History & Development ofOrganizational BehaviorPresented ByAbhishek .E 1321002Arijit Mitra 1321008Divya 1321044Anna Agarwal 1321045Jithin Joseph
• The study of Organizational Behavior facilitates the process ofexplaining, understanding, predicting, maintaining, and changingemployee behavior in an organizational setting• The discipline of organizational behavior is concerned with identifying andmanaging the attitudes and actions of individuals and groups, lookingparticularly at how people can be motivated to join and remain in theorganization, how to get people to practice effective teamwork• How people can accomplish their jobs more efficiently, and howemployees can be encouraged to be more flexible and innovative• Org. theory prior to 1900: Emphasized the division of labor and theimportance of machinery to facilitate labor
Scientific Management• Time & Motion Study by Frank.• Lillian focused on Human AspectFrank & LillianGilberth(1900)• “Harmonious Co-operation” between Labor &Management• “Scientific Selection” of employees.Need for training.Henry L.Gantt(1901)• “Father of Scientific Management”• “Principles of Management”Fredrick W.Taylor(1911)
Modern Management ThoughtLaurence Peter(1969)Eventually people get promoted to a level wherethey are incompetent.Peter F. Drucker(1974)Decentralization is better than centralized power,Thomas Peters & Robert Waterman(1982)Identified characteristics of companies theyconsidered excellent
History of organisational behaviourFrederick Winslow Taylorin 1880 introduced the systematic use of goal setting and rewardsto motivate employeesIn his book called scientific management there are four principles:-Carefully study the jobs to develop standard work practices.Standardize the tools used by workers.Select each worker scientifically.Management and workers cooperate to ensure that work is doneaccording to standard procedures.Management plans and makes task assignments; workers carry outassigned task.
Division of labourAuthority andresponsibilityCentralizationDelegation ofauthorityUnity of commandUnity of direction
Webers Model of BureaucracyGerman sociologist Max Weber, observing the organizational innovations ofthe German leader Bismark, identified the core elements of the new kind oforganization. He called it bureaucracy.An administrative structure with well defined offices and functions andhierarchical relationships among the functions.The bureaucracy defines the authority when it develops its division oflabour. The person who takes authority assumes the authority of thatposition•authority is rational and legal; authority should be based onposition, not on the person in the position•authority stems from the office and this authority has limits asdefined by the office•positions are organized in a hierarchy of authority•organizations are governed by rules and regulations
Human Relations MovementThe human relations school considers that effective control comes from within the individualrather than from strict, authoritarian control.The relations movement emphasized satisfaction of employee’s basic needs as key to increasedproductivity.The Hawthorne Studies (1939) is a significant qualifying perspective as it emphasized the extentto which social pressures affect employees in the work place and how the relationship betweenmanagers and operatives influence the level of productivity in the work environment.Maslow and McGregor (1960) – motivation of the individual
Contributors to organisational behaviourElton Mayo and his colleagues conducted productivitystudies at Western Electrics Hawthorne plant in theUnited States.He is an Australian national, headed the HawthorneStudies at Harvard. In his classic writing in 1931, HumanProblems of an Industrial Civilization, he advisedmanagers to deal with emotional needs of employees atworkMary Parker Follett in 1928was a pioneer managementconsultant in the industrial world. As a writer, she providedanalyses on workers as having complex combinations ofattitude, beliefs, and needs. She told managers to motivateemployees on their job performance, a "pull" rather than a"push" strategy.
Douglas McGregorproposed twotheories/assumptions, which are verynearly the opposite of eachother, about human nature based onhis experience as a managementconsultantTheory xTheory y
Robert Owen(1771-1858): BritishIndustrialistresponsible forimproved workingconditions, preventedchildlabors, shortenedwork hours, meals foremployees.HugoMunstberbeg(1863-1916): German-AmericanPsychologist was thepioneer of “IndustrialPsychology”.
Peter Drucker (1995)Proposed the philosophy ofmanagement by objectives(MBO) and self-control.Managers and employees definegoals for everydepartment, project, and personand use them to monitorsubsequence performance.