CONTENTS :- TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM OF INDIA1) INTTRODUCTION2) TYPES/MODES OF TRANSPORTATIONS a). Traditional means b). Local/Public transport c). Personal Transport d). Long distance transports e). Water ways f). Air ways3) BY PRODUCTS OF TRANSPORTATION a). Air pollution b). Water pollution c). Noise pollution
INTRODUCTIO NDevelopment of infrastructure within the country has progressed ata rapid pace, and today there is a WIDE VARIETY OF MODES OFTRANSPORT by land, water and air.Despite ongoing improvements in the sector, several aspects of thetransport sector are still riddled with problems due to OUTDATEDINFRASTRUCTURE and lack of PROPER MAINTEANENCE & thus it’slead towards a BY-PRODUCT call POLLUTION The advent of the British saw trams Modes of transports being introduced in many cities including Mumbai and Kolkata.Traditional means They are still in use in Kolkata and provide an Walking emission-free means of transport. Due toPalanquin technologically backward system &Bullock carts & palanquin more emphasis given to horse carriages other modes of transportation is theBicycles & Rickshaws reason not being successful in ourTrams Trams Active Only In Kolkata Bullock Carts country
2b. Local/public transports Public transport is the predominant mode of MOTORIZED LOCAL TRAVEL in cities. Mostly dominated through road ways. Dedicated city bus services are known to operate in at least 25 cities with a population of over one million. Intermediate public transport modes like tempos and cycle rickshaws assume importance in medium size cities.However, the share of buses is negligible in most is a Depending on therickshaw Indian cities as An auto city/state, taxis can compared to personalized vehicles, and two-wheelers and cars three-wheeler vehicle account for more than 80 percenthailed that has no either befor hire or of the vehicle population hired from taxi-and is generally doors stands,even it could characterised by a be done on streets. for the small cabin Today we couldin the front and a driver even hire taxi’s by making seat for passengers in a phone call.rear. the T In Delhi due to Buses take up over 90% of public transportexcessive air pollutionin Indian cities, and serve as a cheap and CNG are introducedconvenient mode of transport for all classesof society. Services are mostly run by stategovernment owned transport corporations.
2b. Local/public (Rapid transport system)Today with increase in theperiphery of an city ,technologiesto reduce the time interval forcovering the distance are beingintroduced with RAPID TRANSITSYSTEMS, such as :--- Kolkata metro Delhi Delhi metro metro Chennai mass rapid transitsystem Ahmadabad (BRTS) Mumbai locals(RTS, is to be introduced in allthe major cities of Indial uptill Mumbai locals2021) Ahmadabad (BRTS) Chennai mass transit system
2c. Personal transport Personal Transport is being categorized by PRIVATE VEHICLES Personalized vehicles such as two – wheelers & cars comprised of more then 80 % of total vehicular traffic in IndiaMotorized two-wheelers like scooters, small capacity motorcycle and mopeds are very popular a mode of transport due to their fuel efficiency and ease of use in congested traffic. About 30% of personalized vehicles is comprised of automobiles or four wheelers, its said that about an average of 1200 automobiles are registered every year in Delhi aloneThe number of automobiles produced in India rose from 63 lakh (6.3 million) in 2002-03 to 1.1 crore (11.2 million) in 2008-09. In recent years Government is discouraging personal transport by providing better public transport system so as to release congestion of the traffic and even saving the energy & cost lost due to personal transport system .
2d. Long distance transport (Indian Railways) Indian Railways provides an important mode of transport in India, transporting over 18 million passengers and more than 2 million tonnes offreight daily across one of the largest and busiest rail networks in the world The rail network traverses through the length and breadth of the country, covering 6,909 stations over a total route length of around 63,465 km (39,435 mi).It is the worlds largest commercial or utility employer, with more than 1.4 million employees
2e. Long distance transport (Air Ways)Rapid economic growth in India has made air travel moreaffordable. Air India, Indias flag carrier, presently operates a fleetof 159 aircraft and plays a major role in connecting India with therest of the world. Several other domestic & foreign airlines connect Indian cities with other major cities across the country& the globe.These airlines connect more than 80 cities across India and alsooperate overseas routes after the liberalization of Indian aviation.
5. Long distance transport (water Ways , Oceans) Maritime transportation in India is managed by the Shipping Corporation of India, a government-owned company that also manages offshore and other marine transport infrastructure in the country The ports are the main centers of trade. In India about 95% of the foreign trade by quantity and 70% by value takes place through the ports. Mumbai Port & JNPT(Navi Mumbai) handles 70% of maritime trade in India
2f. Long distance transport (water Ways , Rivers) India has an extensive network of inland waterways in the form of rivers, canals, backwaters and creeks. The total navigable length is 14,500 kilometers (9,000 mi), out of which about 5,200 km (3,231 mi) of river and 485 km (301 mi) of canals can be used by mechanized crafts. Freight transport by waterways is highly underutilized in India compared to other large countries. The total cargo moved by inland waterways is just 0.15% of the total inland traffic in India. Cargo that is transported in an organized manner is confined to a few waterways in Goa, West Bengal, Assam and Kerala.
3. Byproduct of Transportation (air pollution) Transportation involves the combustion of fossil fuels to produce energy translated into motion. Pollution is created from incomplete carbon reactions, unburned hydrocarbons or other elements present in the fuel or air during combustion. These processes produce pollutants of various species, including carbon monoxide, soot, various gaseous and liquid vapour hydrocarbons, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, sulphate and nitrate particulates, ash and lead. Causes of pollution by excessive transportation vehicle use. Age of fleet and technology used. Poor maintenance of vehicles. Unavailability or improper use of appropriate fuels.
3. Tactical approaches to reduce emissions fromtransportation Targeting fuel consumers: pricing fuels. Targeting motor vehicle users: pricing other variable costs of motor vehicleuse. Targeting motor vehicle operators:changing driving conditions and managing traffic. Targeting travelers and shippers: influencing travel choices. Targeting vehicle purchasers: influencing vehicle fleet demand and turnover. Targeting fuel refiners and importers: influencing fuel supply. Targeting the general public: influencing public attitudes towards transportation.
3. Proportion of No2,Co2 So2 in Indian cities with comparision to other megacities
3b. Byproduct of Transportation (Sound pollution) In simple terms, noise is unwanted sound. Sound is a form of energy which is emitted by a vibrating body and on reaching the ear causes the sensation of hearing through nerves. Sounds produced by all vibrating bodies are not audible. The frequency limits of audibility are from 20 HZ to 20,000 HZ. The intensity of sound is measured in sound pressure levels (SPL) and common unit of measurement is decibel, dB. The community (ambient) noise levels are measured in the A weighted SPL, abbreviated dB(A). A sound level meter consists basically of a microphone and an electronic circuit including an attenuator, amplifier, weighting networks or filters and a display unit. The microphone converts the sound signal to an equivalent electrical signal. The signal is passed through a weighting network which provides a conversion and gives the sound pressure level in dB.The time constants used for the sound level meter standards are (3)S (Slow) = 1 secondF (Fast) = 125 milli seconds
3b. Noise genrating sources & noises which effectspeople
Effect of noise pollution on the environment & on human’s health It creates annoyance to the receptors due to sound level fluctuations. The a periodic sound due to its irregular occurrences causes displeasure tohearing and causes annoyance. Physiological effects: The physiological features like breathing amplitude,blood pressure, heart-beat rate, pulse rate, blood cholesterol are effected. Loss of hearing: Long exposure to high sound levels cause loss of hearing.This is mostly unnoticed, but has an adverse impact on hearing function. Human performance: The working performance of workers/human will beaffected as theyll be losing their concentration. Nervous system: It causes pain, ringing in the ears, feeling of tiredness,thereby Sleeplessness:functioning of human system. by inducing the people to effecting the It affects the sleeping therebecome restless and loose concentration and presence of mind during their Damage to material : The buildings and materials may get damaged byactivities exposure to infrasonic / ultrasonic waves and even get collapsed.
Bibliography : ---- Transport of India Wikipedia & Encyclopedia Google Pollution control act Thanking You