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Down syndrome & Role of Technology
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Down syndrome & Role of Technology


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About Down Syndrome,Causes,Symptoms,Effects,Hand of Technology helping the people suffered & its future

About Down Syndrome,Causes,Symptoms,Effects,Hand of Technology helping the people suffered & its future

Published in: Health & Medicine

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  • 1. Developmental Disability  Developmental disability is a term used to describe lifelong disabilities attributable to mental or physical impairments, manifested prior to age 18.  It is not synonymous with "developmental delay” which is often a consequence of a temporary illness or trauma during childhood.
  • 2. Causes:  Traumatic brain injury resulting from accidental causes or physical abuse.  Infection before, during or after birth.  Growth or nutrition problem.  Abnormalities of chromosomes and genes.  Birth long before the expected birth date — also called extreme prematurity.  Poor maternal diet and absent or minimal health care.  Drug abuse during pregnancy, including alcohol intake and smoking.  Environmental toxins.  Severe physical maltreatment (child abuse), which may have caused brain injury and which can adversely affect a child's learning abilities and socio-emotional development
  • 3. TYPES: Many different subsets of disabilities nest under these four main groups.
  • 4. Down syndrome  Down Syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality that changes the course of development and causes the characteristics associated with the syndrome.  Down syndrome (DS) or Down's syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.
  • 5. 47,XX,+21
  • 6. Symptoms: The signs and symptoms of Down syndrome are characterized by the ”Neotenization” of the brain and body.  Microgenia (abnormally small chin).  Oblique eye fissures on the inner corner of the eyes.  Muscle hypotonia (poor muscle tone).  A flat nasal bridge, a single palmar fold.
  • 7. Symptoms:  A Protruding tongue (due to small oral cavity, and an enlarged tongue near the tonsils)  Face is flat and broad.  A short neck.  White spots on the iris known as Brushfield spots.  Excessive space between large toe and second toe
  • 8. EFFECTS:  Most individuals with Down syndrome have Intellectual disability in the mild (IQ 50–70) to moderate (IQ 35–50) range.  Language skills show a difference between understanding speech and expressing speech, and commonly individuals with Down syndrome have a speech delay.  The incidence of Congenital heart disease in newborn babies with Down syndrome is up to 50%.  Individuals with DS are at increased risk for dysfunction of the Thyroid gland, an organ that helps control metabolism.  Infertility: Males with Down syndrome usually cannot father children, while females demonstrate significantly lower rates of conception relative to unaffected individuals.
  • 10.  Social development and social learning are strengths  Speech and language development is an area of specific and significant impairment in comparison to non-verbal men.  Working memory, especially verbal short-term memory is specifically impaired, which has consequences for thinking, problem solving and reasoning.  Number skills are typically delayed relative to reading skills.  Social behaviour is a strength when compared with other children with similar cognitive delay; however, children with Down syndrome are particularly sensitive to non-verbal cues in others such as anxiety and disapproval and this has consequences for their behaviour.
  • 11. Treatment: 1.NO CURE FOUND YET… 2.NO WAY TO PREVENT OR CHANGE THE RISKS OF HAVING A CHILD AFFECTED WITH DOWN SYNDROM.  Computer-assisted learning offers particular benefits for children with Down syndrome such as visual presentation, self-paced learning, highly motivating graphics and sound, immediate feedback and the opportunity to be in control of their own learning
  • 12. Benefits of computer-assisted learning for people with Down syndrome:  Improving motivation: The learning experience is enhanced with pictures, sounds and animation which may increase a child's interest and attention.  Multi-sensory experience: Computers provide both visual and auditory input. Children with Down syndrome are 'visual learners' who learn best when information is presented visually and find learning from listening more difficult. ICT is particularly well suited to this learning style.  Non-verbal mode of response: Children are able to give non-verbal responses, enabling them to demonstrate their understanding without having to produce a spoken response, which may be particularly difficult for them due to troubles with articulation, word finding and intelligibility.
  • 13. Benefits of computer-assisted learning for people with Down syndrome:  Being in control: Children begin to understand that they can have an effect on their surroundings through 'cause and effect' software; this sense of being in control develops further as children start to use familiar programs unassisted; selfesteem develops as they become more independent in their learning and presentation improves.  Immediate feedback: Children are rewarded for their successes immediately, e.g. with pictures, sound effects or music, or prompted if they need to try again. The computer never gets impatient or frustrated by repeated errors, feedback is non-threatening and non-judgemental.  Errorless learning: Software can be designed in such a way that the child is supported in order to achieve repeated success. The child is supported at each step as necessary, before they make a mistake. This allows the child to learn a sequence of steps to achieve success every time.
  • 14. Benefits of computer-assisted learning for people with Down syndrome:  Opportunities for practice: Children with Down syndrome need much more practice to acquire new skills and ICT can provide as many opportunities as necessary to repeat the same objective in exactly the same way  Self-paced learning: The child is able to proceed as fast or as slow as he or she wishes; the computer will 'wait' for the child to respond without prompting them before they have had time to fully process the information and construct their response  Differentiation: A vast range of software can be purchased or downloaded from the Internet in order to produce differentiated activities to meet individual requirements
  • 15. Electropalatography:  Therapists found significant improvements in children’s speech when they used Electropalatography or EPG. EPG records where and when the tongue makes contact with the roof of the mouth during speech.  It can be a particularly useful means of helping some children with speech difficulties to improve their speech because it provides visual feedback to the child, which is not ordinarily available, and does not rely purely on what the child hears. 
  • 16. Electropalatography: The child wears the palate which contains 62 electrodes that detect the child’s tongue movement on the roof of the mouth when they speak. During a session, the therapist also wears a palate that models the correct patterns to the child. The child can clearly see the images which the tongue makes on the computer screen. The child tries to copy the therapist’s tongue movements by trying to recreate the same pattern which shows on the computer screen.
  • 17. STILL THERE IS HOPE…  S till there is a hope…