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# Sequential Circuits - Flip Flops (Part 2)

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### Sequential Circuits - Flip Flops (Part 2)

1. 1. EET 3350 Digital Systems Design John Wakerly Chapter 7: 7.1 – 7.2 Sequential Circuits Flip-Flops 1
2. 2. Types of Sequential Circuits• Two major types: – Synchronous – changes in the output are only allowed to occur in synchronization with an external clock signal – Asynchronous – changes in the output are allowed to occur whenever there is a change in the input signals 2
3. 3. Types of Sequential Circuits• Synchronous Sequential Circuits (also called Clocked Sequential Circuits) – All signals are synchronized to some “master clock” – The memory devices respond only when activated by the master clock – The most common memory device is a flip-flop – Circuits can be designed using systematic methods 3
4. 4. Types of Sequential Circuits• Asynchronous Sequential Circuits – Outputs depend solely on the order in which the inputs change, so timing is critical – Based on time-delay devices• The design methods used for synchronous sequential circuits do not apply to asynchronous circuits 4
5. 5. Synchronous vs. Asynchronous• Synchronous circuits have sequential elements whose outputs change at the same time.• Asynchronous circuits have sequential elements whose outputs change at different times.• Disadvantages of Asynchronous Circuits – Difficult to analyze operations – Intermediate states that are not part of the desired design may be generated 5
6. 6. Memory Elements• Memory elements can be anything that will make a past value available at some future time – A device that can hold a binary value• Memory elements are typically flip-flops – flip-flops and latches – Available in several varieties – Designer chooses based on application 6
7. 7. Flip-Flops and Latches• All digital designers use the name flip-flop for a sequential device that normally samples its inputs and changes its output only when a clocking signal is changing.• On the other hand, most digital designers use the name latch for a sequential device that watches its inputs continuously and can change its outputs at any time (although in some cases requiring an enable signal to be asserted)
8. 8. Flip-Flops and Latches• Flip-flops have a clock input and synchronous outputs• Latches are asynchronous and their outputs can change at anytime – May have an enable input• Flip-flops and Latches are both a type of multivibrator circuit 8
9. 9. Multivibrator• Multivibrators are a group of regenerative circuits that are used extensively in timing applications• It is a wave shaping circuit which gives symmetric or asymmetric square wave outputs• It has two states either stable or quasi-stable depending on the type of multivibrator – Astable: not stable, no stable states – Monostable: one stable state – Bistable: two stable states 9
10. 10. Astable Multivibrator• An astable multivibrator is a free running oscillator having two quasi-stable states.• Thus, there is oscillation between these two states and no external signal is required to produce the change in state 10
11. 11. Monostable Multivibrator• A monostable multivibrator is one which generates a single pulse of specified duration in response to each external trigger signal.• It has only one stable state.• Application of a trigger causes a change to the quasi-stable state. 1 0 1 0 11
12. 12. Bistable Multivibrator• A bistable multivibrator is one that maintains a given output voltage level unless an external trigger is applied.• Application of an external trigger signal causes a change of state, and this output level is maintained indefinitely until an second trigger is applied . 1 1 0 0 12
13. 13. Multivibrator Types• Mechanical analogy: R S Bistable Multivibrator flip-flop, Schmitt Trigger T Monostable Multivibrator one-shot Astable Multivibrator oscillator 13
14. 14. Clock Signal Parameters• Very important with most sequential circuits – State variables change state at clock edge. 14
15. 15. Bistable Elements• The simplest sequential circuit (note feedback)• Two states – One state variable, say, Q HIGH LOW Q Stable at 0 LOW HIGH 15
16. 16. Bistable Elements• The simplest sequential circuit (note feedback)• Two states – One state variable, say, Q LOW HIGH Q Stable at 1 HIGH LOW 16
17. 17. Analog Analysis• Assume pure CMOS thresholds, 5.0 V rail• Theoretical threshold center is 2.5 V 17
18. 18. Metastability• Metastability is inherent in any bistable circuit• Two stable points, one metastable point 18
19. 19. Analog Analysis• Assume pure CMOS thresholds, 5.0 V rail• Theoretical threshold center is 2.5 V 2.5 V 2.5 V 2.5 V 2.5 V 19
20. 20. Analog Analysis• Assume pure CMOS thresholds, 5.0 V rail• Theoretical threshold center is 2.5 V 4.8 2.5 VV 2.51 0.0 2.0 2.5 V Q Stable at 0 0.0 2.0 2.5 V 5.0 4.8 V 2.5 20
21. 21. Another Look at Metastability• Another mechanical analogy for metastabilityA small movement from metastability leads to stability. 21
22. 22. Why Worry About Metastability?• All real systems are subject to it – Problems are caused by “asynchronous inputs” that do not meet flip-flop setup and hold times• Especially severe in high-speed systems – since clock periods are so short, “metastability resolution time” can be longer than one clock period• Many digital designers, products, and companies have been burned by this phenomenom 22
23. 23. Back to the Bistable Circuit• How to control it? – add control inputs• S-R latch Function Table 23
24. 24. S-R Latch OperationNormal Inputs Metastability is possible if S and R are negated simultaneously. S & R asserted simultaneously 24
25. 25. S-R Latch Timing Parameters• Propagation delay• Minimum pulse width Metastability may also occur if a pulse that is too short is applied to S or R. 25
26. 26. S-R Latch Symbols 26
27. 27. S_L-R_L Latch Using NAND Gates • Active low inputs S_L & R_L • When S_L = R_L = 1 latch remembers previous state • When both are asserted outputs go to 1, not 0 27
28. 28. S-R Latch With Enable • When C = 1, behaves as an S-R latchEN • When C = 0, retains its previous state • If both S & R = 1 when C changes from 1 to 0 it EN behaves as an S-R latch in which S & R are negated simultaneously- next state is unpredictable 28
29. 29. • S-R latches are useful in control applications, where we think in terms of setting a flag in response to some condition and resetting it when conditions change. So, we control the set and reset inputs somewhat independently.• However, we often need latches simply to store bits of information- each bit is presented on a signal line, and we would like to store it somewhere. A D-latch may be used in such an application.
30. 30. D Latch or Data Flip-Flop • Inverter added to generate S & R inputs from the D input • Eliminates the situation where S & R may be asserted simultaneously • The control input is sometimes named ENABLE, CLK or G. • It may be active low in some designs • Always has minimum pulse width requirement 30
31. 31. D Latch Operation • Functional Behaviour• When C is asserted Q follows D• Latch is open• The path between D & Q is transparent• Transparent latch• When C is negated latch closes, Q retains its last value and does not change in response to D 31
32. 32. D Latch Timing Parameters• Propagation delay (from C or D)• Setup time (D before C edge)• Hold time (D after C edge) 32
33. 33. Edge-Triggered D Flip-Flop• Samples D input and changes its Q & QN output only on the rising edge of a controlling clock signal.• Master is open and follows the input when CLK is 0• When CLK goes to 1 the Master is closed and its output is transferred to the Slave which is open• The slave is open when CLK is 1, but changes only at the beginning of the interval, as Master is closed
34. 34. Functional Behavior of PET D flip flop
35. 35. D Flip-Flop Timing Parameters• Propagation delay (from CLK)• Setup time (D before CLK)• Hold time (D after CLK) 35
36. 36. J-K Flip-FlopsFunctional Equivalent 36
37. 37. JK Characteristic Table JK Excitation Table J K Q Q+ Q Q+ J K 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 X 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 X 0 1 0 0 1 0 X 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 X 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 K-Map for Q+ JK / Q 0 1 JK Characteristic Eqn 00 0 1 01 0 0 Q+ = J·Q + K·Q 11 1 0 10 1 1
38. 38. T or Toggle Flip-Flops• Important for counters 38
39. 39. Summary of Flip-Flop Behavior 39
40. 40. Additional Definitions• Clocked Synchronous Sequential Circuits – A.K.A. “finite state machines” or simply “state machines” … or even “FSM” – Use edge-triggered flip-flops – All flip-flops are triggered from the same master clock signal, and therefore all change state together• Two types of finite state machines – Mealy M achines: output depends on state and inputs – Moore Machines: output only depends on state 40
41. 41. State-Machine Structure: Mealy output depends on state and input typically edge-triggered D flip-flops 41
42. 42. State-Machine Structure: Moore output depends on state only typically edge-triggered D flip-flops 42
43. 43. State-Machine Structure: Pipelined• Often used in PLD-based state machines – Outputs taken directly from flip-flops, valid sooner after clock edge – But the “output logic” must determine output value one clock tick sooner (“pipelined”) 43
44. 44. Notation and Characteristic Equations• Q+, Q*, Q(t+1) mean “the next value of Q”• “Excitation” is the input applied to a device that determines the next state.• “Characteristic equation” specifies the next state of a device as a function of its excitation.• S-R flip-flop : Q(t+1) = S + R · Q(t)• Edge-triggered D flip-flop: Q(t+1) = D• J-K flip-flop: Q(t+1) = J · Q(t) + K · Q(t)• T flip-flip: Q(t+1) = T + Q(t) = T · Q(t) + T · Q(t) 44
45. 45. Synchronous Analysis Process1. Determine next-state function F and output function G2. Use F and G to construct a state/output table that completely specifies the next state and output for every possible combination of current state and input.3. (Optional) Draw state diagram that presents the information in graphical form. 45
46. 46. Detailed steps in the Analysis Process1. Determine the excitation equations for the flip flop inputs2. Substitute the excitation equations into the flip flop characteristic equations to obtain transition equations.3. Use transition equations to construct transition table.4. Determine the output equations.5. Add output values to the transition table for each state (Moore) or state /input combination (Mealy) to create a transition/output table.6. Name the states and substitute state names for state – variable combinations in the transition/output table to obtain the state/output table.7. Draw a state diagram corresponding to the state/output table.