Essence /philosophy of the scripture
• The Qur'an is a book essentially religious, not
philosophical, but it deals with all those problems
which religion and philosophy have in common.
• Both have to say something about problems related to
the significance of such ex-pressions as God, the world,
the individual soul, and the inter-relations of these;
good and evil, free-will, and life after death.
• While dealing with these problems it also throws light
on such conceptions as appearance and reality,
existence and attributes, human origin and destiny,
truth and error, space and time, permanence and
change, eternity and immortality.
• 1. Ultimate Beauty: God and His
Attributes - The Ultimate Being or Reality is
• 2. Theory of Knowledge - Man alone has been
given the capacity to use names for things and
so has been given the knowledge which even
the angels do not possess.
• 3. Importance of history – important to take
lessons from the past.
• 4. Free Will - God has given man the will to
choose, decide, and resolve to do good or evil. He
has endowed him with reason and various
impulses so that by his own efforts he may strive
and explore possibilities.
• 5. Death - Death of the body has been decreed by
God to be the common lot of mankind. Wherever
a man is, death will overtake him even if he is in a
tower strong and high.
The universal values mentioned in the
• Worship only God: Take not with Allah another object of worship; or thou (O man!) wilt sit in
disgrace and destitution. (Quran 17:22)
• Be kind, honourable and humble to one's parents: Thy Lord hath decreed that ye worship
none but Him, and that ye be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in
thy life, say not to them a word of contempt, nor repel them, but address them in terms of
honour. (Quran 17:23) And, out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humility, and say: "My
Lord! bestow on them thy Mercy even as they cherished me in childhood." (Quran 17:24)
• Be neither miserly nor wasteful in one's expenditure: And render to the kindred their due
rights, as (also) to those in want, and to the wayfarer: But squander not (your wealth) in the
manner of a spendthrift. (Quran 17:26) Verily spendthrifts are brothers of the Evil Ones; and
the Evil One is to his Lord (himself) ungrateful. (Quran 17:27) And even if thou hast to turn
away from them in pursuit of the Mercy from thy Lord which thou dost expect, yet speak to
them a word of easy kindness. (Quran 17:28) Make not thy hand tied (like a niggard's) to thy
neck, nor stretch it forth to its utmost reach, so that thou become blameworthy and
destitute. (Quran 17:29)
• Do not engage in 'mercy killings' for fear of starvation: Kill not your children for fear of want:
We shall provide sustenance for them as well as for you. Verily the killing of them is a great
sin. (Quran 17:31)
• Do not commit adultery: Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil,
opening the road (to other evils). (Quran 17:32)
• Do not kill unjustly: Nor take life – which Allah has made sacred – except for just
cause. And if anyone is slain wrongfully, we have given his heir authority (to
demand qisas or to forgive): but let him not exceed bounds in the matter of taking
life; for he is helped (by the Law). (Quran 17:33)
• Care for orphaned children: Come not nigh to the orphan's property except to
improve it, until he attains the age of full strength...(Quran 17:34)
• Keep one's promises: ...fulfil (every) engagement [i.e. promise/covenant], for
(every) engagement will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning). (Quran 17:34)
• Be honest and fair in one's interactions: Give full measure when ye measure, and
weigh with a balance that is straight: that is the most fitting and the most
advantageous in the final determination. (Quran 17:35)
• Do not be arrogant in one's claims or beliefs: And pursue not that of which thou
hast no knowledge; for every act of hearing, or of seeing or of (feeling in) the heart
will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning). (Quran 17:36) Nor walk on the
earth with insolence: for thou canst not rend the earth asunder, nor reach the
mountains in height. (Quran 17:37)
Management by values: an essential requisite for
today’s global scenario .Explain
• MBV can be defined as both a philosophy and practice of management, it
focuses on the key values of the organization and their consistency with
• Scientific studies have confirmed that the key to understanding the
behavior of complex systems is to understand the values that each of
them contains. System values are motivators that shape the behavior of
individuals, organizations and society.
• Management by values for the employees involves working with the
process of meeting the needs and their dignity at the same time. The
company forms self-control teams and personal self-control environment.
It raises the quality of work and increases the identification and loyalty to
• MBV uses following tools:
• Company mission
• The values important to the company - Code of Values
Principles of Islamic Management:
4. Right man in the right place
6. Division of labor
7. Unity of command and unity of direction
8. Centralization and decentralization
9. Preference to the organizational interest
12. Justice for all
13. United efforts
14. Dignity of labor
17. Tawakkul -The act of relying upon something or someone - to place faith
or confidence in Allah (usually).
Islam and Team building
• In the history of Islam, the basic reason of group formation was the
necessity of building a team or group under adverse circumstance
to cope up with situation.
• According to Quran Muslims have been forced to be united and
don’t be dispersed, as in groups they will remain powerful and save
from the evil. (alimran: 102).
• Major focus of the Muslim society is on personal relations.
• Relationship seems to be complex but communication and
interaction makes it easier and remarkably simple.
• Islam also focuses on the importance of joint consultation (Shura)
• The Japanese based its management style on it and proved to the
world of its effectiveness.
Eradicate social issues from the society
• THE world is plagued by all sorts of problems – social
unrest, political instabilities, mass poverty and
destitution, prostitution, homosexuality, homicides,
killings, drug addiction, alcoholism, family break-ups,
juvenile delinquency, suicides
• The divine nature of Islam makes it the only religion in
the world that offers genuine solutions to such
• Islam is not only a religion, but also a complete code of
• All facets of life, public and private alike, are covered
under the realm of Islamic Law.
Absolute prohibition of adultery, prostitution and other forms of
• Adultery, fornication and other promiscuous sex practices are
punishable in Islam, because they are indeed serious crimes which
affect the entire society.
• Islamic Law explicitly prohibits adultery and fornication as clearly
mentioned in the following Qur’anic injunctions:
“Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil, opening
the road (to other evils).”
“The man and woman guilty of adultery or fornication, flog each of them with a
hundred stripes: let no compassion move you in their case, in a matter prescribed by
Allah, if you believed in Allah and the Last Day: and let a party of believers witness
The Principle of Equality and Justice: The Way to Overcome the
• Islam also provides absolutely effective solution to murder and
other related crimes common in the West and elsewhere. The
Islamic laws of equality and justice, tempered with mercy, are seen
in the following Qur’anic injunctions:
“O ye who believe! the law of equality is prescribed to you in cases of murder: the
free for the free, the slave for the slave, the woman for the woman. But if any
remission by the brother of the slain, then grant any reasonable demand, and
compensate him with handsome gratitude. This is a concession and a mercy from
your Lord. After this whoever exceeds the limits shall be in grave penalty.”
The Divorce Issue in Islam
• Allah has enjoined on the believing men to treat their wives with kindness.
• In Islam, the wife is equally granted the right to divorce her husband if her
demand for divorce is justifiable.
• However, the Prophet’s advice on the issue of divorce should be borne in mind.
He says that “The lawful thing which Allah hates most is divorce. However, when
things seem worst that peace and reconciliation between wife and husband are
next to impossible, divorce maybe inevitable.
• A divorce is only permissible twice: after that, the parties should either hold
together on equitable terms, or separate with kindness.
• It is not lawful for you, (men), to take back any of your gifts (from your wives),
except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits
ordained by Allah.
• if a husband divorces his wife (irrevocably), he cannot, after that, remarry her
until after she has married another husband and he has divorced her.
Prohibition of intoxicants and gambling
• At first, the Muslims in Medina were not prohibited to drink
intoxicating wine or liquor, and to gamble. When Muslims began to
ask about drinking and gambling, the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa
sallam) received the following revelation:
• “They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say: ‘In them is
great sin, and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the
• While this revelation helped in minimising alcoholism among
Muslims those days, they still continued to drink. Many were even
under the influence of liquor when they were in prayers.
So, another Qur’anic injunction from Allah was revealed to the
Prophet as follows:
“O ye who believe! Approach not prayers with a mind befogged, until he can understand all that ye say.” (Qur’an, 4:43)
The final revelation on the prohibition of drinking wine and gambling says:
“O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication) of stones, and (divination by) arrows are an abomination of
Satan’s handiwork: Eschew such abomination, that you may prosper.
The problems of alcoholism and drug-addiction prevalent among the people in the developed countries of the world
point to the fact that they are unhappy.
The prohibition of suicide
In the non-Muslim parts of the world, when problems go uncontrolled, many simply do not know what to do and where
to go. So, they kill themselves
Islam considers life as a trust (amanah) from Allah. All good things that one possesses are, in fact, amanah – his own
mind, body and soul, his life-partner, his own children, his wealth and the like. All of these belong to Allah alone. Thus,
what right has one got to take his life away. Allah says:
“O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: But let there be amongst you traffic and
trade by mutual goodwill: Nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah hath been to you Most Merciful!
The Muslims know well that suicide is absolutely prohibited by Allah. No Muslim commits suicide, because if he does,
he will have the Hell-fire as his eternal abode. The Prophet says:
“He who throws himself from a mountain and kills himself will be thrown in the fire and remain in it forever; and he
who sips poison and kills himself will have his poison in his hand and sip it forever and ever in the fire of hell.”
Status of women in q’uran
• According to the Holy Qur’an, man and woman are two units of a pair. When both
are taken independent of each other, there are certain obvious vacuums in the
mental, physical and emotional personalities of each. God has created the two in
such a way that they complement each other in different ways, so that these
vacuums are removed and in order that man and wife may live a blissful life
• However, as far as a Muslim’s relationship with Allah Almighty is concerned, there
is no difference between man or women. Both are promised the same reward for
their good conduct, and the same punishment for wrong doings. The Holy Qur’an
• “And for women are rights over men similar to those of men over women.”
• The Qur'an says that women have souls in exactly the same way as men and will
enter Paradise if they do good
Present situation of women
After fifteenth century AD things started changing against the interest of women. Harsh
restrictions on women and general violation of human rights began.
An Indian survey in 1921 showed that only 4 out of every 1,000 Muslim females were
In even 21 st century women education finds low priority in the Islamic world and the gap
between male-female literacy is sometime as high 40%.
Pakistan, Muslim country's literacy rate is 63% for males and a 36% for females.
Similar is the case of Yemen (male literacy rate 73.1 percent, female 34.7
percent, difference 38.4 percent) and Afghanistan (male 43.1, female 12.6, difference
30.5), In Muslim Countries like Chad, Niger, Benin, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Cote
d'Ivoire, Senegal, Malawi, the male-female gap is between 20 and 30 percent.
Even today men consider themselves more superior than women…
For them women are meant for home only. They can step out of the home only when
there is an urgent need.
Managing conflict and stress by
practicing values of Quran
• Stress is the most common aliment of modern age.
• It has been implicated in the causation of peptic ulcer disease, coronary
heart disease, depression, auto immune disease, hypertension, diabetes
and even cancer. In milder form it manifests in form of unrest, violence, at
work, school and home.
• None of us are free from stress but some deal with it better than others.
Stress results from the following factors:
a. Fear of the unknown and trying to see through and control the destiny.
b. Losses in our life of people and things dear to us and our inability to
recover those losses.
c. Inner conflict between our heart and mind between what is known to be
the truth and our failure to accept it as truth. Acceptance of truth may
require changing our habits and way of life which we may adhere to for
some reason like pleasure, joys, taste, pride in race or heritage etc.
“Be sure we will test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods or lives, but
give glad tidings to those who are steadfast, who say when afflicted with calamity: To Allah
we belong and to him is our return. They are those on who (DESCEND) blessings from Allah
and mercy and they are the once that receive guidance.”
• Thus in Islam, we do not have concept of the ownership of goods and life.
Everything belongs to Allah and returns to him.
• So if we don’t own that thing why mourn our loss?
• Our destiny is predetermined. We do not have control on that part.
• What we have control over is a limited free will, that is our actions, our choice to
do good or bad, to believe in Allah or not to believe in Him, but we have no control
over tomorrow’s event not related to our actions.
“In their heart there is a disease and Allah has increased their disease and grievous is
their penalty because they lie to themselves.”
“Nay, I swear by the reproaching soul”
• This soul is conscious or aware of Evil, resists it, asks for Allah’s grace, and pardon,
repents and tries to amend and hopes to achieve salvation.
“O (you) soul in (complete) rest and satisfaction. Come back to your Lord, will
pleased (yourself) and will pleasing unto him. Enter you then among my
devotees, enter you in my heaven.”
• This is the highest state of spiritual development.
• satisfied soul is the state of bliss, content and peace.
• The soul is at peace because it knows that inspite of its failures in this world, It will
return to Allah.
• Purified of tension, it emerges from the struggle with obstacles blocking the peace
of mind and heart.
• Therefore after lying to ourselves, we set up an inner conflict – between heart and
mind. In order to contain that conflict the mind sends signals to glands for
secretion of harmones like adrenaline which leads to rapid heart rate, perspiration,
tremor, the basis of lie detector test. 3 stages of spiritual development of soul
– a. Nafs al Ammarah: -The Passionate soul
“I do not absolve myself Lo the (human) soul is prone to evil, save that whenever my
Lord has mercy. Lo, Lord is forgiving; merciful.”
• This soul inclines toward sensual Pleasure, passion and self-gratification, anger,
envy, greed, and conceit. Its concerns are pleasure of body, gratification of physical
appetite, and ego. If this evil soul is not checked it will lead to unusual stress and
its resultant effects.
- b. Nafs al Lawwamah (The Reproaching Soul).
• There is only one God without limit, called Allah.
• God created heavenly beings called angels to serve God and they are opposed by evil spirits.
• Everything in the universe has a predetermined course. Nothing happens without the will or
knowledge of God.
• The Qur'an is not a book that consists solely of lawful and unlawful deeds; it covers a wide
range of subjects, including descriptions pertaining to moral perfection, various
characteristics of human beings, all situations and circumstances that are likely to occur in
this life, information related to the life of this world and the hereafter, fear of God, love for
Him, the ways to attain the good pleasure of God, etc.
• In brief, the Qur'an is a book that consists of all the information that man may need
throughout his life.
• It is the Book the Creator has sent to the created and it will remain as the sole guide for
humanity until the Day of Judgement.
• A believer who becomes aware of the importance and indispensability of the Qur'an to his
life must have a good knowledge of the Qur'an so that he can conduct his entire life in line
with the principles of the Qur'an and thus serve God as is due.