Leadership is the influencing processof leaders and followers to achieveorganizational objectives throughchange.
The 4 Leadership Theory Classifications Include:Trait Contingency Behavioral Path- Goal
The trait model of leadership is based on thecharacteristics of many leaders - both successful andunsuccessful - and is used to predict leadershipeffectiveness. The resulting lists of traits are thencompared to those of potential leaders to assess theirlikelihood of success or failure.
Strengths/Advantages of Trait Theory•It is naturally pleasing theory.•It is valid as lot of research has validated the foundation and basisof the theoryLimitations of The Trait Theory•There is bound to be some subjective judgment in determining who isregarded as a „good‟ or „successful‟ leader•The list of possible traits tends to be very long. More than 100 differenttraits of successful leaders in various leadership positions have beenidentified. These descriptions are simply generalities.
Conclusion•The traits approach gives rise to questions: whetherleaders are born or made; and whether leadership is anart or science.• Even if there are certain inborn qualities that make onea good leader, these natural talents needencouragement and development. A person is not bornwith self-confidence. Self-confidence is developed,honesty and integrity are a matter of personal choice,motivation to lead comes from within the individual,and the knowledge of business can be acquired.• While cognitive ability has its origin partly in genes, itstill needs to be developed. None of these ingredientsare acquired overnight.
Ohio State University Studies Initiating structure + Consideration = High-highleader University of Michigan Studies Employee-oriented and Production-oriented
Fiedler‟scontingency theory of leadership effectiveness wasbased on studies of a wide range of group effectiveness, andconcentrated on the relationship between leadership andorganizational performance.Thisis one of the earliest situation-contingent leadershiptheories given by Fiedler.According to him, if an organization attempts to achieve groupeffectiveness through leadership, then there is a need to assessthe leader according to an underlying trait, assess the situationfaced by the leader, and construct a proper match between thetwo.
In contingency theory of leadership, the success of the leader is afunction of various contingencies in the form of subordinate, task,and/or group variables. The effectiveness of a given pattern ofleader behavior is contingent upon the demands imposed by thesituation. These theories stress using different styles of leadershipappropriate to the needs created by different organizationalsituations. No single contingency theory has been postulated. Someof the theories are:Fiedler‟s contingency theory:Fiedlers theory is the earliest and most extensively researched.Fiedler‟s approach departs from trait and behavioral models byasserting that group performance is contingent on the leader‟spsychological orientation and on three contextual variables: groupatmosphere, task structure, and leader‟s power position.Hersey & Blanchard‟s situational theoryThis theory is an extension of Blake and Mouton‟s Managerial GridModel and Reddin‟s 3-D management style theory. With this modelcame the expansion of the notion of relationship and taskdimensions to leadership and adds a readiness dimension.
The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership was developed todescribe the way that leaders encourage and support theirfollowers in achieving the goals they have been set bymaking the path that they should take clear and easy.In particular, leaders: Clarify the path so subordinates know which way to go. Remove roadblocks that are stopping them going there. Increasing the rewards along the route.
There have been many criticisms on path-goal theorydue to its inclusive nature. First, it is not an elegant theory. The proposition are widely scattered over the motivational terrain, and thus must be learned one at time. Second criticisms is that due it complexity, there is no basis of leadership training programs.
In conclusion, the path goal theory of leadership is certainlyvery sensible and if it is applied timely by the leaders, outcomeswill be outstanding.Path goal theory gives leaders a broader aspect on the way tovalue their subordinates and motivate them to give their fullefforts for their own betterment and for the betterment of theorganization.An advantage of this theory is that those leaders whosuccessfully motivates and maximizes the subordinates‟ task, bymeans of clarifying the paths towards the goal and which meansgiving rewards to subordinates who put much effort to theirtasks, will obtain high performance in the organization.
Commonly known as participative leadership. The staff and employees are given opportunities to voice their opinions The business decision making involves the staff of the organization. Open communication and synthesizing of ideas.
Legendary EX-CEO of General Electric. Energetic leader who encouraged his employees and subordinates. Used flexible methods to manage his organization. He struck a balance between tasks and employees.“EMBRACE CHANGEDON‟T FEAR IT”
Oldest form of leadership Rigid lines of communication No involvement of staff in decision making Ultimate power and authority in the hands of the leader. Specific rewards and punishments.
Has humility to learn Active involvement in all tasks Self-Confident Decision maker