A PROJECT ON CUT & DEFECTS
OF DYEING & FINISHING DEPT.
RAYMOND LIMITED
CHHINDWARA DIVISION
SUBMITTED BY:
ABHIJIT BISWAS
B....
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:
“HARD WORK IS THE FIRST STEPPING STONE TO SUCCESS”
NO WORK CAN BE A SUCCESS WITHOUT DEDICATION AND TOIL.
...
INTRODUCTION:
Cut & defects is a major problem in textile industry from
the beginning time to today. From raw materials to...
DIFFERENT TYPE OF DEFECTS:
We have done this project on two departments:
 Dyeing and
 Finishing.
In this two department ...
 Cheese dyed bars
 Colour fastness
 Colour stains
 Damage
 Drain mark
 Dyeing abraision
 Dyeing bands
 Dyeing join...
MONTH WISE CUT & DEFECTS OF DYEING
DEPARTMENT:
MONTH CUT &
DEFECTS
PERCENTAGE TOTAL
PERCENTAGE
AUGUST’2013
Rub mark 0.74
1...
FINISHING DEFECTS:
 Bowing
 Stains
 Rub mark
 End mark
 Chemical/Resin spot
 Holes
 Steam band /Suction mark
 Colo...
 Processing damage
 Pull end
 Resin stain
 Rust stains
 Shearing bar
 Shearing damage
 Short width
 Shrinkage
 Si...
DAY WISE CUT & DEFECTS OF FINISHING
DEPARTMENT:
DAY CUT &
DEFECTS
NO. OF
PIECES
TOTAL
C&D IN
MTRS.
TOTAL
PRODUCTION
IN MTR...
10.09.13
End mark 07
1942 51123
1942 * 100
51123
=3.8%
Steam band 08
Press mark 02
Doubly mark 07
Crease 07
Fibrous 01
Sta...
MONTH WISE CUT & DEFECTS OF FINISHING
DEPARTMENT:
MONTH CUT &
DEFECTS
PERCENTAGE TOTAL
PERCENTAGE
AUGUST’2013
Stains 0.32
...
CAUSES OF THOSE DEFECTS &
remedies:
DYEING DEPT.:
 Rub mark: An unwanted mark on fabric surface which is a major defects ...
 Dyeing patches:
The fabric is characterized by an area of light or heavy
dyeing along and across the width of fabric. Al...
Mending:
Non - mendable.
 Uneven dyeing :
Differences in the shade of a fabric from edge to edge or one end of
a fabric t...
Mending: Non- mendable.
 Dirt spots:
An unwanted mark on fabric surface.
Causes:
 Contamination of the material by rust,...
FINISHING DEPT:
 Bowing :
Condition wherein the weft and warp yarns do not keep at Bowing right
angles.
Causes:
 Imprope...
Causes:
 Improper handling of fabric by worker.
 Unclean machine mangle.
 Improper cleaning of machine after a dyeing.
...
Causes:
 Holes along selvedge caused by pin holding fabric while it processes
through stenter machine.
 Major >if pin ho...
 Improper instruction given to the stenter machine by operator.
Mending:
Non- mendable.
 Crease mark:
A major defects in...
Some Way to reduce cut &
DEFECTS:
 The machine which are used in dyeing & Finishing should be neat & clean.
 Hardness of...
CONCLUSIONS:
It was shown that dyeing & Finishing as a process
contains a considerable number of variables, and errors in ...
THANK YOU
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A PROJECT ON CUT & DEFECTS OF DYEING & FINISHING DEPARTMENT IN TEXTILES

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A PROJECT ON CUT & DEFECTS OF DYEING & FINISHING DEPARTMENT IN TEXTILES

  1. 1. A PROJECT ON CUT & DEFECTS OF DYEING & FINISHING DEPT. RAYMOND LIMITED CHHINDWARA DIVISION SUBMITTED BY: ABHIJIT BISWAS B.TECH IN JUTE & FIBRE TECH. (7TH SEMESTER) DEPARTMENT OF JUTE & FIBRE TECH. UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: “HARD WORK IS THE FIRST STEPPING STONE TO SUCCESS” NO WORK CAN BE A SUCCESS WITHOUT DEDICATION AND TOIL. OUR PROJECT REPORT COULD NOT HAVE BEEN A SUCCESS WITHOUT THE HELP GUIDANCE AND VALUEABLE DIRECTION OF SOME VERY IMPORTANT PEOPLE. WE WOULD LIKE TO START OUR DOCUMENT BY THANKING THESE PEOPLE. FIRST ON THE LIST IS THE H.O.D. OF OUR INSTITUTION, PROF.SUNIL KUMAR SETT WHO HELPED IN COORDINATING THE PROGRAM. HE ALONG WITH HIS STAFF REALLY LEFT NO STONE UNTURNED IN MAKING US GET A WAY THROUGH RAYMOND LIMITED (TEXTILE DIVISION), CHHINDWARA. AFTER THIS WE CANNOT FORGET TO MENTION Mr. ASHIS DUBEY (HR- MANAGER), TO GIVE US THE OPPORTUANITY FOR DOING A PROJECT WORK ON CUT & DEFECTS OF DYEING AND FINISHING DEPARTMENT. Mr. ANJAN BHAUMIK (DY. MANAGER OF RECOMBING DEPARTMENT) WERE A GREAT SOURCE OF SUPPORT FOR US WHO KEPT INFORMING AND GUIDING US FROM TIME TO TIME AND HELPED US IN EVERY POSSIBLE WAY, ENCOURAGING EVERY TIME. APART FROM THEM, WE WOULD LIKE TO THANK THE OTHER STAFF MEMBERS OF THE DYEING AND FINISHING DEPT., THE DATA OPERATORS AND THE MACHINE OPERATORS OF THE RESPECTIVE DEPARTMENTS, WHO HELPED AND SUPPORTED US FULL AND FINALLY TO CARRY OUT OUR PROJECT WORK SO WELL. A WORD OF THANKS TO ALL THE ABOVE MENTIONED PEOPLE. THANKING YOU ALL ABHIJIT BISWAS
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION: Cut & defects is a major problem in textile industry from the beginning time to today. From raw materials to finished product we pass through various type of process like grey combing, dyeing, recombing, spinning,weaving & finishing and each process we face different type of character & behaviour of material, machinery & human performance. In every department we saw different different defects which is generate due to some error operation in machinery & careless human performance. For the cause cause of those defects the valuable finished products are marked as low quality products and it goes to cut & defects section.When the defects production in increase the profit of the company will be decrease. For proper costing of a garment, and cost reduction, it is necessary to have good understanding of the fabric quality and various fabric losses that occur during garment production. It is possible to find a lot of papers and research works based on improving the marker efficiency to minimize the fabric losses but very few work or research has been done to reduce the impact caused by fabric defects. Moreover, we could not eliminate the defects from the textile industry but we may reduce this defects with proper work & studies in theoretically and practically.
  4. 4. DIFFERENT TYPE OF DEFECTS: We have done this project on two departments:  Dyeing and  Finishing. In this two department we found various type of defects which are given below: DYEING DEPARTMENT: There are four type of materials has been dyed in this department, such as- 1) TOP DYEING 2) FIBRE DYEING 3) PIECE DYEING & 4) CHEESE DYEING DYEING DEFECTS:  Rub mark  Colour stains  Dyeing patches  Dyeing end mark  Dyeing crease  Centre to selvedge
  5. 5.  Cheese dyed bars  Colour fastness  Colour stains  Damage  Drain mark  Dyeing abraision  Dyeing bands  Dyeing joint  Dyeing soilmark  Entanglement  Fibre damaged  Listing mark  Moire effect  Oxidation mark  Patchy dyeing  Streakyness  Uneven dyeing  White creases  Poor fastness
  6. 6. MONTH WISE CUT & DEFECTS OF DYEING DEPARTMENT: MONTH CUT & DEFECTS PERCENTAGE TOTAL PERCENTAGE AUGUST’2013 Rub mark 0.74 1.82 Colour stains 0.50 Dyeing patches 0.39 Dyeing end mark 0.07 Dyeing creases 0.04 Others 0.08 JULY’2013 Rub mark 0.17 1.10 Colour stains 0.41 Dyeing patches 0.37 Dyeing end mark 0.04 Dyeing creases 0.01 Others 0.10
  7. 7. FINISHING DEFECTS:  Bowing  Stains  Rub mark  End mark  Chemical/Resin spot  Holes  Steam band /Suction mark  Colour contact  Colour sublimation  Damaged selvedge  Doubly mark  Drain mark / Draining  Dust mark  Exposure mark  Fibrous / Beads  Finishing abrasion  Finishing crease  Gum mark  Insect spot  KD yellow  Moon mark  Nikki damage  Oil stains  Press mark
  8. 8.  Processing damage  Pull end  Resin stain  Rust stains  Shearing bar  Shearing damage  Short width  Shrinkage  Singeing band  Soiling mark / mud stains  Steam patches  Stenter damage / stenter pin holes  Thread mark  Uneven stentering  Water mark  Wrapper mark  Wrong pinning  Yellow stain  Center to selvedge shade variation  Collapse mark
  9. 9. DAY WISE CUT & DEFECTS OF FINISHING DEPARTMENT: DAY CUT & DEFECTS NO. OF PIECES TOTAL C&D IN MTRS. TOTAL PRODUCTION IN MTRS. C&D PERCENTAGE 08.09.13 End mark 04 1322 36737 1322 * 100 36737 =3.6% Steam band 09 Steam patch 01 Press mark 01 Doubly mark 04 Crease 03 Stain 05 Collapse mark 02 Short width /Moon mark 06 Water mark 01 Soil mark 01 others 12 09.09.13 End mark 07 1325 45703 1325*100 45703 = 2.9% Steam band 16 Crease 17 Stain 09 Wrapper mark 08 Singeing band 03 Soil mark 03 Mending defects 01 Others 14
  10. 10. 10.09.13 End mark 07 1942 51123 1942 * 100 51123 =3.8% Steam band 08 Press mark 02 Doubly mark 07 Crease 07 Fibrous 01 Stain 06 Collapse mark 01 Wrapper mark 01 Water mark 01 Dust mark 02 Short width /Moon mark 01
  11. 11. MONTH WISE CUT & DEFECTS OF FINISHING DEPARTMENT: MONTH CUT & DEFECTS PERCENTAGE TOTAL PERCENTAGE AUGUST’2013 Stains 0.32 2.25 Rub mark 0.25 End mark 0.22 Chemical / Resin spot 0.17 Holes 0.15 Others 1.14 JULY’2013 Stains 0.20 2.15 Rub mark 0.32 End mark 0.15 Chemical / Resin spot 0.12 Holes 0.17 Others 1.19
  12. 12. CAUSES OF THOSE DEFECTS & remedies: DYEING DEPT.:  Rub mark: An unwanted mark on fabric surface which is a major defects in textile woven fabric. Causes:  Improper handling of fabric by worker.  Unclean machine mangle.  Improper cleaning of machine after a dyeing. Mending: Non-mendable.  Colour stains : An unwanted colour mark on a fabric qualifies as a dye Stain. Causes:  Improper scouring.  Improper mixing of dye stuffs. Mending: Non- mendable.
  13. 13.  Dyeing patches: The fabric is characterized by an area of light or heavy dyeing along and across the width of fabric. Also, light or heavy dyed patches or light and dark streaks appear on the fabric. It also includes shade variation and light or heavy dyeing on selvedge. Causes:  Improper scouring.  Cloth fed to the dyeing machine not crease free.  Proper time & temperature not given in dyeing.  Defective padding rollers.  Fluff or thread on the fabric or in the colour in the dye stuffs. Mending: Non- mendable.  Shade Bar : Shade change in fabric which appears as a horizontal selvedge-to selvedge change. Caused by a filling change (new filling bobbin) or loom stop and subsequent start up. Causes:  Improper scouring.  Defective padding roller.  Proper time & temperature not given in dyeing.  Different in count / fibre composition of weft yarn.
  14. 14. Mending: Non - mendable.  Uneven dyeing : Differences in the shade of a fabric from edge to edge or one end of a fabric to the other called selvedge- to selvedge(or selvedge to center) shading or end- to-end shading respectively. Causes:  Often caused in jig dyeing through difference of temperatures between the selvedge & centre of the batched up fabric on the jig roller.  By uneven batching of the cloth on the roller.  Uneven dye solutions. Mending: Non- mendable.  Water mark: An unwanted ripple effect / light mark produced on the fabric is known as water mark. Causes:  Improper scouring.  Surface pressure of one layer on another.  Contamination with water prior to tinting or dyeing on the padding mangle resulting in a reduction of intake of dye liquor.
  15. 15. Mending: Non- mendable.  Dirt spots: An unwanted mark on fabric surface. Causes:  Contamination of the material by rust, oil, graphite etc. Mending: Pay attention to clean machines and clean working method.
  16. 16. FINISHING DEPT:  Bowing : Condition wherein the weft and warp yarns do not keep at Bowing right angles. Causes:  Improper stretch during scouring, dyeing or finishing  Uneven tension during weaving/ processing. Mending: Non-mendable.  Stains: A discolour area on the cloth. Causes:  Foreign mater such as dirt, grease, oil or residues of sizing on the fabric being dyed. Mending: Non- mendable.  Rub mark: An unwanted mark on fabric surface which is a major defects in textile woven fabric.
  17. 17. Causes:  Improper handling of fabric by worker.  Unclean machine mangle.  Improper cleaning of machine after a dyeing.  Use of uncleaned trolley. Mending: Non-mendable.  End mark: End mark is a major defects in textile fabric. Causes:  When the loom is stopped, the yarn elongates under tension; when loom starts again' the slackness is woven into the fabric.  Improper stitches on the fabric. Mending: Non- mendable.  Holes: Holes is a major defects on fabric specially found on the selvedge .
  18. 18. Causes:  Holes along selvedge caused by pin holding fabric while it processes through stenter machine.  Major >if pin holes extend into body of fabric far enough to be visible in finishing product. Mending: Non- mendable.  Water spots: An unwanted ripple effect / light mark produced on the fabric Causes:  Usually caused by wet fabric being allowed to remain too long before drying; color migrates leaving blotchy spots. Mending: Non- mendable.  Short width: A major problem in the way of textile finishing process. Causes:  Improper heatset of fabric.
  19. 19.  Improper instruction given to the stenter machine by operator. Mending: Non- mendable.  Crease mark: A major defects in textile finishing products. Causes:  Differs from crease streak in that streak will probably apper for entire roll.  Crease mark appears where creases are caused by fabric folds in the finishing process.  On napped fabric,final pressing may not be able to restore fabric or original condition.  Often discolouration is a problem. Mending: Non- mendable.
  20. 20. Some Way to reduce cut & DEFECTS:  The machine which are used in dyeing & Finishing should be neat & clean.  Hardness of water should be less.  PH of water should be 6 to 6.5 for dyeing & Finishing process.  Use the best quality dyestuffs.  Use the best quality chemicals.  Weight and measure all dyes and chemicals accurately.  Aim for consistent batch to batch weights when loading machines.  Aim for consistent liquor ratios from batch to batch.  Set and record key process data on batch cards and recipe sheets.  Analyse process performance to improve quality and reduce unnecessary steps and excessive chemical use.  Regularly seek advice and demand process reviews from your dye and chemical suppliers.  Temperature control and other process parameter such as pH etc.  Proper liquor filling and draining rates.  Accurate chemical dosing rate.  Heat setting should be done with proper temperature & condition.  Moisture adding process of damping machine should be maintain to follow the weather & humidity.  Pressing should be proper to avoid creases & fold of the fabric.  In folding section has to avoid wrong tagging, defective hemming, wrong sizing, wrong packing to better quality & services.
  21. 21. CONCLUSIONS: It was shown that dyeing & Finishing as a process contains a considerable number of variables, and errors in any or all of them can produce dyeing & finishing which are not acceptable, with the result that expensive shading & chemical has to be used. Many faults that can arise in earlier stages of processing become clearly visible for the first time after dyeing & finishing and it is necessary for the dyer & finisher to learn to recognize their symptoms. Some of the common dyeing & finishing problems include dye spots, end mark, rub mark, water spot, migration, uneven dyeing, staining, and shading, off shade colours, poor hand and poor fastness. . Dyeing and Finishing physical properties can be improved with a decrease in overall costs together with ecological advantages. The textile industry, especially the dyeing and finishing sector, needs to adopt a more critical attitude by solving dyeing & finishing problems in order to establish the most logical methods of improving human performance.
  22. 22. THANK YOU

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