ0/ ε0) M={(Pi/2)* μ0* ( r1r2)^2}/D^3 Rabs≈ {(Pi/6)η r/a} Rrad≈{(Pi/6)η r/a } Qabs≈ωL/ Rabs Qrad≈ ωL/ Rrad
22.
Witricity’s Technology Technology Benefit Highly resonant strong coupling High efficiency over distance Energy transfer via magnetic near field Can penetrate and wrap around obstacles Non radiative energy transfer Safe for living beings and other environmental objects Flexible geometry Device that can fit into OEM (original equipment manufactures)products Scalable design From Mw to kW
23.
WiTricity’s technology is a non-radiative mode of energy transfer, relying instead on the magnetic near field. Magnetic fields interact very weakly with biological organisms—people and animals—and are scientifically regarded to be safe. WiTricity products are being designed to comply with applicable safety standards and regulations .
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<ul><li>Automatic wireless charging of mobile electronics in home, car, office,...while devices are in use and mobile. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct wireless powering of stationary devices…eliminating expensive custom wiring, unsightly cables and “wall-wart” power supplies. </li></ul>CONSUMER ELECTRONICS APPLICATIONS
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Transportation <ul><li>Automatic wireless charging for existing electric vehicle classes: golf carts, industrial vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic wireless charging for future hybrid and all-electric passenger and commercial vehicles, at home, in parking garages, at fleet depots, and at remote kiosks. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct wireless power interconnections to replace costly vehicle wiring harnesses and slip rings. </li></ul>
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<ul><li>Direct wireless power interconnections and automatic wireless charging for implantable medical devices (ventricular assist devices, pacemaker, defibrilator, etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic wireless charging and for high tech military systems (battery powered mobile devices, covert sensors, unmanned mobile robots and aircraft, etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Direct wireless powering and automatic wireless charging of smart cards. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct wireless powering and automatic wireless charging of consumer appliances, mobile robots, etc. </li></ul>Other Applications
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<ul><li>No need of line of sight. </li></ul><ul><li>No need of power cables and batteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not interfere with radio waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Wastage of power is small . </li></ul><ul><li>Negative health implications. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly efficient than electromagnetic induction </li></ul><ul><li>Less costly. </li></ul>ADVANTAGES
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WWW.SPLASHPOWER.COM Splash power Ltd. is a United Kingdom-based company founded in June 2001. It has been attempting to develop technology for wireless charging of portable devices such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, mp3 players and cameras. Their system works through electromagnetic induction, adding a free positioning induction loop (at the “SplashPad") to the conventional fix induction loop at the wall plug (used to shift between AC and DC currents). According to the company's claims, rechargeable devices equipped with a small Splash Module are placed upon a mouse pad-sized SplashPad and have their batteries recharged at a normal rate.(Wikipedia)
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