Traffic control


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Traffic control

  1. 1. Traffic control
  2. 2. Traffic signs  Traffic control devices, such as signs, pavement markings, and traffic signals, are used to regulate, warn and guide traffic movements on public roadways. Over the years, the design and application of these devices has become highly standardized throughout the world.  Traffic signs or road signs are signs erected at the side of or above roads to give instructions or provide information to road users. Many countries have adopted pictorial signs or otherwise simplified and standardized their signs to overcome language barriers, and enhance traffic safety. Such pictorial signs use symbols in place of words and are usually based on international protocols. Such signs were first developed in Europe, and have been adopted by most countries to varying degrees.
  3. 3. Situations needing extra care 1. Emergency vehicles : If an ambulance, fire engine, police or other emergency vehicle approaches using flashing blue lights, headlights and/or sirens, keep off the road. 2. Buses : Get on or off a bus only when it has stopped to allow you to do so. Watch out for cyclists when you are getting off. Never cross the road directly behind or in front of a bus; wait until it has moved off and you can see clearly in both directions. 3. Railway level crossings : Do not cross if the red lights show, an alarm is sounding or the barriers are being lowered. If there are no lights, alarms or barriers, stop, look both ways and listen before crossing. . Street and pavement repairs : A pavement may be closed temporarily because it is not safe to use. Take extra care if you are directed to walk in or to cross the road.
  4. 4. Rules & Regulations      Rule no.1 Keep Left. the driver of a motor vehicle shall drive the vehicle as close to the left hand side of the road as may be expedient and shall allow all traffic which is proceeding in the opposite direction to pass on his right hand side. Rule no.2 Overtaking prohibited in certain cases.The driver of a motor vehicle shall not pass a vehicle traveling in the same direction as himself; (a) if his passing is likely to cause inconvenience or danger to other traffic proceeding in any direction. (b) if he is near a point, a bend or corner or a hill or other obstruction of any kind that renders the road ahead not clearly visible. (c) if the driver ahead of him has not signaled that he may be overtaken.
  5. 5. Rule no.3Caution at road junction. The driver of a motor vehicle shall slow down when approaching a road intersection, a road junction, pedestrian crossing or a road corner, and shall not enter any such intersection, junction or crossing until he has become aware that he may do so without endangering the safety of persons there on.  Rule no.4 Fire service vehicles and ambulances to be given free passage. Every driver shall, on the approach of a fire service vehicle or of an ambulance allow it free passage by drawing to the side of the road.   Rule no.5 Right of way. The pedestrians have the right of way at uncontrolled pedestrian crossing. When any road is provided with footpath or cycle tracks specially for other traffic, except with permission of a police officer in uniform, a driver shall not drive on such footpath or track.  Rule no.6 Taking 'U' turn. No driver shall take a 'U' turn where 'U' turn is specifically prohibited and on busy traffic road. If a 'U' turn is allowed the driver shall show signal by hand as for a right turn, watch in the rear view mirror and turn when safe to do so.
  6. 6.  Rule no.7 Signals to be given by drivers.  1.When about to slow down, a driver shall extend his right arm with the palm downwards and to the right of the vehicle and shall move the arm so extended up and down several times in such a manner that the signal can beseen by the driver of any vehicle which may be behind him. 2. When about to stop, a driver shall raise his right fore arm vertically outside of and to the right of the vehicle, palm to the right. 3. When about to turn to the right or to drive to the right hand side of the road in order to pass another vehicle or for any other purpose, a driver shall extend his right arm and in a horizontal position outside of the hand turned to the front. 4. When about to turn to the left or to drive to the left hand side of the road,a driver shall extend high right arm and rotate it in an anticlockwise direction. 5. When a driver wishes to indicate to the driver of a vehicle behind him that he desires that the driver to overtake him he shall extend his right arm and hand horizontally outside of and to the right of the vehicle and shall swing the arm backward and forward in a semi-circular motion.    
  7. 7. TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES    Traffic control devices are markers, signs and signal devices used to inform, guide and control traffic, including pedestrians, motor vehicle drivers and bicyclists. These devices are usually placed adjacent, over or along the highways, roads, traffic facilities and other public areas that require traffic control. Types 1. Traffic signs are signs which use symbols and/or words to convey information to road users. These devices are made with retroreflective materials that reflect light from headlights back towards the driver's eyes. This is to achieve maximum visibility especially at night.
  8. 8. Traffic signs    MANDATORY / REGULATORY - Mandatory signs are generally indicated in a circular form. In accordance with the Motor Vehicle Act, 1988, every driver of a motor vehicle shall drive the vehicle in conformity with any indication given by the mandatory signs and not obeying these signs is an offence. CAUTIONARY / WARNING SIGNS:- Cautionary signs are meant for cautioning the driver about the hazards lying ahead on the road. Drivers must obey there signs for safety. These signs are indicated in a triangular form. INFORMATORY SIGNS:- Informatory signs are erected on the road to provide information on direction, destination, roadside facilities etc. to the road users.
  9. 9. Mandatory signs
  10. 10. Warning signs
  11. 11. Informatory signs
  12. 12. •Channelling devices are used to warn drivers and pedestrians and to guide them through a work zone. Common channelizing devices are traffic cones and drums. This type of traffic control device are usually placed between traffic and road construction sites, or between opposing traffic streams. Traffic cones are channelling devices shaped like cones, thus the name. They are made from bright orange flexible materials, not less than 18 inches (0.46 m) in height. Cones used at night must have bands of reflective material near the top. These are used to confine a particular area or divide traffic lanes temporarily. Tubular markers are cylindrical in shape. They are also orange, with bands of reflective material near the top. They must be at least 18 inches (0.46 m) in height and 2 inches (51 mm) in body diameter. Tubular markers are made of flexible plastic and have a wider base that is glued or screwed to the pavement. They are used in a similar way as cones.
  13. 13.     Vertical panels are reflective traffic control devices which measure at least 8 inches (200 mm) wide and 24 inches (610 mm) high. They are bright orange with diagonal white stripes. These panels are used to guide vehicle traffic. They can be more conspicuous than cones or tubular markers when viewed head-on, but are very thin and hard to see from the side. Construction barrels or drums are cylindrical channelling devices that are used when conspicuity is vital. These device are made with industrial-grade orange plastic and covered with alternating orange and white retroreflective stripes. These drums are usually ballasted with a heavy rubber base or a sandbag in the bottom for added stability. Barricades are channelling devices used to redirect traffic on high-speed roads and expressways. There are different types of barricades depending on its size, design and applications. Barricades may be a fixed or portable traffic control device. Temporary raised islands are pavements that are usually 4 inches (100 mm) in height and 18 inches (460 mm) wide that are used for temporary traffic control applications. This traffic control device follow the standard design set by the AASHTO Roadside Design Guide.
  14. 14. Road Marking   Bare roads will lead to total vehicular confusion. Markings are painted on the road to direct, guide and regulate the road user. Road markings include all lines patters, words and colours applied on or attached to the road surface or kerb, for the said purpose
  15. 15.   Traffic paints are commonly used for road markings. Other materials such as, road studs, cat's eyes and thermoplastic strips also find their application in road markings. These markings promote road safety and ensure smooth flow of traffic. Sometimes, road markings are used to supplement the message of road signs and other devices. White is generally used for carriageway (road) markings except those indicating restrictions for which yellow markings are used. White or yellow together with black are used for kerb and object marking.
  16. 16.      Centre barrier line marking for a four lane road Centre barrier line marking for a six lane road Double white/yellow lines Double Continuous lines are used where visibility is restricted in both directions. Neither stream of traffic is allowed to cross the lines. Combination of solid and broken lines
  17. 17.    If the line on your side is broken, you may cross or straddle it. OverTake - but only if it is safe to do so. If the line on your side is continious you must not cross or straddle it. Road markings include all lines patters, words and colours applied on or attached to the road surface or kerb, for the said purpose
  18. 18.   . Traffic lights are traffic control devices used for alternately assign right-of-way to traffic moving in conflicting directions at an intersection. Traffic lights feature four different lights that conveys different meanings. The red light means that the vehicle facing the traffic light must come to a complete stop. A green light means that the vehicle facing the traffic light may proceed when it is safe to do so. A yellow light indicates that a red light will follow, and vehicle drivers must stop if it is safe to do so. A traffic light, traffic signal or a stop light is a signaling device positioned at a road intersection to indicate when it is safe to wade through. The traffic signal passes on its information using a universal colour code STOP & WAIT GET READY GO
  19. 19. THANK YOU