Sdc 2012-how-can-hypervisors-leverage-advanced-storage-features-v7.6(20-9-2012)

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How Can Hypervisors Leverage Advanced Storage Features ? - VMFS(x) on the storage attached to the ESX/ESXi hosts works perfectly fine, but the network usage(IP/FC/etc) goes up significantly when the storage is coming from NAS or SAN.The goal is to offload the file operations to the NAS/SAN based Arrays and leverage maximum benefits to increase I/O performance,storage utilization and reduced network usage.

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Sdc 2012-how-can-hypervisors-leverage-advanced-storage-features-v7.6(20-9-2012)

  1. 1. How can Hypervisors leverage Advanced Storage features?Author: Shriram Pore, Solutions Architect, Calsoft Inc.Presenter: Dr. Anupam Bhide, CEO, Founder Calsoft Inc.2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Introduction  Useful for storage vendors who are considering implementing hypervisor storage APIs like VAAI  Understand how hypervisors interact with storage today  Limitations in that interaction today  Need for a standard that is both hypervisor and storage agnostic.  Some Areas (that today’s hypervisor-specific standards do not cover) 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2
  3. 3. Virtual Environment Challenges Challenges  Virtual environments (Hypervisors) with NAS/SAN arrays have high storage bandwidth usage (IP/FC/etc.) as compared to DAS  SAN/NAS arrays have matured technologies such as snapshot, clone, server copy, range locking, etc.  Hypervisors can leverage these matured technologies and improve storage / network utilization.  However, hypervisors themselves have developed sophisticated storage virtualization layers Solution The goal here is to –  Offload file/bulk-block operations to NAS/SAN arrays/servers to reduce storage bandwidth and increase I/O performance, storage utilization, etc. 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Hypervisors use of storage  Classification – how hypervisors use storage  Hypervisor using local disks (e.g. VMware VMFS on local disk)  Hypervisor creating proprietary file system on SAN (e.g. VMware VMFS on a SAN array)  Hypervisor using LUNs of SAN array in RDM mode  Hypervisor using NAS storage box over NFS/CIFS  Better integration can have big benefits in many cases  E.g. Vendors have reported 99% savings in network bandwidth for cloning operations and 10x to 20x in efficiency 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4
  5. 5. Need for standard to optimize hypervisorinteraction with storage Why the need? • Storage is the biggest bottleneck for hypervisor performance • Many common hypervisor operations can be optimized by delegating operations to storage boxes Hypervisors ESX(i) Hyper-V Xen • Storage vendors cannot afford to conform to multiple hypervisor standards for this delegation SNIA interface SNIA interface • Standard needs to be both hypervisor Interface layer for SAN for NAS independent and storage independent • Identify in-efficient file/ Block operations Identify on VMs in virtual environments • Define set of SAN/ NAS primitives (standard APIs) based on above Define identification including capability Storage exchange. SAN NAS Complia • Levels of compliance depend on interface nce implementations for storage and hypervisor 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. SAN based Architecture Application Application (VM) (Web Services) Set of files (disk Virtual Disk Library metadata) User Kernel Files and file Boundary segments Hypervisor proprietary FS e.g. VMFS Logical Block Layer (Block Devices, logical Blocks volume) Physical SCSI Device Access Device Vendor Specific SCSI extensions on Blocks SAN array 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. RepresentativeSAN Primitives and Use Cases SAN Goal Use Cases Primitives Block • Avoid multiple WRITE • Block Zero feature speeds up deployment of Zeroing • Use SCSI WRITE SAME thick provision eager zeroed virtual disks • Full Copy feature speeds up storage vMotion • Avoid multiple READ & WRITE and cloning of VMs and network bandwidth to • Hardware-Assisted Locking feature is useful Full Copy copy complete VMDK for operations that require VM locking for • use SCSI EXTENDED COPY power on/off etc. and cluster wide operations Hardware like vMotion, storage vMotion etc. • BLOCK/EXTENT LEVEL locking • Power On Storm (100s of VMs being powered Assisted • use SCSI ATOMIC TEST & SET up which are using same LUN) has huge Locking latency which is resolved by hardware • Errors to indicate soft and assisted locking hard out of space conditions Thin • Pause VM in case of hard • Dead Space Reclamation enables reclamation Provisioning errors of blocks from a thin-provisioned LUN on the • use UNMAP for Space SAN based arrays ReclamationOffloaded Data Transfer to the arrays (illustrations from VMware SAN VAAI and Hyper-V ODX) 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Types of VMware virtual disks  Thick provisioned  All backing storage immediately allocated  Not zeroed immediately  Thin provisioned  Backing storage not fully allocated  Thick provisioned with eager zeroing  Like thick provisioned, but also zeroed immediately 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8
  9. 9. Efficiencies gained  Block zeroing  Storage vendor can lazily zero extent in background  Can implement proprietary mechanisms to mark extent as zeroed out  In thin provisioned LUNs, storage vendor can unmap the extent  Full copy  Doing the copy within the storage box is more efficient  Furthermore, writeable snapshot(i.e. clone) technology can be used to do the full copy without actually copying blocks  Dedupe performance can be improved by recognizing that two extents are just copies of each other 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9
  10. 10. Efficiencies gained  Atomic Test and Set Many VM operations such as powering on or off  VMs require getting or releasing VM-specific lock. This requires either getting SCSI-2 or SCSI-3 persistent group reservations – both inefficient.  Storage vendors can optimize by implementing atomic test and set.  UNMAP  Thin provisioned LUNs can re-use deleted space 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10
  11. 11. Integration of Hypervisorsand SAN capabilities Steps Involved • Identify in-efficient bulk-block operations on VMs in virtual environments/hypervisors Identify • Define set of SAN primitives (unused existing SCSI commands to be overloaded or new SCSI commands to be adopted) based on above identification including capability exchange (supported Define primitives) - can be added to SNIA specifications for standardization • SAN vendors to implement SCSI commands to deliver desired functionality, which will use its own Impleme technologies to achieve maximum performance nt • Hypervisor to invoke SCSI commands to leverage SAN capabilities Call • SAN arrays/servers to adopt proven/efficient technologies for increased performance and reduced usage of network bandwidth (features like Dynamic LUN Provisioning, Thin Provisioning, concurrent Adopt provisioning, Space reclamation, Dynamic Snapshots, LUN migration, etc.) 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. NAS based Architecture – Plugin Approach Application (Web Application (VM) Services) Virtual disk library Vendor Specific NFS Set of files (disc Virtual Disk Library plugin API or Custom RPC plugin metadata) User Kernel Boundary Plugin Approach • Plugin approach Files and file NAS proprietary FS over NFS/CIFS allows vendors to segments use their own Block Layer (Block Devices, logical communication Logical volume) mechanism Blocks • Many vendors use Device Blocks Physical SCSI Device Access unused NFS commands 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. RepresentativeNAS Primitives and Use Cases NAS Goal Use Cases Primitives • Monitor space utilization in • Thick provisioning is the normal standard in sparse file and guarantee enterprise deployments of hypervisors File Space adequate space for VMs • With NAS file systems, POSIX lseek is the only Reservation • Allows future I/O ops of VM way for hypervisors to efficiently create large NOT to fail due to space files – but no backing storage will be created unavailability with lseek • File Space Reservation and Extended Stats • Clone VMs in faster and features enable hypervisors to quickly reserve File Cloning storage space efficient way space on NAS server over NFS/CIFS to create (Full and • Also can be used for faster & thick provisioned virtual disk for a VM Lazy) storage efficient snapshots & restores (VM snapshot) • VM cloning/deployment and storage vMotion • Retrieve accurate space are examples of operations that are offloaded utilization of VMs - data that to NAS server. cannot be retrieved using Extended NFS calls • Lazy clones typically used for instant Statistics • Monitor space utilization in operations. E.g. in VMs Linked Clones and VDI sparse file and guarantee • Full Clones – used for operations across data 2012 Storage Developer Conference. space for VMs adequate © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved. stores
  14. 14. Efficiencies gained  File Space Reservation  Thick provisioned semantics are hard to achieve in NAS due to NFS protocol limitations  Cloning – Full and Lazy  Doing the cloning within the NAS box is more efficient  Furthermore, file level writeable snapshot(i.e. clone) technology can be used to do the lazy copy without actually copying blocks  Dedupe performance can be improved by recognizing that two extents are just copies of each other  Extended Attributes  Understand exactly how much space a lazy clone uses  Understand how much space a VMDK file is actually using 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14
  15. 15. Additional Observations  Delegate creation of VM snapshots to the storage box. These snapshots need to be hypervisor- consistent.  For NAS, it is inefficient for hypervisors to do file snapshots  Flash-based storage boxes do not write in place and can do snapshots much more efficiently.  VDI applications could use the writeable snapshots(clone) already provided by most storage vendors 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15
  16. 16. Additional Observations  With storage box provided snapshots, backups can be taken without involving the server  Primitive for disaster recovery that can use replication or remote mirroring (similar to SRA/SRM)  UNMAP for even thick provisioning for flash based SAN arrays – helps reduce the size of book-keeping data structures.  Storage arrays can demultiplex IO streams from hypervisor and provide VM level IO stream QoS - vVol 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16
  17. 17. Microsoft Offloaded Data Transfer-ODX  Available Windows Server 8 onwards  Works for both SAN storage(VHDs) and NAS using SMB protocol  Provides Full copy semantics for both SAN and NAS  Protocol works as follows:  Send offload read request to source device  Return with a token  Send offload write request with token to destination device 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17
  18. 18. Author Biography Shriram Pore - Solutions Architect, Calsoft Inc.  A veteran of storage industry  More than 11 years of experience in architecting and developing products  Key strength lies in quickly understanding product requirements and translating them into architectural and engineering specs for implementation.  Architected, designed and implemented solutions for NAS-VMware integrated Backup-Recovery and Clone of VM  Led FS and replication teams on the file-server and also led the CORE component team from system management perspective (configuration, provision, and manage various facilities of file-server).  Master Of Computer Science from India, Pune University  Bachelor of Computer Science from India, Pune University 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. Presenter Biography Dr. Anupam Bhide – CEO, Co-Founder, Calsoft Inc.  Storage industry veteran  More than 21 years of industry experience  Senior Architect in the RDBMS development group at Oracle Corp, designed some of the key features of Oracle8  Founder-member of the DB2/6000 Parallel Edition team at IBM Research Center  Visiting Faculty at University of California – Berkeley  Ph.D. in Computer Science, University of California-Berkeley  BS in Computer Science: Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay and MS: University of Wisconsin-Madison 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc.. All Rights Reserved. 19
  20. 20. Thank You Questions & Answers Contact info Dr. Anupam Bhide CEO, Co-Founder, Calsoft Inc. Email: anupam@calsoftinc.com Phone: +1 (408) 834 7086 Twitter: @Calsoftinc 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20
  21. 21. Integration of Hypervisorsand NAS capabilities Steps Involved • Identify in-efficient file-operations on VMs in virtual environments Identify • Define set of NAS primitives (standard APIs) based on above identification including capability exchange Define (supported primitives) This may be added to SNIA specs for standardization • Provide a framework to implement APIs as plugin on hypervisors Provide • NAS vendor to implement the plugin to use its technologies to achieve maximum performance Implem ent • Hypervisor to call into the plugin via defined framework APIs to leverage NAS capabilities Call • Modify NFS/CIFS to accommodate NAS primitives desired, else provide a new interface which would be easily Modify integrated into the plugin with no security compromise • NAS server to adopt proven/efficient technologies for increased performance and reduced usage of network Adopt bandwidth (e.g.: file-clone, server-copy, FS snapshots, Thin Versioning, de-dupe, etc.) 2012 Storage Developer Conference. © Calsoft Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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