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Initials in Buddhist Architecture Indus valley civilization have its great impact on every emergence of architectural style in Indiaand so on Buddhist architecture. Though there is no evidences of temles in Indus valley civilization but buddhist architecture has its resmblance with the architectural elements used during vedic period. The Buddhist architecture has its root deeply implanted in the Indian soil- the birthplace of the Buddha's teachings. The Buddhist architecture began with the development of various symbols, representing aspects of the Buddha's life (563 BCE - 483 BCE). For the first time, it was the Indian emperor Ashoka, who not only established Buddhism as the state religion of his large Magadh empire, but also opted for the architectural monuments to spread Buddhism in different places. Distinctive Buddhist architectural structures and sculptures such as Stupas, Pagodas, monasteries and Caves, which have been mere spectators of different eras quietly speaks about the phases of the Buddhist stages.
Aim : - To present the nature of evolution of buddhist forms in respect with changing era. Objective: -To understand the building typologies in buddhist architecture
To study the essential features of architectural elements used in buddhist architecture
Need: - To understand exactly the buddhist architecture and its scope in our modern architectural style . Buddhist architecture is only the style which has its roots totally embedded in Indian soul and so to prevent it by disappearing
Distinctive Features of Buddhist Architecture StupasorTopes StambhasorLats ViharasorMonasteries Chaityasor Caves
The basic elements of buddhist philosophies which were produced in the form of architectural features :- -
Stupas …. Stupas are one of the most prominent and powerful architectural element used in Buddhist architecture . A stupa is a dome-shaped monument, used to house Buddhists' relics or to commemorate significant facts of Buddhism. Stupas typical layout Outer terrace Paved terrace Dome Elements of stupas Chhatravali or Umbrella sticks Harmika Anda or Egg Stambha or Pillar Torana or Gateway
Shapes of stupas "The shape of the stupa represents the Buddha, crowned and sitting in meditation posture on a lion throne. His crown is the top of the spire; his head is the square at the spire's base; his body is the vase shape; his legs are the four steps of the lower terrace; and the base is his throne." DHANYAKARA (paddy heap shape) GHANTAKARA (bell shape) BUBBLAKARA (bubble shape) GHARHAAKARA (pot shape) PADMAKARA AMALTAKA
Shapes of the stupas goes on changing as each one were having its own way to represent Stupa at sanchi Stupa at myanmar Stupa at islamabad Stupa at chedi , china Stupa at ruwanwelsia , srilanka
Stambhas or Lats…. Stambhas are best known as columns, which were carved with inscriptions and crowned with emblems, such as the elephant and lion, often reminiscent of Persepolitan architecture or a Graeco-Roman type . The origin of these columns are still argued as if an Indian origin or persepolitan type. Figures of animals in these columns represent the guardians of four quarters of universe
The wheel symbolizes the first sermon delivered by Buddha at Sarnath Ashokan pillar at Vaishali
The bull capital of Ashokan pillar at Rampurva The replica of capital of Ashoka pillar at Sarnath is now adopted as a national embelum of republic of india A lion capital of a monolithic column , showing the bhuddhist symbol the “wheel of the law” that originally supported on the lions back ` Ashoka pillar at near Chiang Mai, Thailand showing Dharma Chakra prevails over beasts (lion). A similar four "Indian lion" Lion Capital of Ashoka atop an Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath which was destroyed during Turk invasions of India missing the larger Dharma Chakra / Ashoka Chakra atop the four lions
Viharas or Monasteries …. Viharas originally meant "a secluded place in which to walk", and referred to "dwellings" or "refuges" used by wandering monks during the rainy season. In the early decades of Buddhism the wandering monks of the Sangha, dedicated to asceticism and the monastic life, had no fixed abode. During the rainy season (cf. vassa) they stayed in temporary shelters. These dwellings were simple wooden constructions or thatched bamboo huts. In the second century b.c. a standard plan for a vihara was established. It could be either structural, which was more common in the south of India, or rock-cut like the chaitya-grihas of the Deccan. It consisted of a walled quadrangular court, flanked by small cells. The front wall was pierced by a door, the side facing it in later periods often incorporated a shrine for the image of the Buddha. The cells were fitted with rock-cut platforms for beds and pillows. The unwanted rock was excavated, leaving the carved cave structure. This basic layout was still similar to that of the communal space of an ashrama ringed with huts in the early decades of Buddhism
The interior walls were having inscription about buddha’s life but their were no frescoes and paintings Vihara at Kanheri These viharas consist of the simple cells with no decoration. It undoubtedly represent the initial stage in construction These were the residential places of buddhist priest , there are 25 rock cut viharas at ajanta . With the progress in the design …Viharas of ajanta were the outcome. The walls were having figures of celestial beings ,dancers & deities
Thus viharas and caves with its rich architectural embroydery can be termed as gardens of monastic precints Thus ajanta and ellora caves are famous for its pulsating frescoes In ellora there are 11 residential places for the priests. These were carved out of an solid rock with the interior walls were adorned with images of buddha seated on throne flanked by two attendants
Chaityas or Caves …. Chaityas were the “sacred spots” ,temples as well as assembly halls created out of particular demand of Buddhist religion.. Architecturally they show similarities to Roman design concepts of column and arch. The monks built many structures which were carved out of a single massive rock, done with hammer and chisel, bare hands. These were known as cave temples. About 1200 such cave temples were built throughout India. The most important are at Karle, Ajanta, Ellora, Udaigiri, Aurangabad and Nasik. They were rectangular halls, with finely polished interior walls. There were a number of well proportioned pillars, generally around 35, and a semi-circular roof. Opposite one entrance stood a stupa. All the pillars have capitals on them, with carvings of a kneeling elephant mounted on bell-shaped bases. The earliest rock-cut chaityas, similar to free-standing ones, consisted of an inner circular chamber with pillars to create a circumambulatory path around the stupa and an outer rectangular hall for the congregation of the devotees. Over the course of time the wall separating the stupa from the hall was removed to create an apsidal hall with a colonnade around the nave and the stupa.
Their were 12 buddhist cave in ellora all were adorned with the budha seated on the throne and flanked by two attendants . These caves were with vaulted hall with apsidal end divided by two rows of columnades forming a broad nave in centre
In the present scenario architectural style used in buddhist architecture were in extinction in India . It can only be seen stupas being erected at some places. Butoutside India in countries like China , Japan Srilanka ,Malaysia are attaining a new design theory using a previous ones to obtain an marvellous structures. Eco quarry hotel is an great masterpiece by an architect Juan manuelbustos .This was formulated with the design concept of ajanta cave having horse shoe shaped valley and spread over an area more than 500mts wherein flows the small rivulet
The site of the hotel was the quarry site which was already destroyed by humans but the firm Atkins positively designed and proposed this hotel that will be placed in 100 mts deep quarry .Another great feature of this hotel is that it will use geothermal energy to power up its electric supply. Hotel Eco quarry in the Songjiang province of China China ,japan ,myanmar and some other south asian countries greatly used pargolas in their normal architectural buildings
As bhuddhism spreaded throughout the world its extracted the style and shapes of the prevailing architectural style at that existing place and thus so we have different shapes of stupas ,chityas, monasteries. .Such a versatile form of architectural features are present only in bhuddhist architecture
Bibliography :- Books … History of architecture by Hiraskar & Banister fletcher Sites … www. history of buddhism, www.Evolution of Indian architecture, www.slide share.com