Hybrid Tomato package of practices Prepared by: Abhijeet O. Kate Msc. Agri (Entomology), MBA(ABM) Email: email@example.com
Crop : TomatoFamily:Climate Condition:Ideal growing conditions are needed to produce high quality seed. The tomato is a warm-season crop.It is not only sensitive to frost but it does not thrive at low, non-freezing temperatures. Hightemperature accompanied by low humidity and dry winds, frequently damage floral parts and there isno fruit-set. Tomato pollen grains germinate best at 29.40C, nearly as well at 21.10C, The crop doeswell under an average monthly temperature of 210C to 230C but it may be grown at temperaturesranging from 180C to 270C. Temperature and light intensity affect the fruit-set, pigmentation andnutritive value of the fruit. Both high and low temperatures interfere with the setting of fruit.The tomato withstands drought fairly well but fruits are subject to blossom end rot and to growthcracks if moisture supply follows drought. It cannot be grown successfully in regions of higherrainfall.Soil Selection:. The tomato grows on all type of soils from light sandy to heavy clay. Light soils aregood for an early crop, while clay loam and silt-loam soils are well suited for heavy yields. The bestsoil for tomato is rich loam, with a little sand in the upper layer, and a good clay in the sub-soil. Goodtexture of the soil is of primary importance. Tomatoes do best in a soil that has a soil reaction frompH 6.0 to 7.0.Grower Selection: Select grower on the basis of economic condition, resources available forproduction and irrigation source should be taken into consideration.Previous Crops: Cucumber, green gram soyabeanIsolation Distance: An isolation of 100 m as recommended by the Seed Certification Agency shuldMaintain between other contaminating tomato varieties in the field.Sowing season: The nursery can be raised during Aug – Sept. before seedlings distributing fortransplanting to the main field. Seedlings may ready within 30 to 35 days .
Land preparation:One month before taking up of sowing the land should be ploughed, harrowed. Properland preparations at correct season and time with the appropriate time of sowing will helpto obtain higher yields. When the land is ploughed there should be enough moisture inthe soil. So that with less number of ploughings itself land attains good physicalcondition. Number and depth of ploughings depends on weed growth intensity in thatarea, seed rate, nature of crop root growth After getting suitable and required tilth of soilland should be perfectly leveled. Organic Manure: Farm Yard Manure 20 to 25 tons/acreis applied.Bed preparation: 2 feet bed (single row planting) 3 feet bed for Zigzag planting & 1.5feet irrigation Channel, It may varied depends on cultivar .Planting distance: 1.5 feet plant to plant should maintained for single row planting.Transplanting of Seedlings:Healthy, uniform sized true to type male and female seedlings which 35 days old maytransplant at the rate of one seedling per hill with an inter spacing of 45 cm to 60 cmeach depends on cultivar. In first planting, Male parent seedlings transplant 8 daysearlier to the female parent and entire female parent seedlings transplant simultaneouslySeparate female and male parent blocks will maintain with some distance. Use highquality, pathogen-free seedlings and remove diseased leaves and seedlings promptly.Control weeds regularly. If you have a disease outbreak in one part of the cage, work inother areas of the field before working in the diseased area. To restrict the spread oftobamo virus, dip your hands and tools in milk before handling pepper plants. Be awarethat irrigation water can carry pathogen.
Ratio of Male to Female Plants:It is important to have plenty of pollen available for making hybrid crosses. tomatovines bloom profusely, a ratio of one male for every four female plants isrecommended.Mulching: Mulching is recommended to reduce weed competition, soilcompaction, and soil erosion. Mulching also maintains a uniform root environmentand conserves soil moisture.Irrigation: Tomato plants are shallow-rooted Fields should be irrigate Thoroughirrigation provide uniform soil moisture, essential for optimum plant and fruitgrowth. Drip irrigation are recommended It is necessary to maintain an evenmoisture supply. Over watering is as harmful as insufficient irrigation. Youngplants should be watered only when they apparently need it. Therefore, stakedcrops will need water every five to seven days and ground crops every ten days. Aperiod of drought followed by sudden heavy watering during the fruiting periodmay cause cracking of fruits. During summer season, irrigation at every 3 to 4days interval is necessary, whereas in winter 10 to 15 days interval is sufficient.Staking Method: The female parent is staked. Staking facilitates the handling ofplants during emasculation and pollination. Staking also keeps the ripening fruitsabove the ground and prevents rotting. Plants are trellised along with plants fromthe adjoining bed so that work operations are done on the raised bed rather thanin the furrow. Among male lines, only indeterminate types need to be staked. Ifmale lines are staked, trellising can be done within beds or across adjoining beds.
Fertilizer application:First dose 6-8 days after transplanting: 50:100:100 NPK Kg/acre Second dose 20 –25 days after first application: 25: 50: 50 NPK kg / acre. Third dose 20 – 25 daysafter second application: 25: 0: 0 NPK Kg/acre. At the time of Flowering: Sulphur(Bensulf) 10 Kg/acre. At the time of Fruit Setting: Boracol 50 Kg./acre. SprayCalcium nitrate (1%solution) at the time of flowering to increase fruit set.Fertigation:The use of proper quantity of fertilizers at appropriate time plays a vital role inincreasing the productivity Fertigation, which combines irrigation with fertilizers isone most effective and convenient means of maintaining the specific requirement ofeach crop and soil. Drip irrigation system offers an opportunity for preciseapplication of water-soluble fertilizers and other nutrients to the soil, at appropriatetime with desired concentration.Pollination : Pollination start 25 to 30 days after transplanting.Male and Female Rouging:The male and female lines must be 100% pure. Know the plant habit, leaf type, andimmature fruit characters e.g shape, size, and shoulder coloring of each parent.Regularly inspect the plants. Remove any off-type (usually inferior) or virus infectedplants before hybridization procedures begin. Symptoms of viruses include yellowmottling of leaves, severe curling, cupping or other distortion of foliage and stuntingof plants.Pollination Tools: Container for staminate(Male) fresh flower bud collection frommale line.
Staminate (Male) flower collection:Collect flowers from the male parent to extract pollen . The best time for pollen collectionis during the early morning before the pollen has been shed. Avoid pollen collection onrainy days. Remove the anther cones from the flowers and put them in suitablecontainers, Dry the anther cones by placing them 30 cm below a 100-watt lamp for 12hours The lamp creates a drying temperature of about 30°C. Pollen can also be sun-dried, but avoid drying at midday when temperature is very high. Put the dried anthercones in a plastic pan or cup. Cover the cup with a fine mesh screen (200-300 mesh) andthen seal it with a similar tight-fitting cup, serving as a lid. Shake the cup about 10-20times so that the pollen is collected in the "lid" cup. Transfer the pollen into a smallconvenient-tohandle container for pollination. Fresh pollen is best for good fruit-set.Emasculation:Remove androecium (stamens) from bisexual flowers, The buds to be opened next daymust select in female parent and Use sharp-pointed forceps to force open the selectedbuds. Then, split open the anther cone Carefully pull the anther cone out of the budremove the androecium along with the corolla during emasculation. The emasculation iscarry out daily from 2-00 to 6-00 pm. The care should taken to remove theunemasculated flowers found during emasculation to avoid genetic contamination in thecrossed ones.
Selection of proper Bud Removal of AnthersEmasculated Bud for pollination Pollination Pollinated Fruits
Pollination process:Emasculated flowers are generally pollinate two days later. Try to avoidpollination on rainy days. The corolla of the emasculated flower turns brightyellow, this is sign that the stigma is ready for pollination , Dip the stigmain to pollen Containing plastic tubes, Successful pollinations are easilyseen within one week by the enlargement of the fruit. Finally two to threesepals on each fruit have been cut to indicate that marked as pollinatedfruit . Non-hybrid fruits remove before harvesting. Pollination may finishwithin 25 to 30 days depend on environmental condition and fruit settingon plants. Fruit Development Stage
Post Pollination:Remove and destroy male plants as soon as pollination finish. Strengthen water and fertilizermanagement and disease control.Harvest:Be sure to check for the clipped sepal before harvesting fruit, Tomato fruits ripen about 50-60 daysafter Pollination, but may take longer if temperatures are cool Keep fruits in cool place for 4 to 5 daysfor after ripening.Seed extraction:Manual Extraction Method:Harvest the ripe fruits and keep them in nylon bags .Crush the fruits by trampling with feet Putcrushed fruits into big plastic containers and ferment to separate the gel mass embedding the seeds.12 to 24 hours of fermentation may be sufficient, Fermentation for more than 24 hours may spoil theseed quality.Mechanical Extraction:Put ripe fruits into a mechanical seed extractor for crushing and separation of the seeds and gel fromthe pulp, Gather the seeds and gel mass in a suitable container such as plastic tub or bucket.
Manual Extraction Machine ExtractionFermentation Process Removing flesh & gel Clean seeds at the bottom
Washing:To wash the seeds, put them in an open plastic container. Then fill thecontainer with water and stir the seeds to allow the pieces of flesh andskin sticking on the seeds to float, Incline the container and gentlyremove the floating refuse, making sure that the seeds remain at thebottom, Repeat the washing several times, adding fresh water to thecontainer every time until all the flesh and gel are completelyremoved, leaving clean seeds at the bottom.Treatment:Using HCL 30% (Concentration may varies ) for 1 liter water 20 ml HCL, Place the seeds into the treatment solution and mix continuously over aperiod of 30 minutes . The working solution needs to be made up fresheach day and can be used ONLY ONCE before discarding. Rinse seeds for5 minutes with clean running tap water. Immediately place to dry at atemperature not exceeding 32º C.Drying: Place a nylon mesh about 1m from the ground, put the seed onthe mesh. The seed layer should thin for immediate seed drying. . Theseeds are dried for 1-2 hours in direct sunlight before drying in semishade. Stir the seeds two to three times daily so that seeds dry uniformly.Loosen any seeds that clump together.