Global warming <ul><li>DEFINITION:- Global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature rises). It happens when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrous oxide, and methane) trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere, which increases the temperature. This hurts many people, animals, and plants. Many cannot take the change, so they die. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Rise in temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in sea level . </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in floods, draughts and other such natural calamities. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluctuations in the pattern of flora and fauna. </li></ul>EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING
<ul><li>From the Stern Report: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The impacts of climate change are already being felt and, if GHG emissions are not curbed, could soon become catastrophic” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The cost of doing nothing could reach 20% of gross global product by mid century, with conservative estimates suggesting at least 5%; resulting in the worst economic depression in modern history” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From the IPCC: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The understanding of anthropogenic warming and cooling influences on climate has improved since the Third Assessment Report (TAR), leading to very high confidence that the globally averaged net effect of human activities since 1750 has been one of warming” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United States Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Human activity is contributing to changes in the Earth's climate. That issue is no longer up for debate'' </li></ul></ul>NEED TO CHECK ON GHG EMISSIONS!
<ul><li>1. United Nations Conference on Human Environment (1972) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Vienna Convention for Protection of Ozone Layer (1985) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Montreal Protocol (1985) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (1988) </li></ul><ul><li>5. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (from 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Kyoto Protocol (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>8. Marrakesh Accord (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>9. World Summit On Sustainable Development (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>10. Global Environment Facility (GEF) </li></ul><ul><li>11. Prototype Carbon Fund, World Bank (2002) </li></ul>INSTANCES WHERE THE GLOBE UNITED TO FIGHT CLIMATE CHANGE
HISTORY 1988 IPCC “Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” formed 1990 1992 1994 1997 IPCC publishes first assessment report Earth summit in Rio De Janero aggress the UNFCC- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC enters into force- Aspirational objectives, no specific targets or timeframes 1994 COP3 Kyoto Protocol: -Emissions limits on 34 countries. Average -5.2% on 1990 by 2008-12 -Meet limits by emissions reductions & or buying compliance credits
UNFCCC <ul><li>Ultimate objective of stabilizing global greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>• Developed countries (Annex I countries) aim to restore GHG emissions to 1990 levels </li></ul><ul><li>• Support capacity building in, and facilitate technology transfer to developing countries to mitigate, and to adapt to climate change </li></ul><ul><li>• Meet as a “Conference of Parties” annually, to monitor progress </li></ul>
KYOTO PROTOCOL-BASIC FACTS <ul><li>The Kyoto Protocol of 1997 is a treaty between Governments. It places a cap on the emissions of six different greenhouse gases of industrialized countries </li></ul><ul><li>The Kyoto Protocol defined three innovative “flexibility mechanisms” to lower the overall costs of achieving its emissions targets. </li></ul><ul><li>The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005. It is now an legally binding instrument of international law </li></ul><ul><li>Currently negotiations are taking place about a post-2012 regime . </li></ul><ul><li>38 Developed countries and economies in transition (Annex 1) agreed to reduce GHG emissions by 5.2% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008-12. </li></ul>
WHAT IS CDM ? <ul><li>CDM is the only flexibility mechanism that involves developing nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to provide developed countries with flexibility to meet GHG emission targets that they agreed to achieve under the protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Developed countries may finance GHG emission reducing projects undertaken in developing nations and receive credits to help them meet their mandatory limits. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist developing countries who host CDM projects to achieve sustainable development . </li></ul>
CDM PROJECT STEPS <ul><li>The project proponent(PP) prepare the Project Design Document(PDD). </li></ul><ul><li>The PDD is validated by a designated operational entity (DOE). </li></ul><ul><li>The project should be approved by a designated national authority(DNA). </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring is done by PP. </li></ul><ul><li>Certification/ validation is done by DOE. </li></ul><ul><li>Issuance of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) by the Executive Board (EB) of UNFCCC. </li></ul>
BASELINE <ul><li>Describes emissions in the absence of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>You have to identify the baseline first. </li></ul><ul><li>For the identification of baselines approved methodologies are used. </li></ul>
ADDITIONALITY The emissions reduced by the project must be additional to those that would have occurred in the absence of the CDM project. The CERs are issued against this additionality.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 1.Social well being: The CDM project activity should lead to alleviation of poverty by generating additional employment, removal of social disparities and contribution to provision of basic amenities to people leading to improvement in quality of life of people. 2.Economic well being: The CDM project activity should bring in additional investment consistent with the needs of the people. 3.Environmental well being: This should include a discussion of impact of the project activity on resource sustainability and resource degradation, if any, due to proposed activity; biodiversity friendliness; impact on human health; reduction of levels of pollution in general;. 4.Technological well being: The CDM project activity should lead to transfer of environmentally safe and sound technologies that are comparable to best practices in order to assist in up gradation of the technological base. The transfer of technology can be within the country as well from other developing countries also.
CONCLUSION…. <ul><li>Global warming is a Global problem and it needs global solutions…. </li></ul><ul><li>And Kyoto protocol ” s CDM is the best approach at the present hour. It helps in achieving a well healthy sustainable development. Sustainable development is not just about conserving our resources. It is about changing our culture to make conservation a way of life. By co-operating in sustainable development, we can all look forward to a green future. </li></ul>
BIBLIOGRAPHY <ul><li>cdmindia.com </li></ul><ul><li>Icf International </li></ul><ul><li>http://cdm.unfccc.int/Reference/Documents/cdm_nmb </li></ul><ul><li>IPCC assessment reports I </li></ul><ul><li>PCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>US EPA webpage </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse Gas Inventory Experts Network </li></ul>