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Chapter 17  Personal Selling and  Sales Promotion
Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Outline the marketplace conditions that make  personal selling  a primary component of a firm’s...
<ul><li>Personal selling :  interpersonal influence process involving a seller’s promotional presentation conducted on a p...
<ul><li>Has been a standard business activity for thousands of years </li></ul><ul><li>Early peddlers sold goods they manu...
<ul><li>Today’s salesperson is usually a highly-trained professional </li></ul><ul><li>Sales professionals take a customer...
<ul><li>Factor affecting the importance of personal selling in the promotional mix </li></ul>Relatively long Relatively sh...
<ul><li>NetJets Executive Jet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Product Requiring Personal Selling </li></ul></ul>
The Four Sales Channels <ul><li>Personal selling occurs through several types of communication channels including these fo...
<ul><li>Over-the-Counter : personal selling conducted in retail and some wholesale locations in which customers come to th...
<ul><li>Field selling :  sales presentations made at prospective customers’ homes or businesses on a face-to-face basis </...
<ul><ul><li>Cost of a Sales Call by Industry </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Telemarketing :  promotional presentation involving the use of the telephone on an  outbound  basis by salespeople...
<ul><li>Inside Selling : performing the functions of field selling but avoiding travel-related expenses by relying on phon...
Trends in Personal Selling <ul><li>Relationship selling : regular contacts over an extended period to establish a sustaine...
<ul><li>Buyers prefer to do business with salespeople who: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orchestrate events and bring to bear what...
<ul><li>Team Selling :  combination of salespeople with specialists from other functional areas to promote a product </li>...
<ul><li>Sales Force Automation  (SFA):  applications of computer and other technologies to make the sales function more ef...
Sales Tasks <ul><li>Three basic sales tasks can be identified: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Order Processing :  selling, mostly at the wholesale and retail levels, that involves identifying customer needs, ...
The Sales Process <ul><li>The AIDA Concept and the Personal Selling Process </li></ul>
<ul><li>Prospecting :  personal-selling function of identifying potential customers </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifying :  determ...
<ul><li>Approach :  salesperson’s initial contact with a prospective customer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-call Planning :  u...
<ul><li>Presentation :  describing a product’s major features and relating them to a customer’s problems or needs </li></u...
<ul><li>Demonstration  allows the customer to experience a good or service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even ads as well done as ...
<ul><li>Handling Objections :  expressions of sales resistance by the prospect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: A customer’s...
<ul><li>Closing :  stages of personal selling where the salesperson asks the customer to make a purchase decision </li></u...
Managing the Sales Effort <ul><li>Sales management :  Activities of planning, organizing, staffing, motivating compensatin...
<ul><li>How salespeople and sales managers spend their time </li></ul>
<ul><li>Recruitment and Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the sales manager’s greatest challenges </li></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principal methods used are on-the-job training, individual instruction, in-house cl...
<ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General organizational alignment may be based on geography, products, types of ...
<ul><li>Basic approaches to organizing the sales force </li></ul>
<ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Span of control :  the number of sales representatives who report to the first l...
<ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efforts to motivate salespeople usually take the form of the briefings, informati...
<ul><li>Compensation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commission : incentive compensation directly related to the sales or profits ac...
<ul><li>Figure 17.11 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Annual Pay for Sales Representatives </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Evaluation and Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales quotas : level of expected sales for territory, product, custom...
Ethical Issues in Sales <ul><li>Promotional activities, including personal sales, raise many ethical questions </li></ul><...
Sales Promotion <ul><li>Marketing activities other than personal selling, advertising, and publicity that stimulate consum...
<ul><li>Figure 17.12 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Spending by Companies for Different Sales Promotion </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Table 17.3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven Most Frequently Used Consumer Promotion Techniques  </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Consumer-Oriented Promotions  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coupons and Refunds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coupons  of...
<ul><li>Taco Bell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertisement Uses Coupons in Free Standing Insert to Promote New Food Line </li><...
<ul><ul><li>Samples, Bonus Packs, and Premiums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling  refers to the free distribution of...
<ul><ul><li>Contests and Sweepstakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contests  require entrants to solve problems or write ...
<ul><ul><li>Specialty Advertising  [“Trinkets and Trash”] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sales promotion technique that pl...
<ul><li>Trade-Oriented Promotions Sales promotion that appeals to marketing intermediaries rather than to consumers </li><...
<ul><ul><li>Trade shows : vendors’ displays and the demonstrations at sites often organized by industry trade associations...
<ul><li>Measuring Sales Promotion Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since many sales promotions result in direct consume...
<ul><li>Ethics in Sales Promotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales promotions provide opportunities for unscrupulous companies ...
End of Chapter Seventeen
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  1. 1. Chapter 17 Personal Selling and Sales Promotion
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Outline the marketplace conditions that make personal selling a primary component of a firm’s promotional mix. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the four sales channels . </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the major trends in personal selling . </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and briefly describe the three basic sales tasks . </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the seven steps in the sales process. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the seven basic functions of a sales manager . </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the role of ethical behavior in personal selling. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the role of sales promotion in the promotional mix. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the different types of consumer-oriented and trade-oriented sales promotions . </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Personal selling : interpersonal influence process involving a seller’s promotional presentation conducted on a person-to-person basis with the buyer </li></ul><ul><li>“A salesman is someone who sells goods that won’t come back to customers who will.” (Anonymous) </li></ul>The Evolution of Personal Selling
  4. 4. <ul><li>Has been a standard business activity for thousands of years </li></ul><ul><li>Early peddlers sold goods they manufactured or imported . . . viewed selling as a secondary activity </li></ul><ul><li>In 18th century America, peddlers sold directly to farmers and settlers in the West </li></ul><ul><li>In the 19th century, drummers sold to both consumers and intermediaries sometimes using questionable practices and built negative stereotypes which persist today </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Today’s salesperson is usually a highly-trained professional </li></ul><ul><li>Sales professionals take a customer-oriented approach employing truthful, nonmanipulative tactics in order to satisfy the long-term needs of both the customer and the selling firm </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s professional salespeople are problem solvers who seek to develop long-term relationships with customers </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Factor affecting the importance of personal selling in the promotional mix </li></ul>Relatively long Relatively short Channels Relatively low Relatively high Price Geographically dispersed Relatively high numbers Inexpensive Simple to understand Standardized No special handling requirements Transactions seldom involve trade-ins Geographically concentrated Relatively low numbers Expensive Technically complex Custom made Special handling requirements Transactions frequently involve trade-ins Consumer Product Conditions That Favor Advertising Conditions That Favor Personal Selling Variable
  7. 7. <ul><li>NetJets Executive Jet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Product Requiring Personal Selling </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Four Sales Channels <ul><li>Personal selling occurs through several types of communication channels including these four: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-the-Counter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field Selling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telemarketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside Selling </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Over-the-Counter : personal selling conducted in retail and some wholesale locations in which customers come to the seller’ place of business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>True Value Salespeople Engage in Over-the-Counter Selling </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Field selling : sales presentations made at prospective customers’ homes or businesses on a face-to-face basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Homes and Gardens Real Estate Service: A Type of Field Sales </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Cost of a Sales Call by Industry </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Telemarketing : promotional presentation involving the use of the telephone on an outbound basis by salespeople or on an inbound basis by customers who initiate calls to obtain information and place orders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Telemarketing Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telemarketing: A Popular Selling Technique </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Inside Selling : performing the functions of field selling but avoiding travel-related expenses by relying on phone, mail, and electronic commerce to provide sales and product service for customers on a continuing basis </li></ul>
  14. 14. Trends in Personal Selling <ul><li>Relationship selling : regular contacts over an extended period to establish a sustained seller-buyer relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Consultative selling : meeting customer needs by listing to them, understanding -- and caring about -- their problems, paying attention to details, and following through after the sale </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-selling: offer multiple goods and services to the same customer </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Buyers prefer to do business with salespeople who: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orchestrate events and bring to bear whatever resources are necessary to satisfy the customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide counseling to the customer based on in-depth knowledge of the product, the market, and the customer’s needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solve problems extremely proficiently to ensure satisfactory customer service over extended time periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate high ethical standards and communicate honestly at all times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willingly advocate the customer’s cause within the selling organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create imaginative arrangements to meet buyers’ needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrive well-prepared for sales calls </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Team Selling : combination of salespeople with specialists from other functional areas to promote a product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual sales team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team Selling at CDW Computer Centers </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Sales Force Automation (SFA): applications of computer and other technologies to make the sales function more efficient and competitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits include improved effectiveness due to improved access to information, lower costs, improved product launches, and attentive customer service </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Sales Tasks <ul><li>Three basic sales tasks can be identified: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Selling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionary sales </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Order Processing : selling, mostly at the wholesale and retail levels, that involves identifying customer needs, pointing them out to customers, and completing orders </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Selling : personal selling involving situations in which a considerable degree of analytical decision making on the buyer’s part results in the need for skillful proposals of solutions for the customer’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Missionary sales : indirect type of selling in which specialized salespeople promote the firm’s goodwill among indirect customers, often by assisting customers in product use </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Sales Process <ul><li>The AIDA Concept and the Personal Selling Process </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Prospecting : personal-selling function of identifying potential customers </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifying : determining that a prospect has the needs, income, and purchase authority necessary for being a potential customer </li></ul><ul><li>Oreck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using advertising to identify prospective customers </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Approach : salesperson’s initial contact with a prospective customer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-call Planning : use of information collected during the prospecting and qualifying stages of the sales process and during previous contacts with the prospect to tailor the approach and presentation to match the customer’s needs </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Presentation : describing a product’s major features and relating them to a customer’s problems or needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ExpoStar Displays & Graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support Tools Increase the Effectiveness of Presentations </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Demonstration allows the customer to experience a good or service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even ads as well done as this Oldsmobile ad, can not substitute for an effective demonstration ride in a new automobile </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Handling Objections : expressions of sales resistance by the prospect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: A customer’s “I don't like the color” is probably their way of asking what other colors are available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objections are reasonable and professional salespeople are prepared to handle them appropriately </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Closing : stages of personal selling where the salesperson asks the customer to make a purchase decision </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up : post-sales activities that often determine whether an individual who has made a recent purchase will become a repeat customer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps build mutually beneficial long-term relationships </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Managing the Sales Effort <ul><li>Sales management : Activities of planning, organizing, staffing, motivating compensating, and evaluating and controlling a sales force to ensure its effectiveness </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>How salespeople and sales managers spend their time </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Recruitment and Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the sales manager’s greatest challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Careful selection is important for two reasons: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substantial costs involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mistakes are costly and detrimental to customer relations and sales-force performance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principal methods used are on-the-job training, individual instruction, in-house classes, and external seminars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular training techniques include instructional videotapes/DVDs, lectures, roll-playing exercises, slides, films, and interactive computer programs </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General organizational alignment may be based on geography, products, types of customers, or some combination of these factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National accounts organization : organizational arrangement that assigns sales teams to a firm’s largest accounts </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Basic approaches to organizing the sales force </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Span of control : the number of sales representatives who report to the first level of sales management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimal span of control is affected by such factors as complexity work activities being performed, ability of the individual sales manager, degree of interdependence among individual salespersons, and the extent of training each salesperson receives </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efforts to motivate salespeople usually take the form of the briefings, information sharing, and both psychological and financial encouragement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological encouragement includes appeals to emotional needs, recognition, and peer acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial encouragement includes monetary rewards and fringe benefits such as club memberships and sales contest awards </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Compensation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commission : incentive compensation directly related to the sales or profits achieved by a salesperson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salary : fixed compensation payments made periodically to an employee </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Figure 17.11 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Annual Pay for Sales Representatives </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Evaluation and Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales quotas : level of expected sales for territory, product, customer, or salesperson against which actual results are compared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other measures such as customer satisfaction, profit contribution, share of product-category sales, and customer retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another way to categorize a salesperson’s strong points: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task, or technical ability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process, or sequence of work flow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goal, or end results (output) of sales performance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Ethical Issues in Sales <ul><li>Promotional activities, including personal sales, raise many ethical questions </li></ul><ul><li>Sales managers can foster a corporate culture for an ethical sales environment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees understand what is expected of them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open communication exists between employees and managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management leads by example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees are proud of and loyal to their organization </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Sales Promotion <ul><li>Marketing activities other than personal selling, advertising, and publicity that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness; includes displays, trade shows and expositions, demonstrations and various nonrecurrent selling efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer-Oriented Promotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade-Oriented Promotions </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Figure 17.12 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Spending by Companies for Different Sales Promotion </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Table 17.3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven Most Frequently Used Consumer Promotion Techniques </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Consumer-Oriented Promotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coupons and Refunds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coupons offer discounts on the purchase price. Nearly $5 billion redeemed annually </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free-standing inserts (FSIs) in Sunday newspapers account for about 75 percent of all coupons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refunds offer cash back to consumers with proof of purchasing one or more products </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Taco Bell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertisement Uses Coupons in Free Standing Insert to Promote New Food Line </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><ul><li>Samples, Bonus Packs, and Premiums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling refers to the free distribution of a product in an attempt to obtain future sales. “Try it, you'll like it.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A bonus pack is a specially packaged item that gives the purchaser a larger quantity at the regular price. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Premiums are items given free or at a reduced cost with the purchases of other products </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><ul><li>Contests and Sweepstakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contests require entrants to solve problems or write essays -- they may also require proofs of purchase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sweepstakes select winners by chance -- no product purchase is necessary </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><ul><li>Specialty Advertising [“Trinkets and Trash”] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sales promotion technique that places the advertiser's name, address, and advertising message on useful articles that are then distributed to target markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than $8 billion worth of specialty advertising items are given out annually </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Trade-Oriented Promotions Sales promotion that appeals to marketing intermediaries rather than to consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade allowances : deals offered to wholesalers and retailers for purchasing or promoting specific products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point-of-purchase (POP) advertising : a display or other promotion located near the site of the actual buying decision </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><ul><li>Trade shows : vendors’ displays and the demonstrations at sites often organized by industry trade associations, perhaps as part of these association’s annual meetings or conventions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealer incentives, contest, and training programs are run by the manufacturers to induce retailers and their salespeople to increase sales and to promote product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Push money is an incentive that gives retail salespeople cash rewards for every unit of a product they sell </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Measuring Sales Promotion Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since many sales promotions result in direct consumer responses, marketers can relatively easily track their effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As with other methods, marketers must weigh the cost against the benefits </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Ethics in Sales Promotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales promotions provide opportunities for unscrupulous companies to take advantage of consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade allowances, particularly slotting allowances, have been criticized for years as a form of bribery </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. End of Chapter Seventeen

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