Introduction The reason why I choose to research about The History of The Automobile is because my interest in cars. I’ve been interested in cars for a while, so I thought it would we be appropriate to do my senior project on them. I also thought it would be good for my research on this topic, because I plan to major in field that relates to it.
Difficulties The difficulty that I faced during this project was being real lazy. I was procrastinating a lot, so I didn’t have much time to do my project, so I had to rush. I also couldn’t find many books to cite in my research paper.
The History The first car was built by Joseph Cugnot in 1769. It was powered by a steam engine and was very slow. Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir was the first to build the one cylinder engine, internal-combustion engine, was later patent. Nikolaus August Otto built the first four cylinder engine. In 1886 Gottlieb Daimler designed the first four wheeled automobile. They also created the first v-slanted engine. Karl Benz, know as one of the founders of Mercedes-Benz, is the first to build an automobile powered by an internal combustion engine. Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach with Benz’s manufacturing firm in 1926 to create Daimler-Benz. The joint company makes cars today under the Mercedes-Benz nameplate, and Daimler Chrysler Henry Ford, a famous car company founder, designed the world’s biggest car manufacturer, manufacturing over 15 million Model Ts by 1927 Hybrid cars have also been around since the 1900’s. In the 1900’s Ford made more steam and electric cars than it did gasoline. The first hybrid commercial truck was built in 1910, and as the gasoline engine was refined interest in hybrids died down. As problems with environment and gas process continue, Hybrids are now a hot commodity in the market place and are now the new wave of future cars
Engines Engines are like the heart of an automobile and function likewise. The engine is made up of seven main parts; the engine block, cylinder head, cylinders, pistons, valves, crankshaft, and camshaft. The engine is also divided into two main parts; an upper section and a lower section. The lower section of the engine is called the engine block. The upper section of the engine is the cylinder head and falls into place on top of the lower section of the engine, connecting cylinders and pistons together There are a nine types of engines used in today automobiles. v-type engines, in-line engines, flat (horizontal-opposed) engines, rotary engines, electrical engines, hybrid engines, and diesel engines V-type engines are one of the most powerful engines made for a car. These engines are V-shaped like and have to rows of six or eight cylinders. In-line engines are one of the most used engines by car makers today. The in-line engine usually has six or four cylinders aligned in a straight row. They are usually found smaller cars. Flat engines are like v-type engines, except that the engine is flattened until both banks lie in a horizontal plane. European car makers like to use this engine.
Engines (cont.) Rotary Engine is one of the weirdest engines of all. The rotary engine has no pistons, and uses rotors in replace for the pistons. Electrical engines are one of the two engines that use electricity to power cars. When electric motors first came out they required a lot of space, and a lot of electricity to power them, so cars were bulky and heavy. Automobiles that combine two or more types of engines are called hybrids). A usual hybrid engine is made of an electrical motor with batteries that are recharged by a generator run by a small gas powered engine. Diesel engines are the largest of all engines and are configured just like an internal-combustion engine but it runs of a different fuel.
20 Century and Years upon th In the 1920’s they started to evolve and install synchromesh transmissions for easier gear shifting; four-wheel hydraulic brake systems; improved carburetors; shatterproof glass; balloon tires; heaters; and mechanically operated windshield wipers In the 1930s car engines and bodies became large and luxurious. Two styles were created during the time of World War II, European and American. The European style was compact and small. They liked their cars to be lightweight and small unlike the American style. Their cars were made of mostly aluminum and the chassis and framework was made of steel. The American style was the opposite of what the European style. The cars were big and spacious inside, because Americans liked to be comfortable while driving. Their cars were made with more power, smooth riding and stability, power steering, and power brakes. Between the 1950’s and 1960’s American manufacturers started making smaller cars, but their engine size and horsepower increased. By the 1980’s Technology started to grow in America because of new Japanese innovations and imports. As the 21st century progressed, cars improve and computer technology began to be utilized in cars. Cars today are now mostly controlled by computer chips.
20th Century and Years upon (cont.) The computer chip manages most of the car systems today. For instance, the anti-lock brake system is controlled by a computer chip telling, them when to work. They also have GPS systems in cars that help provide directions and guides drivers. Some cars now come equipped with GPS locator beacons, enabling a GPS system operator to locate the vehicle, map its location, and if necessary, direct repair or emergency workers to the scene. Cars are now made of lighter materials that are quite very strong.
Conclusion In Conclusion Automobiles have been around centuries. It all started back when a curious Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, designed a three-wheel automobile, which used a steam engine for an engine. These were the bread crumbs for later in the future, and truly that is what they became. Many inventors followed the bread crumbs and built on what they knew inventing faster and more powerful engines, smaller and smaller cars, and more unique cars as time grew on. Cars have continued to evolve till’ today and will never stop because there’s always someone out there trying to be the next Henry Ford or the next Gottlieb Daimler, or Wilhelm Maybach. Cars have only evolved for a little bit, and as technology continues to become better cars will too.
Works CitedAlexandria, Virginia. Transportation. Canada: The Time Inc. Book Company, 1992.Bellis, Mary. "The History of the Automobile." inventors.about.com. 2006. 14 Dec 2006 <http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarssteama.htm>.Bellis, Mary. "The History of the Automobile." inventors.about.com. 2006. 14 Dec 2006 <http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarsgasa.htm>.Bellis, Mary. "The History of the Automobile." inventors.about.com. 2006. 14 Dec 2006 <http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarsassemblya.htm>.Brain, Marshall. "Introduction to How Car Engines Work." How Stuff Works. 14 Dec2006 <http://www.howstuffworks.com/engine.htm>.Cruikshank, Gordon. Cars and How They Work. First American Edition. New York,New York: Dorling Knidersley, Inc., 1992."Engine Types," Muscle Car Club. 7 Dec 2006<http://www.musclecarclub.com/library/tech/engine-types.shtml>.
Work Cited (cont.)Fetherston, David. Encarta. "Automobile."Encarta. 1. 2006. < http:// encarta.msn.com>"Flat Engine." The Free Encyclopedia. 2006. 11 Dec 2006<http://www.reference.com/browse/Flat_engine>.MacDonnell, Joselph. "Fr. Ferdinand Verbiest, S.J.." Mathematics Department. June2005. Fairfield University. 29 Jan 2007Straight Engine." The Free Encyclopedia. 2006. 8 Dec 2006 <http://www.reference.com/browse/Straight_engine>.Westbrook, Michael The Electric Car : Development and Future of Battery, Hybrid and Fuel-Cell Cars London : Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2001.