• CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)• LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)• OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode)• Smart TV• 3D TV
• Invented in 1897 by Karl Ferdinand Braun• Standard for televisions until recent years
• A=cathode• B=conductive coating• C=anode• D=phosphor-coated screen• E=electron beams• F=shadow mask• Uses R,G,and B phosphors• The three beams are accelerated and focused by the anode.
• High color fidelity and contrast• Better resolution with moving images• CRTs are less expensive than comparable displays using other display technologies.
•Susceptible to phosphor burn-in•Bulky and heavy sets•Consume a lot of energy•Old technology
• Liquid crystals were first discovered in 1888, by Austrian botanist Friedrich Reinitzer.• First experimental LCD by RCA in 1968• Based on properties of polarized light.
• Formed by two glass layers called substrates.• One is in charge of columns, and the other is in charge of rows.• Liquid crystals are sandwiched in between these two layers• Uses a grid to charge specific pixels.• When this happens the crystals untwist and allow light to pass through.
• More efficient use of electricity than CRT• Produce little glare compared to plasmas• Largest screen sizes than other flat panels• Thin, with a small footprint. Consume little electricity and produce little heat.
• Considerably more expensive than comparable CRTs• Color contrast is not the best• Limited viewing angle. Brightness, contrast, gamma and color mixtures vary with the viewing angle. Can lead to contrast and color reversal at large angles. Need to be viewed as close to straight ahead as possible.
•Developed by Eastman-Kodak•Competing against LCDand plasma televisiondisplays
• The first diode device was reported at Eastman Kodak by Ching W. Tang and Steven Van Slyke in 1987.• This device used a novel two-layer structure with separate hole transporting and electron transporting layers such that recombination and light emission occurred in the middle of the organic layer. This resulted in a reduction in operating voltage and improvements in efficiency and led to the current era of OLED research and device production.
Layers:•Early OLEDs had one layer of organic material between twoelectrodes. Modern OLEDs are bi-layer, they have an emissive layer andconductive layer sandwiched between two electrodes (seediagram above).•1. Electric current passes from the cathode to the anode. It passesthrough two layers of organic molecules.•2. The first layer the electrons pass into what is called the emissivelayer. Electrons leave the conductive layer making holes (positivecharge). Meanwhile in the emissive layer there are excessiveelectrons (negative). The holes jump to the emissive layer along theborder of the two layers where they recombine with electrons (thisplace is the p/n junction). When the electrons join the holes light isemitted.•Light color is dependent on the materials used in the organic orpolymer layers.
Types of OLEDs:LEC - Electrochemical Cell - this has ions added to the OLED
PMOLED - Passive-matrix OLED - the first display technology,developed in the mid 90s
* AMOLED - Active-matrix OLED - used in displays, it has a switch built into it in the form of a thin film transistor backplane. The transistor allows the unit to be switched on and off.
PLED - polymer LED
• Thinner, lighter, more flexible• Can be plastic instead of glass• Does not require backlighting• Brighter than traditional LED’s• Consume less power than LED’s• Large field of view around 170 degrees
• Easily damaged by water• High manufacturing costs• Blue OLED films have shorter lifespan than Red and Green
• Three dimensional TV marked the next revolution in the TV history.•A 3D TV prototype system was implemented with real- time acquisition, transmission and 3D display of dynamic scenes.• That was the first real-time end-to-end 3D TV system with enough views and resolution to provide a truly immersive 3D experience. 26
•Binocular Parallax- Binocular parallax defersto the ability of the eyes to see a solid objectand a continuous surface behind that objecteven though the eyes see two different views.•Motion Parallax- It means information at theretina caused by relative movement of objectsas the observer moves to the side (or his headmoves sideways).
•Depth Perception- It allows the beholderto accurately gauge the distance to anobject. It is the visual ability to perceive theworld in three dimensions.•Stereographic Images- It means twopictures taken with a spatial or timeseparation that are then arranged to beviewed simultaneously.
•IMAX screen•OMNIMAX screen•Animation Industry•Virtual Training•Home Entertainment
• The concept of smart TVs is still in its incipient stages.• A smart TV, which is also sometimes referred to as "connected TV" or "hybrid TV", is the phrase used to describe the current trend of integration of the Internet and Web 2.0 features into modern television sets and set- top boxes, as well as the technological convergence between computers and these television sets / set-top boxes. These new devices most often also have a much higher focus on online interactive media, Internet TV, as well as on-demand streaming media, and less focus on traditional broadcast media like previous generations of television sets and set-top boxes always have had.
The two main services of a "smart TV" are:•To deliver content from other computers or network attachedstorage devices on your network like photos, movies and musicusing either a DLNA (Digital Living Network Alliance) serviceprogram like Windows Media Player on your PC or NAS, or viaiTunes.•To provide access to Internet-based services includingtraditional broadcast TV channels, catch-up services, video-on-demand, EPG(Electronic Program Guide), interactiveadvertising, personalization, voting, games, social networking,and other multimedia applications.
• Convenient to use.• Interactive• Keyboard Remote Control• Device Connections• Wide variety of applications• Video Conferencing