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EIRIK RAUDE world's largest semi-submersible rig.

EIRIK RAUDE world's largest semi-submersible rig.

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  • 1. A Seminar Report On“OIL EXPLORATION & DRILLING USING EXTREME OIL RIG” Submitted in partial fulfillment of Bachelor’s Degree in technology of the RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY KOTA [Session 2008-2012] Submitted to : Submitted by : Mr. VAIBHAV SINGH ABHISHEK TANWAR Lect. ME, 08EJEME002 Mech. Deptt. B-Tech , 4th yr Department of Mechanical Engineering Jaipur Engineering College Kukas , Jaipur 1
  • 2. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that ABHISHEK TANWAR has completed necessary Seminar work & prepared the report on “ OIL EXPLORATION & DRILLING USING EXTREME OIL RIG ” in satisfactory manner as the partial fulfillment for the requirement of the degree of B.Tech (Mechanical Engineering) of Rajasthan Technical University, Kota at Jaipur Engineering College, Kukas Under the guidance of his faculty within his time limit and his full effort to make his Seminar good.Vaibhav SinghLecturerMechanical Engg. DepartmentJaipur Engineering College 2
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Everything is difficult before it becomes easy. This transition comes through Because of certain persons who by their pioneering effort their unmarketable mark of product. I can but only thank them with gratitude. I am very much thankful to Mr. D.N. Naresh ( H.O.D , Deptt. Of Mechanical Engineering) for giving us permission to take a seminar on the topic “Oil exploration & drilling using extreme oil rig”. I am sincerely indebted to Mr. Vaibhav singh ( seminar coordinator, DOME ) and all mechanical faculties of jec , those give me a good support . Last but not the least, I am thankful to all those who directly or indirectly bestow me a helping hand at the hour of need.ABHISHEK TANWARME08002 3
  • 4. Preface To present a seminar on a topic in front of many of people is a difficult task but is mandatory in Engineering services for engineers. Thus presenting theseminar on a specific topic is just the preparation of that task. So seminarpresentation has been added to the syllabus of B.tech program.For presenting a topic it is necessary to be aware of that topic, thus makingseminar presentation clears the concept of the student and also listeners get the knowledge about that topic. It is my fortune to give presentation on extreme oil rig . I got copious opportunityto learn the overall working of extreme oil rig. I would like to thankMr. Vaibhav Singh for giving me opportunity to present this topic. 4
  • 5. Abstract OIL EXPLORATION & DRILLING USING EXTREME OIL RIG Key words: oil, exploration, drilling, rig, off-shore, seismic, hydrocarbon.Oil is a non-renevable enery source and is one of the driving forces ofworld‟s economy.Crude oil is located on different part of the Earthunder the soil. Majority of the oil is under the sea, thus off-shore oilexploration is more demanding and challenging.So, we required theextreme oil rig i.e EIRIK RAUDE ,which is world‟s modern 5th generationoil rig using ultimate techniques to explore oil and dig well through ultradeep water. Oil exploration, drilling, refining, storage and transportationare some of the major stages of the entire oil production process. Thisseminar presents oil exploration and different drilling techniques used inthis industry.I hope, this report will be useful for anyone new to oil exploration anddrilling. 5
  • 6. Contents1. Introduction ……..…………………………………………………....................... 72. History ………………………………………………………………………………………….8 2.1 What is petroleum………………………………………………………………… 8 2.2How hydrocarbon are formed………........................................... 83. Locating oil ………………………………………………………………………………. 9 3.1 Seismic survey………………………………………………………………………… 94. Oil drilling preparation ……………………………………………………………….10 4.1 Drilling a well…...........................................................................115. Oil rig system …………………………………………………………………………….. 126. Testing oil ………………………………………………………………………………….. 137. Types of oil rig ………........................................................................ 148. Work force …………………………………………………………………………………. 149. Well completion ………………………………………………………………………… 1610. Welcome to ultra deep rigs ……………………………………………………… 1711. Rig history………………………………………………………………………………… 1812. Overall configuration of EIRIK RAUDE ……………………………………… 1913. EIRIK RAUDE pipe handling system ………………………………………… 2314. Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………… 2715. Reference……………………………………………………………………………….. 28 6
  • 7. 1. Introduction Oil drilling is the process by which tubing is bored through the Earths surface and a well is established. After drilling the well flows by its self pressure or a pump is connected to the tube and the petroleum under the surface is forcibly recovered from underground. Oil drilling is a highly-specialized business that grew into the largest industry on the planet by the early 21st century Offshore oil rigs work round the clock, enabling the uninterrupted production of oil. Different types of offshore oil rigs can drill wells in shallow coastal waters or in waters thousands of feet deep, with offshore drilling technology advancing each year A rig is the machine used to drill a wellbore. In onshore operations, the rig includes virtually everything except living quarters. Major components of the rig include the mud tanks, the mud pumps, the derrick and mast, the draw works, the rotary table or topdrive, the drillstring, the power generation equipment and auxiliary equipment. Offshore, the rig includes the same components as onshore, but mounted in special floating platform or installed in a drill ship. The floating platform could be a submersible type or a jack up type. Offshore rigs can be of various types depending on the water depth. Oil drilling commences with the insertion of a hole that is normally 36 inches in diameter. This hole is made with an equipment called a drilling rig, and a drilling string is attached to the rig. After the hole is created, a section of tubing, made out of steel, is inserted in the hole. At this point, a drill bit, which can either compress the rock or just cut and threw it, moves through the rock. Fluid is used both to help wear down the rock and to fetch up bits of rock that have already been sheared from the surface A lot of additional operations are performed during drilling including logging (measurement versus depth or time, or both, of one or more physical quantities in or around a well) testing, completion etc. 7
  • 8. 2. History Over five thousand years ago, oil that had come up through the ground was being used in medication, lighting, paints and for waterproofing boats. Lighting in many homes was made possible by whale oil until the whale numbers dropped and increased the price of this oil. The demand for oil increased and many companies began looking for ways to find other sources or an alternative to oil. Coal oil was then found and used until a process for drilling for crude oil was developed. At first land oil wells were drilled then with the increased demand people began to look to drilling beneath the sea for this black gold. Over the years the oil industry has further developed and has expanded oil fields into deeper water and further away from land. Safety has become a serious issue that has improved over the years and now enables all employees to be safe and well prepared in case of disaster with full training provided by employers. Crude oil or Petroleum is created by the formation of animal and plant remains that become buried deep into the seabed as the years progress. The material will then decompose into petroleum and seep into the layers in the rocks. As the tectonic plates of the earth move the oil is then gathered into pools then drained through oil wells. 2.1 What is Petroleum? Oil is commonly formed in rock or in sealed pockets under the seabed / at subsurface and it is from the Latin for „rock oil‟ that the word „Petroleum‟ is derived, though this name also covers natural gas as well as oil. Chemically it is a complex mixture of hydrogen and carbon with slight amount of other organics, thus called hydro-carbon. The term crude oil is commonly used for the product which is not undergone refining process. The crude oil is classified as sweet if it has very little sulphur in it, and is classified as sour if it has a great deal of sulfur in it. So a crude oil will usually be called something like a sweet, light oil, or a sour, heavy oil. The color of crude oil can range from pure black or dark brown to greenish or yellowish, depending on the composition. 2.2. How Hydrocarbons are formed? Petroleum was formed from the remains of marine plant and animal life which existed many millions of years ago (hence it is known as a fossil fuel). Some of these remains were deposited along with rock-forming sediments under the sea where they were decomposed anaerobically (without oxygen) by bacteria which changed the fats in the sediments into fatty acids which were then changed into an asphaltic material called kerogen. This was then converted over millions of years into petroleum by the combined action of heat and pressure. At an early stage the organic material was squeezed out of its original sedimentary mud into adjacent sandstones. Small globules of oil collected together in the pores of the rock and eventually migrated upwards through layers of porous rock by the action of the oils own 8
  • 9. surface tension (capillary action), by the force of water movement within the rock, and bygas pressure. This migration ended either when the petroleum emerged through a fissure as aseepage of gas or oil onto the earths surface, or when it was trapped in porous reservoirrocks, such as sandstone or limestone, in anticlines and other traps below impervious rocklayers.3. Locating Oil Whether employed directly by an oil company or under contract from a private firm,geologists are the ones responsible for finding oil. Their task is to find the right conditionsfor oil trap the right source rock, reservoir rock and entrapment. Many years ago, geologistsinterpreted surface features, surface rock and soil types, and perhaps some small coresamples obtained by shallow drilling. Modern oil geologists also examine surface rocks andterrain, with the additional help of satellite images. However, they also use a variety of othermethods to find oil. Finally, and most commonly, they use seismology, creating shock wavesthat pass through hidden rock layers and interpreting the waves that are reflected back to thesurface.3.1 Siesmic SurveyIn seismic surveys, a shock wave is created by the following: Compressed-air gun - shoots pulses of air into the water (for exploration over water) Thumper truck - slams heavy plates into the ground (for exploration over land) Explosives - detonated after being drilled into the ground (for exploration over land) or thrown overboard (for exploration over water) A seismic wave is energy that moves through the earth as a result of an earthquake / artificially made by exploding dynamite or made by special vibrators. When a seismic survey is conducted, seismic waves are usually generated by dynamite or by special vibrators mounted on trucks. These vibroseis trucks, as they are known, are often used if the use of dynamite could cause serious damage to the surroundings. The trucks use heavy metal plates weighing in at over 3 tons that are placed in contact with the ground, and which are then struck with heavy hammers. 9
  • 10. At offshore, seismic surveys are being conducted by special ships equipped with air guns to produce shock waves and reflections are captured by hydrophones (geophone). As the seismic waves pass through the earth and encounter different materials, some of their energy is reflected off the boundaries between the different strata while other waves will pass through. The reflected energy returns to the surface, where its speed and strength is measured by special detectors, known as geophones. The geophones convert the movement of the ground into electrical signals, which are then digitized by seismometers. These signals are then processed by computers. The speed and strength of the reflected waves depends on the density of the strata they encounter. Rock becomes denser the deeper underground it is located, but pockets of gas and oil have a much lower density. The denser the material is, the faster the waves will be reflected. As the seismic waves encounter lower density materials, more of their energy passes through. By analyzing the time it takes for the waves to be reflected, geologists can build an accurate image of the subsoil by using 3D seismic interpretation software. Analysis of the seismic data provides vital information on petroleum geology of the area of interest. This information can tell us the possibility of hydrocarbon reserve availability, its depth from surface etc. Once these data are available, the company / government decide to explore further for oil or abandon the project, if found economically / technically not feasible. The land may be leased to oil operating companies for a particular period, receiving a profit from the oil produced, or the land owner arrange to drill and produce the oil. Whatever it may be, the drilling contractor has to start to drill a well. An oil / gas well is drilled from earth‟s surface to the depth indicated by seismologists. This could be thousands of feet deeper.4. Preparation for oil drillingOnce the site has been selected, scientists survey the area to determine its boundaries, andconduct environmental impact studies if necessary. The oil company may need leaseagreements, titles and right-of way accesses before drilling the land. For off-shore sites,legal jurisdiction must be determined.After the legal issues are settled, the crew goes about preparing the land:1. The land must be cleared and leveled, and access roads may be built.2. Because water is used in drilling, there must be a source of water nearby. If there is no natural source, the crew drills a water producing well.3. The crew digs a reserve pit, which is used to dispose of rock cuttings and drilling mud during the drilling process, and lines it with plastic to protect the environment. If the site is an ecologically sensitive area, such as a marsh or wilderness, then the cuttings and mud must be disposed of offsite -- trucked away instead of placed in a pit.Once the land has been prepared, the onshore rig is moved to location. As the rig is movedpart by part in many trucks, it needed to be assembled together at the site. This preparation is 10
  • 11. known as rigging up. A rectangular pit called a cellar is dug around the location of theactual drilling hole. The cellar provides a work space around the hole for the workers anddrilling accessories. The crew then begins drilling the main hole, often with a small drilltruck rather than the main rig. The first part of the hole is larger and shallower than the mainportion, and is lined with a large-diameter conductor pipe.Depending upon the remoteness of the drill site and its access, it may be necessary to bringin equipment by truck, helicopter or barge. Some rigs are built on ships or barges for workon inland water where there is no foundation to support a rig (as in marshes or lakes).4.1 Drilling a wellNormally drilling of a new well may take few weeks, and there will be cementing,perforation, well stimulation, well testing, well logging etc, before they hand over the well toproduction. Mostly new wells will take about 2-3 months to complete. For exploration wells,as the reservoir conditions are not known, every moment the program is expected to change,though the entire drilling process will be done according tothe standard drilling manual of the operating company.Once the drilling to a particular depth is over, a steel casing(large OD pipe) is lowered and cemented, this will avoid anycaving in. Then a little smaller diameter hole is drilled and ata particular depth it is again cased and cemented. The drillingcontinues with smaller diameter hole and a tubing is loweredwith or without special locks (nipples) sliding doors (SSD),gas lifting valves (GLM), safety valves etc. The preparation,allocation, testing and lowering of these items with steel tubing are called well completion.Just after the drilling is over, the test completion string is run in hole to test the well to findout its characteristics. Perforation of pay zone, well stimulation etc are may be required,according to the well drilling and testing program. Once the well testing is over, the finalcompletion is run and the well will be handed over to production. The entire procedure isdepended on the objective of the well, the reservoir under study, and the method of liftingthe oil. The oil operating company will have a guide line for the complete drilling, testingand completion of the particular well.Once the well is completed as per the program, company has to wait for the pipe lines to beinstalled for transferring the crude oil / gas to the separating / processing stations. In the caseof onshore wells, the pipe lines are connected directly to well head.For offshore, to install the well head and associated equipment, a platform may have tobuild. The pipe lines are connected to well head and will be laid down at sea-bed. Typicallya well head platform will accommodate 6-20 wells. This will reduce the investment spend onbuilding a platform at sea. Though the well heads installed in an array on the platform, thewells will be drilled in different angles, by employing directional drilling techniques. 11
  • 12. 5. Oil Drilling Rig – Parts and FunctionsOnce the equipment is at the site, the crew sets the rig up. Here are the major systems of aland oil rig:Engine - Device converting the combustion of fuel and air into mechanical energy, used todrive the drilling mechanism of rig.Substructure - Metal infrastructure that supports the derrick, engines and auxiliaryequipment.Vibrating mudscreen (shale shaker) - Perforated vibrating tray that is used to filter mud asit exits the well to remove debris and recycle the mud. Samples are collected for analysis bymud engineer.Lifting hook - Steel part that is attached to the traveling block; it is used to support theswivel and the drill pipes.Derrick - Metalstructure erectedover an oil well;tools for drillingthrough rock areraised andlowered throughit. While drillpipes are runningin hole, thederrick manengages the pipesto lifting hook.Crown block -is the Mechanicaldevice that ismounted on top ofthe derrick; it hasseveral pulleysand, with thetraveling block, itsupports the drillpipes.Drilling Mud – Is the chemical mixture pumping down to the well being drilled. Themajor role of mud is to counter-act and over balance the well pressure during drilling. Alsomud acts as a coolant and as a media to bring the drill cuttings to surface. These cuttings willbe inspected by the well site mud engineer and geologist to find the presence of hydrocarbonand to get any other useful information related to the rock / area being drilled.Mud pump - Device that circulates the mud in the drilling rig.Mud injection hose - Flexible hose that introduces the drilling mud into the swivel.Mud pit - Pit that contains mud (a mixture of water, clay and chemical products) used tocounter-act the pressure from the area being drilled.Drilling draw-works - Device that consists of a cylinder on which hoisting cables arewound, it is used to lower the drill pipes and bit into the well and to lift them out.Swivel - Piece attached to the lifting hook and the kelly; it is used to introduce mud into thedrill pipe to cool and lubricate the bit. 12
  • 13. Traveling block - Movable mechanical device with pulleys; it is attached by cable to thecrown block and fitted with a lifting hook.Drill pipe - Hollow steel rods that are joined together according to the depth of the well;their rotation activates the bit.Drill collar - Heavy steel tube immediatelyabove the bit that applies a certain weight tothe bit to help it cut into the rock. This willwork as a connection from drill bit to drillpipe.Bit - Rotating drill bit with toothed steel ordiamond wheels; it bores into rock to break itup and drill a hole. Depend on the rock beingdrilled, and the hole size, the bits are selected.Rotary table - Circular table that is moved bypowerful motors; it transmits its rotationalmovement to the drill pipes by means of thekelly.Kelly -Special square rod that is screwed tothe top of the drill pipes and driven by therotary table.6. Testing OilDrilling continues in stages: The crew drills, then runs and cements new casings, then drillsagain. When the rock cuttings from the mud reveal the oil sand from the reservoir rock, thecrew may have reached the wells final depth. At this point, crew members remove the drillpipe from the hole and perform several tests to confirm this finding:  Well logging - lowering complex electronic sensors interfaced to computers into the hole to take measurements of the rock.  Drill-stem testing - lowering a mechanicsl device into the hole to study the integrity of cementing, study of reservoir  Core samples - taking samples of rock to look for characteristics of reservoir rock.  Once they have reached the final depth, the crew completes the well to allow oil to flow into the casing in a controlled manner.  First, they lower a perforating gun into the well to the production depth. The gun has explosive charges to create holes in the casing through which oil can flow. After the casing has been perforated, they run a small-diameter pipe (tubing) into the hole as a conduit for oil and gas to flow up through the well.  Finally, they connect a multi-valved structure called a Christmas tree to the top of the tubing and cement it to the top of the casing. The Christmas tree allows them to control the flow of oil from the well. 13
  • 14. 7. Types of Off Shore Oil RigThere are some main types of MODUs:  A jackup is a rig that sits on top of a floating barge. A ship tows the barge to the drilling site. Once positioned, the jackup can extend legs down to the sea floor. The legs are loaded in such a way that they dont penetrate the floor. Once each leg is secure, the jackup continues to ratchet the legs so that the platform rises above the water level. This keeps the rig safe from tidal motions and waves. Jackups can operate in depths of up to 525 feet (160 meters).  Drill ships are ships that have a drilling rig on the top deck. The drill operates through a hole in the hull. Drill ships can pilot to the drill site and then use a combination of anchors and propellers to correct for drift as the rig drills for oil. They can operate in deep water conditions.  Semi-submersibles float on the surface of the ocean on top of huge, submerged pontoons. Some have propulsion systems, which allow them to navigate to drilling sites under their own power while others require a second vessel to tow them to the right location. Most use several anchors -- up to a dozen -- that help maintain the structures orientation. Computers control the tension on each anchor chain to correct for drift.8. Work ForceThe rig is headed by the rig manager (tool pusher-old name) and for the night shift the in-charge willbe assistant rig manager (tour pusher- old name).Driller: He will undertake a high responsibilitylevel and is responsible for what goes on aboveand on the rig floor. This person has a goodbackground of technical knowledge and drillexperience. They operate the drill equipment thatwill create the hole in the seabed. They also have agreat kn owledge about the well pressure systems,drilling fluids/ characteristics and emergencyprocedures.Assistant Driller: This person works as the supervisor for the Roughneck.Derrickman. The tasks include the assistance to the driller and perform the tasks requiredwhen a drilling operation is in session. 14
  • 15. Derrick-man: Obtained this name as they spend a lot of their time on top of the derrick-racking pipe and can otherwise be found in the pump room. Can also be required to mix thedrilling fluids or mud and ensure the mix is accurate with the correct chemicals andconsistency.Roughneck: This person generally works on the rig floor. Responsible for the machinesand equipment that is used for the drilling operation. Usually works in a group of threePump-man / Motorman: This person works as the assistant to the Derrick-man and canwork in the mud pump room or assist as a roughneck on the drill floor when required.Also known as Assistant Derrick-man.Radio officer – He handles all incoming and out going communications, especially allwireless communications with supply vessels and helicopters. Past days when there wasno means of advanced communication equipment, he was the focal point for allcommunications which was done using either radio waves or morse code. At times heacts as helicopter landing officer too.Medic: He is the medical doctor on board to handle any medical emergency. If theMedical condition of patient can not be handled at rig site, then the causality will be sentto onshore facilities.Materials coordinator / Store Keeper – He will have full inventory control of all sparesand other items required for smooth running of rig jobs. Any requirement for rig spares /tools will be ordered by materials coordinator.Other than rig crew, there may be following service company personals, depend on thetype of well and stage drilling / testing / completion. All these service companies willhave a agreement with the oil operating company. Basically drill rig also contracted to oiloperating company for drilling wells as per operating company requirement.Company Man / Company representative / Drilling Superintendent: He is the head ofthe drill site – Representative of the oil operating company. The rig crew and any servicecompany at site should report to him. He will be in close contact with the shore / townoffice of the operating company.Safety officer: He will be looking after the over all safety related issues of the rig site.He will conduct a safety briefing to any new person arrived at site. He will make sure allsafety related equipment are properly maintained and ready to use, if an emergencyarises.H2S Officer: He will be present onsite if the well under drilling / testing has hydrogensulphide gas present. Hydrogen sulphide is a killer gas, even in less concentration.He will make sure all breathing apparatus and H2S monitors are ready to use. Alsoshould measure the H2S levels at well head, before drill crew / service companypersonals approaching it for well operations.Completion Engineer / Specialist: He co-ordinate with reservoir engineers, productionengineers, drilling supervisors and prepare the final completion diagram for the well, asper the requirement made by oil company. He has to make sure all the items used in thedown hole are accurately measured, tallied and entered in the drawing.Directional drilling crew : They are the specialist people who provide equipment andservice to rig for drilling highly deviated / horizontal wells.Well logging crew (E line crew): Are the personals with specialized electrical cable unitand complex electronic down hole tools for well logging. Well logging is done bylowering conductive cable connected with special electronic sensors to desired depth andview / record the down hole data at surface. These data are analyzed to get more detailedand precise information about the reservoir under study. They may do perforation of the 15
  • 16. reservoir zones. Usually a group of 4-5 personals.Well Testing Group: Those are the personals who does the initial well testing at surface.Their study includes chemical and physical characteristics of the well content, which isflown to surface. During their study, they will assess the well‟s properties, which mayinclude the maximum allowable production rate, gas oil ratio, etc. The group will have 4-12 people or more depend on the objective of well testing.Well Testing Engineer / Petroleum Engineer / Production Engineer: He will execute thewell test job as per the program issued by oil company reservoir engineers. Also willcoordinate with logging crew / slcik line crew for the down hole data during well testing.Slick-line / Wireline crew: They will have special non conductive steel cable unit andassociated mechanical down hole tools for well intervention. This cable is used to deploythe down hole tools which may include removal / replacement of down hole valves, plugthe well, deploy mechanical or electronic down hole instruments on memory mode whichis used for reservoir data acquisition etc.. Usually crew will have 3-5 personals.Coil Tubing Crew – (CT unit): Coiled tubing unit will have a 1” or 1.5” continuoushollow tubing reeled in a drum, which can be lowered to the well using hydraulic drivenunits. Coiled tubing unit mainly used for acid jobs, Nitrogen lifting, fishing operationsetc. The crew will have 6-8 people.Mud Engineer: Will analyze the drill cuttings coming from hole, and will get theinformation of the rock being drilled. Also will advise the correct mud to be used forDrillingWell site Geologist / geo-physicist: To handle the information related to down holerock properties in special cases.9. Well CompletionOnce a well has been drilled and verified to be commercially viable, it must be completedto allow for the flow of oil or gas. The completionprocess involves the strengthening of the well wallswith casing and installing the appropriate equipmentto control the flow of oil or gas from the well.Casing consists of a stacked series of metal pipesinstalled into the new well in order to strengthen thewalls of the well hole, to prevent fluids and gasesfrom seeping out of the well as it is brought to thesurface, and to prevent other fluids or gases fromentering the rock formations through which the wellwas drilled.Casing extends from the surface to the bottom of the well and is typically steel pipe with adiameter that may range from 7 to 36 inches. Casing with a diameter slightly smaller thanthat of the well hole is inserted into the well, and a wet cement slurry is pumped between thecasing and the sides of the well. Casing is installed as the well is progressively drilleddeeper. The top interval of the well, extending from the surface to a depth below thelowermost drinking water zone, is the first to be completed, being cemented from the surfaceto below the drinking water zone. Next, a smaller diameter hole is drilled to a lower depth,and then that segment is completed. This process may be repeated several times until thefinal drilling depth is reached. 16
  • 17. Welcome toUltra Deep Water Harsh Environment Semi Submersible Rigs 17
  • 18. Rig History Eirik RaudeHull buildt in Dalian ChinaFirst stage outfitting in Pascagoula, MississippiFinal outfitting: Halifax Shipyard, Nova Scotia, Canada – 2002Upgraded in Ølen Norway, 8 point mooring system, Zero discharge ,Additional winterizationThe rig is carrying UK Safety Case and AoC for NorwayEirik Raude has drilled28 deepwater wells, 9 of these in harsh environment. Canada, Cuba,UK West of Shetland , Norwegian Sea Norway,Gulf of Mexico and Ghana and 5 shallow water wells in harshenvironment (Barents Sea) Norway 18
  • 19. OVERALL CONFIGURATION OF EIRIK RAUDEEIRIK RAUDE is the latest 5th generation semi-submersible floating rig, which capable todrill well not just in deep water but ultra deep water.Its name is based on the person named ‘EIRIK THE RED’ who discovered ICE LAND.First voyage starts from „HALIFAX HARBOUR‟,CANADA and drill its first well at eastcost of Canada at Nova Scotia.Normal oil rigs can drill about 4000 feet but EIRIK can drill 10,000 feet.Not fixed to ocean floor but float on two massive submerged PONTOONS.The system of 6 giant thruster hold the rig while drilling using special systemcalled DYNAMIC POSITIONING (DP). o From sea bed EIRIK can drill 20,000 feet through the earth. 19
  • 20. REASON BEHIND THIS INVENTIONAs we burn away more of the fossil fuel, exploration of oiling gas is moved from land to sea.Insecurity feel by oil company to fill spontaneous demand.Due to limited length of leg of short oil rig unable to fixed in deep water.1. BRIDGE2. SAFETY3. THRUSTER ROOM (DP)4. ROV CONTROL ROOM5. DRILL FLOOR6. ACCOMMODATION BLOCK BRIDGE Main control room All system are checked before made its voyage from the watch full eye of the captain from the bridge. 20
  • 21. SAFETY Equipped with latest „PROD LAUNCH‟ life boat system.THRUSTER ROOM 6 thruster each driven by gigantic electric motor. Max. 750 rpm of shaft. If all 6 thruster can run with full power ,EIRIK could produce 600 tonnes of thrust & would use 16500 thousand gallons of fuel a day. At top speed of 7 miles/hr gulp 1000 gallons of fuel/mile. So, it is also a huge guzzler of oil. It uses the system called DYNAMIC POSITIONING (DP) to hold its place above the well. DP uses 6 global positioning satellite at a time to find out exactly where it is. This system is so powerful that EIRIK hold its position within a feet even in 52 foot wave & 60 mile/hr winds.ROV CONTROL ROOM Small submarine called „REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLE‟ which is used to keep eye on advancement underneath the sea. Normal ROV operate upto 4000 feet but EIRIK‟s ROV can operate about 12000 feet. 21
  • 22. DRILL FLOORIn any rig the heart of operation is the drill floor.First use to drill a pilot well by using 12inch bit & to check dangerous gas leak.Section consists of drill bit motor & sensors.More than 24hrs to lower 66 section of pipe to reach the sea bed 6000 feet below. ACCOMMODATION BLOCK It is situated at front of the rig as far as possible from the danger of drilling Because drill floor is at the center of rig It contains 1. 11 OFFICES 2. CABINS 3. BRIDGE 4. CANTEEN 5. AND EIRIK’S OWN HOSPITAL 6. 140 ER PERSONS TOTAL CAPACITY 7. GALLEY AND MESS HOUSE 8. DAY ROOM NONE SMOKING & DAY ROOM SMOKING 9. TV LOUNGE SMOKING &NON SMOKING 10.SAUNA 11.GYMNASIUM 22
  • 23. Eirik Raude Pipe Handling System: Hydralift Pipe Handling System Equipped with automatic Pipe Handling System – Hydra Racker with offline stand building capacity – Variable Fingerboard – Remotely Operated Iron Roughneck – Knuckle Boom Crane – Handling tubulars from Deck to Forward Catwalk – Riser Gantry Crane – Handling risers to the Aft Catwalk 23
  • 24. Eirik Raude & Leiv Eiriksson Thrusterso 6 of KAMEWA Aquamaster UCC 7001o 4 Blade, modified Kaplano Diameter 4.1mo Max RPM 157o Thrust 100 ton eacho 6 of ABB electrical thruster motor AMB 710 L 8L VAFTMB 5,500 kW each 24
  • 25. The Bingo 9000 Concept  Environmentally friendly - zero spill systems, low emissions  Large, comfortable accommodation – 140 ER & 120 LE  Powerful DP Class 3 station keeping systems for  ultra-deep water operations and harsh environment  Eirik Raude 70 to 3000 meters water depth  High variable deck load of 6,700 mt  Automated pipe handling system 25
  • 26. Eirik Raude & Leiv Eiriksson Dynamic Position SystemKongsberg Integrated Automation System DP Class 3Dynamic Positioning (SDP)The SDP controls the position of the unit·On-Line DP capability analyses·Consequence analyses·Black-out prevention·Motion prediction·Riser angle monitoringMain DP station on bridge ·3 SDP operators stations ·1 SDP simulator/trainer ·1 DPC-32 triple redundant controller unit ·1 DP data logger with printerThruster Control (STC)The STC allows the operator to controlthe thrusters individually, manual mode or auto pilot modeMain DP station on bridge, 1 STC operator station·Back-up control room, 1 STC operator station 26
  • 27. ConclusionsThis material is prepared on the basis of general idea how the oil field is working in Middle east region. There are many different methods used for drilling andproduction of oil in other parts of the world. Since , fossil fuel on land is depleting, sowe have to search under ocean bed but without such monster rig like EIRIK RAUDE it,can‟t be possible. The life cycle of oil is a long one. It starts from millions of years back,when fossils are formed to till the moment we use it in many form in our day to day life.Passing through many steps to extract and use oil, we can see many of the engineeringtechnologies are involved in it. To name a few are, remote sensing engineering ( the technologyused to capture the data usingsatellite), seismic studies, geography, geology,physics, petro‐physics, chemistry, mining, drilling, mechanical, instrumentation, refining,mud‐engineering (it is a part of chemical engineering), electronics, computer science,communication and so on. 27
  • 28. References Discovery Documentary Web Site: http://www.google.com Web Site: http://www.transformia.info Web Site: http://www.ocean-rig.com 28