Fight with cancer using nanorobots
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Fight with cancer using nanorobots Fight with cancer using nanorobots Document Transcript

  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTS Fight With Cancer Using Nanorobots By Abhijeet KapseTable of ContentsAbstract .................................................................................................................................. 021. Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 03 1.1 Cancer Treatment ........................................................................................................ 03 1.2 Nanorobots ................................................................................................................. 042. Properties Of nanorobots .................................................................................................... 07 2.2 Behavior In Fluid Microenvironment ......................................................................... 083. Nanorobot Atchitecture ...................................................................................................... 10 3.1 Chemical Sensor ......................................................................................................... 11 3.2 Actuator ...................................................................................................................... 13 3.3 Energy Supply............................................................................................................. 134. Current Status Of Development………………….……………………..…………………..155. Advantages………...…………………………………………………………………………176. Disadvantages…………..…………………………………………………………………….197. Conclusion…………...……………………………………………………………………….20References…………………………………………………………………………...…………..21 1
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTS ABSTRACT According to World Health Organization, today cancer is a leading cause of death. Thereare two commonly used treatments for cancer, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. There are manyside effects of these cancer treatments. With the help of Nanorobots we can completely curecancer without any side effects. In the past decade, researchers have made many improvement onthe different systems required for developing practical nanorobots, such as sensors, energysupply, and data transmission. A few generations from now someone diagnosed with cancer willbe offered a new alternative to chemotherapy. The traditional treatment of radiation that kills notjust cancer cells but healthy human cells as well causing hair loss, fatigue, nausea, depression,and a host of other symptoms. A doctor practicing nanomedicine would offer the patient aninjection of a special type of nanorobots that would seek out cancer cells and destroy them,dispelling the disease at the source, leaving healthy cells untouched. A person undergoing ananorobotic treatment could expect to have no awareness of the molecular devices workinginside them, other than rapid betterment of their health. This paper presents study of cancertreatment using nanorobots. Further it also provides an insight into the future scope in this fieldof study. 2
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTSCHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Cancer Treatment: World health organization estimates that cancer is a leading cause of death and becauseof this 7.6 million peoples died last year. In the US, men have a 1 in 2 lifetime risk of developingcancer, and for women the risk is 1 in 3. Lung cancer is the most common cancer related causeof death among men and women. Radiation therapy is one of the major treatment modalities for cancer. Approximately60% of all people with cancer will be treated with radiation therapy during the course of theirdisease. Radiotherapy is the treatment of cancer and other diseases with ionizing radiation.Ionizing radiation programs cells for death in the area being treated (“the target tissues”) bydamaging their DNA structure, making it impossible for these cells to continue to grow(mitoticdeath). Although normal cells can also be affected by ionizing radiation, they are usually betterable to repair their DNA damage. Radiations affect on individual cells is probabilistic process.However, the effects of radiation on a large set of cells are more deterministic. The primary aimof radiotherapy is to deliver a high dose to maximize the probability of tumor of tumor controlwith risk to normal tissue within the tolerable level. In certain areas, the radio sensitivity ofsurrounding normal tissue becomes the dominant factor (e.g. optic chiasm for brain tumortreatment, or the spine for lung tumor treatment), thus limiting the maximum amount of dose thatcan be delivered. Some tissues such as in the lung have a low dose threshold for permanentradiation effects. Stereotactic technology, which has been applied to neurosurgery since the earlynineties, recently has been applied to radiation treatment of tumors, particularly brain tumors.Stereotactic radiotherapy involves varying the angle of a radiation treatment beam in 3-Dtogether with varying beam intensities to achieve very precise delivery of radiation to targettissue. The key problem with current chemotherapy is not that the drugs are not effective,existing cancer treatment drugs do successfully kill growing tumor cells, but that the rest of thebody cannot tolerate the drug concentrations required to eliminate the cancer cells. Drugconcentration high enough to destroy the tumors can kill the patient first, the aggressiveness ofchemo-therapy treatment is usually determined by doses the patient can withstand rather thandoses needed to eliminate all cancerous cells. Another major method to eliminate cancer is through surgical procedures. Cancer can besuccessfully treated with current stages of medical surgery tools. However, a decisive factor todetermine the chances for a patient with cancer to survive is: how precise can surgeon eliminatemalignant tissues from the patient’s body. 3 View slide
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTS1.2 Nanorobots: Nanorobotics is emerging as a demanding field dealing with miniscule things at molecularlevel. Nanorobots are extremely small nano electromechanical systems designed to perform aspecific task with precision at nanoscale dimensions. Its advantage over conventional medicinelies in its size. Particle size has effect on serum lifetime and pattern of deposition. This allowsdrugs of nanosize to be used in lower concentration and has an earlier onset of therapeutic action.It also provides materials for controlled drug delivery by directing carriers to a specific location.The typical medical nanodevice will probably be a microscale device assembled from nanoscaleparts. Nanorobots with sizes comparable to bacteria could provide many novel capabilities throughtheir ability to sense and act in microscopic environments. Particularly interesting are biomedicalengineering applications, where nanorobots and nanoscale structured materials inside the bodyprovide significant improvements in diagnosis and treatment of disease. The rapid progress inengineering nanoscale devices should enable a wide range of capabilities. For example, ongoingdevelopment of molecular scale electronics, sensors and motors provides components to enablenannorobots. Carbon will likely be the principal element comprising the bulk of medicalnanorobot, probably in the form of diamond or diamondoid/fullerene nanocomposites. Manyother light elements such as hydrogen, sulfer, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, silicon etc. will be usedfor special purposes in nanoscale gears and other components. The various components in the nanorobots design may include onboard sensors, motors,manipulators, power suppies and molecular computers. Perhaps the best known biologicalexample of such molecular machinery is the ribosome the only freely programmable nanoscaleassembler already in existence. 4 View slide
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTS So with the help of chemotactic sensors nanorobots detects the tumor cell. Becausechemotactic sensors have different affinity for each kind of molecule. After sensing the tumornanorobots inject the antidode of cancer into the tumor and it will destroy the tumor cell.With the help of nanorobot control design simulator scientists designed the nanorobot, whichconsists of sensors, rotors, fins and propellers and rotors. Fig: Nanorobots Using drugs and surgery, doctors can only encourage tissues to repair themselves. Withnanorobots, there will be more direct repairs. Cell repair will utilize the same tasks that livingsystems already prove possible. Access to cells is possible because biologists can insert needlesinto cells without killing them. Thus, nanorobots are capable of entering the cell. Also, allspecific biochemical interactions show that molecular systems can recognize other molecules bytouch, build or rebuild every molecule in a cell, and can disassemble damaged molecules.Finally, cells that replicate prove that molecular systems can assemble every system found in acell. Therefore, since nature has demonstrated the basic operations needed to perform molecular-level cell repair, in the future, nanorobots will be built that are able to enter cells, sensedifferences from healthy ones and make modifications to the structure. 5
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTS Nanocomputers will be needed to guide these machines. These computers will directmachines to examine, take apart, and rebuild damaged molecular structures. Nanorobots will beable to repair whole cells by working structure by structure. Then by working cell by cell andtissue by tissue, whole organs can be repaired. Finally, by working organ by organ, health isrestored to the body. Cells damaged to the point of inactivity can be repaired because of theability of nanorobots to build cells from scratch. Therefore, cell nanorobots will free medicinefrom reliance on self repair alone. Nanorobots are also candidates for industrial applications. In great swarms they mightclean the air of carbon dioxide, repair the hole in the ozone, scrub the water of pollutants, andrestore the ecosystems. 6
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTSCHAPTER 2 Properties Of Nanorobots The extreme concept of nanotechnology is the "bottom up" creation of virtually anymaterial or object by assembling one atom at a time. Although nanotech processes occur at thescale of nanometers, the materials and objects that result from these processes can be muchlarger. Nanorobots will typically be 0.5 to 3 micron large with 1-100 nm parts. Three micron is aupper limit of any nanorobot because nanorobots of larger size will block capillary flow. Thenanorobots Structure will have two spaces that will consist of an interior and exterior. The exterior of the nanorobots will be subjected to the various chemical liquids in ourbodies but the interior of the nanorobot will be closed, vacuum environment into which liquidsfrom the outside cannot normally enter unless immune system by having a passive, diamondexterior. The diamond exterior will have to be smooth and flawless because this preventsleukocytes activities since the exterior is chemically inert and have low bioactivity. According tothe current theories, nanorobot will possess atleast rudimentary two way communication. Robotswill responds to acoustic signals and will be able to receive power or re-programming instructionfrom an external source via sound waves. A network of special stationary nanorobots might bestrategically positioned throughout the body, logging each active nanorobot as it passes, and thenreporting those results, allowing an interface to keep track of all of the devices in the body. Adoctor could only monitor a patients progress but change the instructions of nanorobots in vivoto progress to another stage of healing. We treat the nanorobots as cylinders, 1μm in length and 0.5μm in diameter. Most ofthe cells are red blood cells, with diameter 6μm. The number densities of platelets and whiteblood cells are about 1/20-th and 1/1000-th that of the red cells, respectively. The nanorobotdensity equals 1012 nanorobots in the entire 5-liter blood volume of a typical adult. Thus asimilar number of nanorobots may be used in medical applications. The total mass of all thenanorobots is about 0.2g. Due to fluid drag and the characteristics of locomotion in viscousfluids, nanorobots moving through the fluid at ≈1mm/ s dissipate a picowatt. Thus, if all thenanorobots moved simultaneously they would use about one watt, compared to a typical person’s100-watt resting power consumption. On the inside payloads of up to 2000 siRNA moleculesrequired for a 70nm diameter tumor. SiRNA is a small interfering Ribonucleic acid, itdeactivates the protein production of ant RNA, so because of this cancer cells will die due tostarvation. So each nanorobot is having siRNA protein which is injected in the tumor cell afterbeing detected. We can also use Taxol which is a anticancer drug which react with the lower pHof tumors. This nanorobots consists of sensor element, power supply circuitry, motors oractuators,container, and nanochip. As a sensor we can use here biosensors or chemical sensors aschemical properties of cancer tumors are different than normal cells. Motors or actuators givesthe proper motion to nanorobot in blood fluid. Nanorobot container consists of cancer antidodeelement. Nanochip takes input signal from sensor and according to the input signal it performs itstask. Manufacturing better sensors and actuators with nanoscale sizes makes them find the sourceof release of the chemical. Nanorobot Control Design (NCD) simulator was developed, which is 7
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTSsoftware for nanorobots in environments with fluids dominated by Brownian motion and viscousrather than inertial forces. These nanorobots can work together in response to environmentstimuli and programmed principles to produce macro scale results. Replication is a critical basic capability for molecular manufacturing. Replication in thebody is dangerous because it might go out of control. If even replicating bacteria can givehumans so many diseases, the thought of replicating nanorobots can present unimaginabledangers to the human body.2.1 BEHAVIOR IN FLUID MICROENVIRONMENTS We consider nanorobots operating in small blood vessels. The fluid in the vesselscontains numerous cells, several microns in diameter. Viscosity dominates the nanorobotsmotion through the fluid, with physical behaviors quite different from our experience with largerorganisms and robots . The ratio of inertial to viscous forces for an object of size R moving withvelocity v through a fluid with viscosity η and density ρ is given by the Reynolds number asfollows: Re Rρv/η ..……………………………………………..(1) . Typical values for density and viscosity in blood plasma are represented by equations 2and 3 respectively ρ 1g / cm3 ………………………………...(2) η 10^ 2 g / cm.s ………………………………….(3) Flow speeds in small blood vessels are about 1mm/s. This is also a reasonable speedfor nanorobot motion with respect to the fluid , giving Re ≈ 10^−3 for a 1-micron nanorobot, soviscous forces dominate. Consequently, nanorobots applying a locomotive force quickly reach adesired velocity in the fluid. Hence, applied force is proportional to velocity rather than the directcorrelation applied in the acceleration of Newton’s law F = ma . Diffusion arising from thermalmotion of molecules (Brownian motion) is also important. Depending on the object’s size, thediffusion coefficient D characterizes the resulting random motion. In a time t, the root-mean-square displacement due to diffusion may be defined as: …………………………………….(4)For a ≈1μm nanorobot operating at body temperature, this displacement is ≈ microns with tmeasured in seconds. Brownian motion also randomly changes the nanorobot orientation.Chemicals have much larger diffusion coefficients than nanorobots. Because displacement growsas Ο( ) instead of linearly in t, diffusion is fast at short distances and relevant for coordinatingactivity among nearby nanorobots, but slow over long distances. Chemicals can signal medically 8
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTSrelevant events , and also be used for nanorobots communication. Communication ideallyinvolves chemicals not otherwise found in the body (to produce low signal noise level) which arebiologically inert over the relevant time scale of the nanorobot task, and can later be cleared fromthe body by existing biological processes. 9
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTSCHAPTER 3 Nanorobot Architecture 10
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTS The medical nanorobot for biohazard defense should comprise a set of integrated circuitblock as an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit). The architecture has to addressfunctionality for common medical applications, providing asynchronous interface for sensor andlogic nanoprocessor, which is able to deliberate actuator and ultrasound communicationactivation when appropriate. The main parameters used for the nanorobot architecture and itscontrol activation,as well as the required technology background that can advance manufacturinghardware for molecular machines, are described next. As a practical rule, the number ofnanodevices to integrate a nanorobot should keep the hardware sizes in regard to inside bodyoperation applicability.3.1 Chemical Sensor: Manufacturing silicon-based chemical and motion-sensor arrays using a two-levelsystem architecture hierarchy has been successfully conducted in the last 15 years. Applicationsrange from automotive and chemical industry, with detection of air to water element patternrecognition, through embedded software programming, and biomedical analysis. Through theuse of nanowires, existing significant costs of energy demand for data transfer and circuitoperation can be decreased by up to 60%. CMOS-based sensors using nanowires as material forcircuit assembly can achieve maximal efficiency for applications regarding chemical changes,enabling new medical applications. Sensors with suspended arrays of nanowires assembled intosilicon circuits, decrease drastically self-heating and thermal coupling for CMOS functionality.Factors like low energy consumption and high-sensitivity are among some of the advantages ofnanosensors. Carbon nanotubes serve as ideal materials for the basis of a CMOS ICnanobiosensor. Some limitations to improving BiCMOS (bipolar-CMOS), CMOS and MOSFETmethodologies include quantum-mechanical tunneling for operation of thin oxide gates, andsubthreshold slope. However, the semiconductor branch has moved forward to keep circuitcapabilities advancing. Smaller channel length and lower voltage circuitry for higherperformance are being achieved with biomaterials aimed to attend the growing demand for highcomplex VLSIs. New materials such as strained channel with relaxed SiGe (silicon-germanium)layer can reduce self-heating and improve performance. Recent developments in three-dimensional (3D) circuits and FinFETs double-gates have achieved astonishing results andaccording to the semiconductor roadmap should improve even more. To further advancemanufacturing techniques, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology has been used to assemblehigh-performance logic sub 90nm circuits. Circuit design approaches to solve problems withbipolar effect and hysteretic variations, based on SOI structures, have been demonstratedsuccessfully. Thus, while 10nm circuits are currently under development, already-feasible 45nmNanoCMOS ICs represent breakthrough technology devices that are currently being utilized inproducts. E-cadherin (uvomorulin, cell-CAM120/80) is a calcium dependent cell adhesion moleculeexpressed predominantly in epithelial tissues. It plays an important role in the growth anddevelopment of cells via the mechanisms of control of tissue architecture and the maintenance oftissue integrity. The nanorobot sensing for changes on E cadherin protein signals. Several studieshave shown that E-cadherin expression is significantly reduced in cancer tissues. So this will 11
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTSaffect on pH level of the cell and with the help of pH responsive sensor i.e. phosphatidic acidnanorobot can distinguish healthy cells and cancer cells. Thus, the response is improved byhaving the nanorobots maintain positions near the vessel wall instead of floating throughout thevolume flow in the vessel. A key choice in chemical signaling is the measurement time anddetection threshold at which the signal is considered to be received. Due to backgroundconcentration, some detection occurs even without the target signal. Figure: View of simulator workspace showing the vessel wall, cells and nanorobots. 12
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTS3.2 Actuator: There are different kinds of actuators, such as electromagnetic, piezoelectric,electrostatic, and electrothermal. Which can be utilized, depending the aim and the workspaceswhere it will be applied. Flagella motor has been quoted quite frequently as an example for akind of biologically inspired actuator for molecular machine propulsion. Adenosine triphosphate,also know for short as ATP, is equally used as an alternative for nanomotors. DNA and RNA(ribonucleic acid) prototypes were also proposed for designing different types of devices. A setof fullerene structures were presented for nanoactuators. The use of carbon nano tubes(CNTs) as conductive structures permits electrostaticallydriven motions providing forces necessary for nanomanipulation. CNTs can be used as materialsfor commercial applications on building devices and nanoelectronics such as nanotweezers andmemory systems. SOI technology has been used for transistors with high performance, lowheating and low energy consumption for VLSI devices. CNT selfassembly and SOI propertiescan be combined to addressing CMOS high performance on design and manufacturingnanoelectronics and nanoactuators. Owing to the maturity of silicon CMOS technology, as wellas the unique properties of CNTs, the integration of CNT and the CMOS technology can makeuse of the advantages of both. For a medical nanorobot, applying CMOS as an actuator based onbiological patterns and CNTs is proposed for the nanorobot architecture as a natural choice. Inthe same way DNA can be used for coupling energy transfer, and proteins serve as basis for ionicflux with electrical discharge ranges from 50-70 mV dc voltage gradients in cell membrane, anarray format based on CNTs and CMOS techniques could be used to achieve nanomanipulatorsas an embedded system for integrating nanodevices of molecular machines. Ion channels caninterface electrochemical signals using sodium for the energy generation which is necessary formechanical actuators operation. Embedded actuators are programmed to perform differentmanipulations, enabling the nanorobot a direct active interaction with the bloodstream patternsand molecular parameters inside the body.3.3 Energy Supply: The most effective way to keep the nanorobot operating continuously is to establish theuse of a continuous available source of power. The energy may be available and delivered to thenanorobot while it is performing predefined tasks in the operational environment. For a medicalnanorobot, this means that the device must keep working inside the human body, sometimes forlong periods, and must have easy access to clean and controllable energy to maintain efficientoperation. Some possibilities to power the nanorobot can be provided from ambient energy.temperature displacements could likewise generate useful voltage differentials. Cold and hotfields from conductors connected in series may also produce energy using the well-establishedSeebeck effect. Electromagnetic radiation from light is an option for energy generation indetermined open workspaces but not for in vivo medical nanorobotics, especially since lightingconditions in different kinds of workspaces could sharply change depending on the application.Kinetic energy can be generated from the bloodstream due to motion interaction with designeddevices embedded with the nanorobot, but this kinetic process would demand costly room withinthe nanorobot architecture. 13
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTS Electromagnetic radiation from light is used option for energy generation in determinedopen workspaces but not for in vivo medical nanorobots, especially since lighting conditions.Most recently , remote inductive powering has been used both for RFID and biomedicalimplanted devices to supply power on the order of milli watts. To operate nanorobot a lowfrequency energy source may be enough. This functional approach presents the possibility ofsupplying energy in a wireless manner in order to operate sensors and actuators necessary for thecontrolled operation of nanorobot inside the human body. Nanocircuit with resonant electricproperties can operate as a chip providing electromagnetic energy supplying 1.7 m at 3.3 V forpower, allowing the operation of many tasks with few or no significant losses duringtransmission. The energy received can be also saved in ranges of 1µW while the nanorobot staysin inactive modes, just becoming active when signal patterns require it to do so. Allied with thepower source devices, the nanorobots need to perform precisely defined actions in the workspaceusing available energy sources as efficiently as possible. Another method of generating power supply is take the energy from blood itself. Forthis nanorobot will having chemical in a container that chemical reacts with glucose and oxygenof blood. During this chemical reaction energy production takes place and this energy is used bynanorobot to perform tasks. 14
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTSCHAPTER 4 Current Status Of Development Look close. You may be staring at the end of cancer. Those tiny black dots arenanobots delivering a lethal blow to a cancerous cell, effectively killing it. The first trial onhumans has been a success, with no side-effects. “ It sneaks in, evades the immune system, delivers the siRNA, and the disassembledcomponents exit out.” Fig: Nanorobots In Cancer Tumor Those are the words of Mark Davis, head of the research team that created the nanobotanti-cancer army at the California Institute of Technology. According to a study to be publishedin Nature, Davis team has discovered a clean, safe way to deliver RNAi sequences to cancerouscells. RNAi (Ribonucleic acid interference) is a technique that attacks specific genes in maligncells, disabling functions inside and killing them. The 70-nanometer attack bots made with two polymers and a protein that attaches tothe cancerous cells surface. These robots carry a piece of RNA called small-interfering RNA(siRNA), which deactivates the production of a protein, starving the malign cell to death. Once ithas delivered its lethal blow, the nanoparticle breaks down into tiny pieces that get eliminated bythe body in the urine. The most amazing thing is that you can send as many of these soldiers as you want, andthey will keep attaching to the bad guys, killing them left, right, and center, and stopping tumors.According to Davis, "the more [they] put in, the more ends up where they are supposed to be, intumor cells." While they will have to finish the trials to make sure that there are no side-effects . The Caltech team combined nanobots with Andrew Fire and Craig Mellos Noble Prize-winning discovery RNA interference from more than a decade ago. Fire and Mello were looking 15
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTSfor a way to disable genetic mutations of worms at their DNA. How did they do it? In cellproduction, DNA leads to messenger RNA (mRNA) that carries off the instructions for makingimportant proteins. Fire and Mello used particles called small interfering RNAs, or siRNAs, tocut out unwanted pieces of the genetic code in the mRNA of their worm subjects. Fast forward 10 years and the researchers at Caltech combined the RNA interferencetechnology with nanotechnology and injected nanorobots with siRNAs designed to cut out thegenetic mutation for cancer in mRNA into the bloodstreams of cancer. Phase 1 of the clinicaltrial with 15 patients began in March 2010, and the data so far is promising. If the studies continue to show promise, nanorobots could be our best friends when itcomes to cancer. We may be able to customize dosages based on cancer type, and they appear toleave good cells alone and work in conjunction with other treatments. For example, researchersat Georgia Institute of Technology and the Ovarian Cancer Institute are also studying the use ofsiRNAs. Their method is to hide a nanoparticle with siRNAs inside of a hyrogel, which thensneaks its way inside cancer cells. Once inside, it kills the cells and helps make chemotherapymore effective. The researchers have even been able to time the release of siRNAs from thenanobots to get the most out of them. Despite all of the promise nanobots may hold for cancertreatment, there are still a lot of unknowns. 16
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTSCHAPTER 5 ADVANTAGES Total Cure: More than million people in this world are affected by this cancer disease. Currently there is no permanent vaccine or medicine is available to cure the disease without any side-effects. The currently available drugs can increase the patient’s life to a few years only if it is lately detected, so the invention of this nanorobot will make the patients to get rid of the disease. Small Size: As we will inject the nanorobots into the patients body we require robots size as small as possible. Size of nanorobot is 0.5 to 3 micron. Upper limit of its size is 3 micron. As minimum diameter of capillary is 5 to 10 microns. So Nanorobots easily flow in the body without blocking the capillary flow. Inexpensive(if mass produced): The initial cost of development is only high but the manufacturing by batch processing reduces the cost. Automated: Nanorobots will not require any monitoring or control system for performing the task. These are fully automated robots. When we inject nanorobots into the human body these will sense the cancer tumor and after detecting the tumor, robots will inject antidote in it. Painless Treatment: Existing cancer treatment drugs do successfully kill growing tumor cells, but that the rest of the body cannot tolerate the drug concentrations required to eliminate the cancer cells. These treatment kills not just cancer cells but healthy human cells as well causing hair loss, fatigue, nausea, depression, and a host of other symptoms. A person undergoing a nanorobotic treatment could expect to have no awareness of the molecular devices working inside them, other than rapid betterment of their health. As nanorobots attacks only on caner tumor patient will not suffer any pain. 17
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTSEasily Disposable After finishing the task nanorobots will reach outlet of patient’s body. If thenanorobot has been introduced into the body in order to perform a specific task. It will beremoved, which means that either it will obtain outlet from the circulatory system, or itwill pass through an already existing port of exit. It can either proceed to a point where itcan be removed easily. Nanorobot will not leave the body unless they done their job. 18
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTSCHAPTER 6 DISADVANTAGES The initial design cost is very high. Complicate Design. Nanorobots should be Accurate. If there is an error then harmful effect occurs. Electrical systems can create stray fields which may activate bioelectric-based molecular recognition systems in biology. Electrical nanorobots are susceptible to electrical interference from external sources such as RF or electric fields, EM pulses, and stray fields from other in vivo electrical devices. Hard to Interface. 19
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTSCHAPTER 7 Conclusion The development of nanorobots may provide remarkable advances for diagnosis andtreatment of cancer. Using chemical sensors they can be programmed to detect different levels ofE-cadherin and beta-catenin in primary and metastatic phases. Our work has shown acomprehensive methodology on tracking single tumor cell in a small venule, where nanorobotsusing communication techniques to increase their collective efficiency. The simulation hasclearly demonstrated how better time responses can be achieved for tumor detection, if chemicalsignals are incorporated as part of nanorobot control strategy. As observed in the study, thefollow gradient with attractant signal is a practical method for orientation and coordination ofnanorobots. It has enabled a better performance for nanorobots to detect and reach canceroustargets. This approach can be useful in the treatment of many patients for a detailed examinationand intervention. 20
  • FIGHT WITH CANCER USING NANOROBOTS References1) M. Venkatesan,B. Jolad “Nanorobots in Cancer Treatment” IEEE 20102) R.Hariharan , J.Manohar “Nanorobotics As Medicament” IEEE 20103) Adriano Cavalcanti , Bijan Shirinzadeh “Nanorobots for Laparoscopic Cancer Surgery” IEEE ICIS 20074) Adriano Cavalcanti , Bijan Shirinzadeh , Mingjun Zhang and Luiz C. Kretly “Nanorobot Hardware Architecture for Medical Defense” Sensors 20085) Adriano Cavalcanti, Tad Hogg, Bijan Shirinzadeh, Hwee C. Liaw “Nanorobot Communication Techniques: A Comprehensive Tutorial” IEEE ICARCV 2006 International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision6) A. Cavalcanti, R.A. Frietas Jr.,”Nanorobotics Control Design: A Collective Behavior Approach For Medicine”, IEEE transaction on Nanobioscience, vol 4, no.2, pp.133-140, June 20057) Robert A. Freitas Jr.,” Progress in Nanomedicine and Medical Nanorobotics” pp. 1-54 20048) Adriano Cavalcanti, Bijan Shirinzadeh, Robert A. Freitas Jr. and Luiz C. Kretly,” Medical Nanorobot Architecture Based on Nanobioelectronics” Recent Patents on Nanotechnology 2007, Vol. 1, No. 1 21