UNIT–III – BUSINESS LETTERS AND REPORTSBUSINESS LETTERS – A written form of communication, written by an authorized person of an organization, is called a business letter. They serve as a means to reach out to people not only within the locality and neighborhood but also in other cities and nations. They will be sent to other firms and organizations, customers, suppliers, companies, government offices, credit agencies, employees etc.SIGNIFICANCE OF BUSINESS LETTERS – 1) Assists in sustaining business relationships 2) Appropriate form of communication for complex information. 3) Serves as permanent records. Valuable repository of information for future. 4) Helps in reaching a large and geographically diverse audience. 5) Economic (as compared to phone calls)PURPOSE OF BUSINESS LETTERS –To create and establish new business relationships and to sustain the existing businessrelationships are the ultimate purposes of writing any business letter. But each individualletter will have a unique purpose. Purposes may be – • To inform. • To congratulate. • To enquire. • To order. • To request. • To collect dues. • To complain. • To make an adjustment. • To sell a product, service or scheme. • To apply for a job. • To respond to complaints.PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS LETTER-WRITING – A business letter must appeal tothe reader’s interest and induce in him the proper mood. i) Be Courteous and Considerate – Courtesy and consideration forge stronger bonds. Important points – • Be natural and use a conversational tone.
• Use expressions that show respect. • Avoid dogmatism. • Be tactful thoughtful and appreciative. Original Revised You have not mentioned We are sending a folder which mentions all the the color and size of the colors and sizes of the dressing gowns we stock. dressing gown that you Just put a tick against the one you want and mail wish to buy. it to us in the enclosed postage paid envelope. Your indifferent attitude Had you been a bit more careful we could have has caused a great loss. avoided this 20% loss.ii) Be Direct and Concise –One way of assuring directness and conciseness is to keep sentences short. Lack of clarity and conciseness is mainly because of – • Long involved sentences. • Sentences revealing over-enthusiasm. • Verbosity or wordiness. • Redundancy or use of Low Information Content words. Examples – Original Revised I would like to take this opportunity to Thank you for promptly say thank you for responding to our responding to our request. request the way you did. By acting now, we can finish sooner By acting now, we ca finish than if we wait until a later date. sooner. Example of phrases that can be replaced with short, more concise words – Phrase Concise Version By the reason of the fact that Because In the event of If In the near future Soon In spite of the fact that Although, thoughiii) Be Correct and Complete – Correctness refers to concreteness and precision, and completeness refers to thoroughness or giving all the required details. Important points. • Use evaluative and factual words/ phrases. • Use unambiguous words and phrases.
• Proofread your message for accuracy of spelling and grammar before sending. • Answer all queries. • Give all relevant information. Examples – Original Revised We are submitting a cheque in the We are sending a cheque for Rs 20,000. amount of Rs 20,000. The office will be inspected by the AICTE team members will inspect the AICTE team members. office. The majority 75% In the near future Next monthiv) Be Specific and Positive – Specificity helps in creating a proper image of what you say and you can achieve your goal easily. Example - Abstract Concrete You will get a substantial discount if You will get a discount of 20% if you pay you pay promptly. by 20 December, 2009. Positive words are always best to achieve your goal. Emphasize on the positive part of the message. Example – Negative Positive You have paid no attention to Please look into our complaint. our complaint.v) Be Warm and Friendly – On receipt of a letter a reader analyses how it would affect him and his organization and attempts to determine the action on his part. So we need to focus on the recipient’s needs, purposes or interests. A recipient- oriented style should be used (‘you’ attitude). Example – We/ Matter-of-Fact Attitude ‘You’ Attitude We are happy to receive your request Thank you for your request for the for the automatic lock. automatic lock. But on certain occasions the more impersonal matter-of-fact tone shows greater sensitivity. Example – ‘You’ Approach Impersonal Approach
This course will help you improve This course will help the readers to your English. improve their spoken English. You have not connected the wires The wires have not been connected properly. properly.IMPORTANT FEATURES OF AN EFFECTIVE BUSINESS LETTER – i) Brevity –Subject matter should be presented briefly. ii) Clarity – Vagueness and ambiguity should be avoided. Style of writing should be direct. iii) Accuracy – Facts mentioned should be genuine and true. iv) Politeness – Should be courteously written. v) Consideration of the addressee – The nature, the post and the mental level of the receiver must be taken into consideration. vi) Use of jargons – Should use only those technical terms which the reader or listener is sure to understand.STRUCTURE OF BUSINESS LETTERS –COMPULSORY ELEMENTS:-Business letters have a distinct structure and layout. Sevenelements normally appear in every business letter. i) HEADING – Also known as letterhead. Shows the organizations (sender’s) name, full address and telephone number. Printed letterheads are placed at the center. But in most of the written letters the address is aligned with the left margin. ii) DATE – Should include month, day and year. Dates can be written in one of the two forms:- March 6, 2009 (American Style) 6 March 2009 (Oxford University Style) iii) INSIDE ADDRESS – Identifies the recipient of the letter and includes the full name/designation and business address of the recipient. This address is same as the address that appears on the envelope. It must align to the left-hand margin of the letter. A courtesy title should precede the recipient’s name. Ex : Professor (Ms) Gayatri Devi Department of Professional Communication Delhi Institute of Management Studies Greater Kailash New Delhi – 110002 iv) SALUTATION – Located two spaces below the last line of the inside address. Aligned to the left hand margin of the letter. Address your letter
to a person by name rather than title. For form letters or if you cannot find a specific name you may choose a salutation like – Dear Students; Dear Committee Member etc. After formal salutation, use colon :- Dear Mr. Arora: After informal salutation, use comma:- Dear Paul, v) MESSAGE – It forms the main organ of a letter and usually occupies the greatest amount of space. Generally made up of three parts:- a) an introductory statement specifying the nature of the business; b) the message to be conveyed along with necessary details; c) the concluding remarks. vi) COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE - A formal and courteous way of signaling the end of the letter, separated from the message by a blank line. The first letter of the first word of a complimentary close is written in capitals and a comma is put at the end of the last word. vii) SIGNATURE BLOCK – Includes the signature, name and title of the sender which gives authenticity to the information contained in it. A letterhead indicates that you are representing your organization. But if your letter is on plain paper or runs to a second page, you may want to emphasize that you are writing legally for the company. For that the company’s name is written in capital letters a double space below the complementary close and then includes the sender’s name and title four lines below that.ADDITIONAL ELEMENTS: - Certain elements may be used in any combinationaccording to the depending upon the requirements of the particular letter. i) ADDRESSE NOTATION – Are used in letters that have a restricted readership. Generally appears a double space above the inside address, in all capital letters. Ex, PERSONAL, CONFIDENTIAL etc. ii) ATTENTION LINE – When a letter is addressed to an organization but is directed to a specific person, his name or designation or both are indicated against this element. Placed between the inside address and salutation. Ex – Mutual LIC 22, Sarojini Naidu Marg Hyderabad – 500007 Attention : Mr. Ram Prasad Dear Sirs, iii) SUBJECT LINE – Lets the recipient know at a glance what the letter is about. Usually it is double-spaced between the salutation and the first line of the body of the letter. iv) REFERENCE INITIALS – Are included to show who helped prepare the letter on occasions where one person is dictating or writing the letter and
another person is producing it. Appear two spaces below the last line of the signature block. v) ENCLOSURE NOTATION – Appears at the bottom of the letter, one or two lines below the reference initials. vi) COPY NOTATION – Indicates who is receiving the courtesy copy (cc). Some companies indicate copies made on photocopier (pc) or they simply use copy (c). vii) MAILING NOTATION – Placed at the bottom of the letter after reference initials or enclosure notations or at the top of the letter above the inside address on the left hand side. The same notation will appear on the envelope also. Ex- By Registered Post. viii) POSTSCRIPT – Afterthoughts of the letter, to the message that require emphasis, or personal notes. The last item in any letter and mostly preceded by P.S.LAYOUT OF BUSINESS LETTERS –Proper Layouts enhances the overalleffectiveness of any letter. Four types of Layout - i) Block Layout :- • Most popular format in India. • All elements except the letterhead are all aligned to the left margin. • First word or each paragraph need not be intended. • Follows open punctuation i.e. end punctuation marks are omitted, except the salutation, complimentary close and message. ii) Modified Block Layout :- • Heading and date-line are aligned to the right. • Complimentary close and signature block are also aligned to the right. • Quite similar to Block Layout. iii) Semi-block Layout :- • Resembles modified block layout. • But the start of each paragraph is indented. • Makes the letter a bit clumsy and has gone out of style. iv) Simplified Layout :- • Omits Salutation.
• Often includes a subject line in capital letters. • Omits complimentary close. • Convenient when the recipient is not known to you. • Objections are raised on its impersonal approach and mechanicality.TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS – 1) Sales Letters 2) Credit Letters 3) Enquiry Letters 4) Quotation Letters 5) Order Letters 6) Claim Letters 7) Adjustment Letters 8) Job Application Letters Order, Inquiry, Claim and Adjustment Letters are informative. They either ask for information or provide information for further action. Credit collection sales and job application letters are persuasive. They attempt to persuade or motivate readers towards a desired action.SALES LETTERS – • Most cost effective and time efficient means of marketing products or services. • A form of advertising. • Are targeted to selected types of customers. • Objective is to convert its readers into potential customers. • Promotes the sale of products or services.GUIDELINES FOR SALES LETTERS – • Catch the reader’s attention through an attractive opening. Questions, quotations, anecdote, statistics, central selling point and appeal are certain devices to catch attention. • Arrows interest in your product or service by highlighting the product’s or the service’s key selling points. • Present the reader with benefit information. • Increase desire by elaborating and expanding the main benefit of using your product or services. Persuasive words, pictures, ‘you’ attitude, action terms, ` verbs and adjectives, and talking about price are certain devices. • Induce him to take action.
• Add a post script to emphasize the central appeal, to motivate the reader to act on to invite the reader’s attention to other enclosures. • Include all necessary information.CREDIT LETTERS – • Credit refers to promising payment in future. • Credit can encourage spending and foster a strong buyer-seller relationship among firms and customers. • Business on large scale is almost impossible without credit facilities.TYPES OF CREDIT LETTERS – a) Request for credit – • Should mention the source of information about the product or service to be bought. • Should indicate desired terms of credit. • Supply essential information about the business, credit references and banks that will vouch for promptness and reliability in payment. b) Granting credit – • Conditions of credit terms can be stated. • Least of benefits (coupon, discount, etc.) can be included. • Show that the credit references have been obtained. • Explain the terms of credit. c) Refusing Credits – • Explain the credit policy. • State the reasons for refusing credits. • Suggest the possibility of making credit arrangements in the future. • Show that you care for the reader’s situation. • Always be able to support your refusal with forceful reasons and facts.ENQUIRY LETTERS – • Are written to seek information from other organizations. • Could be of two types – Solicited Inquiry and Unsolicited Inquiry. • Solicited inquiry means an inquiry made in response to the advertisement of the seller. • Unsolicited inquiry means an inquiry made by the buyer at his own initiative enquiring about the product or service that he wants to purchase.GUIDELINES FOR ENQUIRY LETTERS – a) Indicate the nature of enquiry at the beginning. b) Be a clear statement of the type of information or health you are seeking. c) Phrase your questions clearly and concisely. d) State reasons for the enquiry. e) Express your appreciation for their consideration of your request. f) Enclose a self-addressed, stamped envelope.
g) Indicate your willingness to pay any fees or to cover the cost of any materials that the reader may send to fulfill your request. h) Close with a statement which would elicit quick response.QUOTATION LETTERS – • A letter sent in reply to an enquiry. • Be prompt in sending all the required information. • Must give point-by-point detailed information. • As the enquiry letter is sent to a number of organizations, a quotation letter is judged by its quality, price, promptness in reply, additional advantages, etc.ORDER LETTERS – • Request for dispatch and delivery of goods or services. • Should include particulars with regard to the quantity, size and other specifications. • A printed order form should have a covering letter.CLAIM LETTERS – • Are written to bring mistakes to the notice of those who must own the responsibility for them. • Motive of these letters is not to express your anger but to correct the mistake either by repair or replacement. • Claims must be supported with sales receipts, letters, catalogue descriptions or invoices.GUIDELINES FOR CLAIM LETTERS – • Provide a reference point (consignment no., invoice no., date, etc) • Explain the problem clearly giving data where necessary. • Explain briefly the difficulty you are facing. • Appeal to the supplier’s sense of fair play and its reputation. • Specify clearly what adjustments you want to consider. • Address the letter to a senior officer of the organization.ADJUSTMENT LETTERS – • Written in reply to claim letters. • Objective is to satisfy your customer and safeguard the reputation of your organization. • Help in restoring the confidence of the customer in an organization.GUIDELINES FOR ADJUSTMENT LETTERS – • Begin with a good attitude statement : thank the customer for bringing the mistake to your notice. • Convey good-news first, the adjustment you are offering or the action you are taking.
• Apologize for the problem : do not use overly dramatic tone. • Explain why things went wrong, if situation warrant. • Be careful while explaining the claimant’s role, if any, in creating the problem. • Give additional information for the same product or send new sales material about any other product of yours in which the customer might feel interested. • Remind the customer how you are honoring the claim. • Clarify any action that your customer must take. • Address your letter to the claimant by name.JOB APPLICATION LETTERS • Is like a sales letter as its written to sell one’s services. • Avoid saying anything that cannot be supported by documents. • Exaggerations should be avoided. • Always accompanied by a resume or curriculum vitae. • Two essential parts – (A) Cover Letter, (B) Resume. (A) COVER LETTER- Are written to gain attention and motivate the prospective employer to take an action. 3 parts- (i) Introduction (ii) Main Text (iii) Conclusion. (i) Introduction – State why you are applying, where you discovered the job opening and which job you are applying for . Summarize your best credentials. (ii)Main Text – Impress upon the reader how the company stands to benefit from your skills rather than talking about how the job will make you happy. Give specific details of your achievements. (iii)Conclusion – Main function is to ask the reader for a specific action and to make the reply easy. Try to sound natural and appreciative. Refer again to your strongest selling point and if desired, your date of availability. (B) RESUME – A technical as well as marketing document which present your past and present performance to your prospective employer. Should present a biographical sketch. Should be objective, easily accessible and detailed. GUIDELINES FOR RESUME (i) Appearance Neat and error-free with no whiteout or hand corrections
Legible and avoid crowding. Printed on good quality paper of A-4 size. Should not exceed two pages in length. (ii) Personal Information Include your name, address, phone numbers, email address and website. Make sure that the information allows an interested employer to reach you easily. (iii) Career/Professional Objective Optional. Make it effective by being as specific as possible. (iv) Education/Academic Preparation Highest selling point for a fresher. Begin with your most recent education. Consider listing notable courses if the information will be helpful. Include your grade-point average if they are impressive. (v) Work Experience/Professional Skills List your jobs in chronological order with the current or last one first. Include any part-time or summer internships or projects done. Each entry in this heading includes the name and location of the organization, your job designation, the duration of your work and also a brief summary of the work. Be sure to use very concrete language, including jargons. Place this section either before or following the section on education. (vi) Activities and Achievements/Special Interests and Aptitudes Include community service/volunteer activities, languages you can speak and write, special equipments you can operate, relevant hobbies, etc. Mention the awards or honours you have received. (vii) Memberships Mention if you belong to any organization in your field Be sure to include any offices or committee appointments you have held. (viii) References Should be last in a resume Choose only the three or four people who combine the best elements of familiarity with your work and a credible position. Do get permission beforehand from the people you list as references.TYPES OF RESUMES – 3 types of resumes
(i) Chronological. (ii) Functional. (iii) Hybrid. (i) Chronological – Emphasizes your education and work experience. Most effective when such experience clearly relates to the job you are seeking. List entries in reverse order, beginning with your most recent experience or qualification. Preferred by most employers. Most common way of organizing the information in a resume. (ii) Functional – Features the skills you bring to the job. Provides examples of the most significant experiences that demonstrate these abilities. Emphasizes individual fields of competence i.e. demonstrates the applicants’ ability to handle the position they are applying for. (iii) Hybrid/Combination – Includes the best features of the chronological and functional resume. Not commonly used as it tends to be very long and repetitive.OFFICIAL LETTERS –GOVERNMENT LETTERS Written for correspondence with an organization or outside the office. Exchanged between government departments; government officers and between non-government organizations; and persons and government authority.CHARACTERISTICS OF OFFICIAL LETTER i) Etiquette and politeness, whatever be the content and the status of the recipient. ii) Should be precise and concise. iii) Dramatic style, too much quotations and foreign phrases should be avoided. v) Correctness of language; free from ambiguity. vi) Should deal with only one subject. vii) Letters should be written in clear and lucid style and should be complete. viii) Subject matter should be divided into – beginning/introduction, body/subject matter and closing.
PARTS OF AN OFFICIAL LETTER (i) Name of the correspondent/sender and his address. (ii) Date and place. (iii) Number – An official communication must be numbered. Ex- No BC 198(2) (iv) Subject line – Ex- “Premium of LIC” (v) Salutation – Sir/Madam. (vi) Body – Introduction, Main Body and Conclusion. (vii) Complimentary Close – Yours faithfully, yours sincerely. (viii) Signature – Should be legible and without prefix. (ix) Superscription – Address of the addressee on the envelope. (x) Optional Lines – List of enclosures, number of copies.DEMI-OFFICIAL LETTERS Generally written by one government official to another government official. Or from government officers of same rank and different departments. Used by government officials when it is desired that the matter should receive the personal attention of the official concerned. Also used when the matter is confidential or not sufficiently important to merit on official letter. Addressed personally to the officer. Avoids the format style of writing and is written in the first person singular. Cannot be written on behalf of another official.LETTERS OF AUTHORITY – Written to authorities in different departments fordifferent works (request for fund, call to draw the attention, law and order, naturalcalamities, etc.)CIRCULAR LETTERS – Can be official or semi-official. Used to have an enquiry or issue some instructions. Purpose of writing a circular should be clearly expressed in a brief, polite and courteous way.EXPRESS LETTER – They are in form and words exactly like telegrams except that they are sent by post.REPORTS – A piece of factual writing, based on evidence, containing organized information on a particular topic. Used for the study of existing procedures and practices as well as for launching new projects and assessing the progress of the on-going projects.
OBJECTIVES OF REPORTSThe purpose for which reports are written vary widely. Given below are some importantpurposes of reports: • To record an experiment (primary research report/laboratory report) • To record research findings or technical specifications (a report on the details of a new report) • To present a record of accomplished work (Project report) • To document current status (an inspection report) • To record and clarify complex information for future reference (a report on policies and procedures) • To document schedules, timetables, and milestones (a report on a long term plan) • To recommend actions that can be considered in solving certain problems (recommendatory report) • To present information to a large number of people (annual report) • To present organized information on a particular topic (a report describing the working of various divisions of an organization)SIGNIFICANCE OF REPORTS • Provide information in a scientific way. • Help in planning new ventures. • Help in keeping records which provide necessary feedback. • Persuade and motivate the readers. • The officials evaluate the performance of their employees on the basis o reports. • Important means of information within and outside the organization.TYPES OF REPORTSReports are classified by certain criteria viz. source, frequency, target audience, lengthand intent. Types are – i. Voluntary or authorized (source) ii. Internal or external (target) iii. Short or long (length) iv. Oral or written (mode of presentation) v. Routine or special (frequency) vi. Informational or analytical (purpose)Voluntary or Authorized Reports • Classified on the basis of source i.e. who initiates them. • Voluntary reports are prepared on one’s own initiative. • Authorized reports are at the request of someone.Internal and External Reports
• Classified on the basis of target audience. • Internal reports are designed for use within the organization. Ex. Memo. • External reports are for people outside the organization. • External reports are more formal than internal reports. • External reports may be in letter formal ore manuscript format.Short and Long Reports • Classified on the basis of the details they contain. • Short report discusses one point of the problem. • Long report discusses a problem in detail. • Long reports are prepared after extensive and formal research. • Short reports are concise and prepared in short span of time.Oral and Written Reports • Classified on the basis of mode of presentation. • Oral reports are simple and easy to present. • Immediate feedback is possible, but audience need to comprehend quickly. • Written reports contribute to the permanent records of the organization. • Written reports are more accurate and precise, and can be edited, reviewed, retrieved and stored.Periodic or Special Reports • Classified on the basis of frequency of publication. • Periodic reports are prepared and presented at a regular, prescribed interval • Periodic reports contain mere facts without an opinion and recommendation • Special reports are related to a single occasion or situation. • Special reports deal with non-recurrent problems.Informative or Analytical Reports • Classified on the basis of purpose. • Informative report entails provision to all details and facts pertaining to the problem • Informative reports focus on documenting new information in an objective, factual and organized manner. • Analytical reports analyses facts, draws conclusions and make recommendation. • Analytical reports comprises of various stages – a. Drafting problem statement b. Evolving criteria c. Suggesting alternatives and evaluations d. Drawing conclusions and making recommendationsWRITING STRATEGIES OF REPORT
1. Analyze the problem and purpose. 2. Determine the scope of the report (should be narrowed) 3. Determine the need of the audience 4. Gather all the information 5. Analyze and organize the information 6. Write the first draft 7. Revise, review and edit 8. Write the final draftSTRUCTURE OF REPORTS – Elements of a report 1) Title Page 2) Preface 3) Letter of Transmittal 4) Acknowledgements 5) Table of Contents 6) List of Illustrations 7) Abstract/Executive Summary 8) Introduction 9) Methodology 10) Discussion/Finding/Analysis 11) Conclusion 12) Recommendation 13) Appendices 14) References and Bibliography 1) Title Page – Contains of the title of the report and the name of the person or organization to whom the report is being submitted. 2) Preface – An optional element which introduces the report by mentioning its salient features and scope. 3) Letter of Transmittal – A brief covering letter from the report writer explaining the causes of writing the report. 4) Acknowledgement – Contains the names of persons who contributed to the production of the report. 5) Table of Contents – Provides the reader an overall view of the report and shows its organization.
6) List of Illustrations – A list giving a systematic information about tables, graphs, figures and charts used in the report. 7) Abstract or Executive Summary – Summarizes the essential information in the report focusing on key facts, findings, observations, results, conclusions and recommendations. 8) Introduction – Introduces the report providing background information, defining its aims and objectives and discussing the scope and limitations of the report. 9) Methodology – Summarizes the methods of data collections, the procedures of investigating the situation and the criteria of survey. 10) Discussion/Description/Analysis – It’s the main part of the report which presents the data collected in an organized form. Focuses on facts and findings of the report. Usually divided into sections and sub-sections. 11) Conclusions – Conveys the significance and meaning of the report by presenting a summary of discussions and findings, results and conclusions, implications of the conclusions presented and inferences. 12) Appendices – Contains supporting material or data which is kept separate from the main body of the report to avoid interrupting the line of development of report 13) References and Bibliography – Contains reference to books, journal, reports, etc. used in the report. May also consist of a list of materials for further references.TECHNICAL PROPOSALS • Written offers to initiate a proposed course of action. • The word proposal is derived from the word ‘propose’ that means to offer or put forward for consideration. • It is a systematic, factual, formal and persuasive description of a course of action or set of recommendations or suggestions. • Written for a specific audience to meet a specific need. • Initiates new projects, provide fresh ideas, solved problems or reinforce and prompt innovative strategies.
TYPES OF PROPASALS Criteria Types DescriptionContent and Format Non-Formal Small proposals involving small projects. Formal Long proposals with elaborate descriptions and discussions.Nature of Audience Internal Addressed to readers within an organization. External Communicated to people outside an organization.Source of Origin Solicited Written in response to request for proposal. Unsolicited Written without any request for proposal.FORMAT OF PROPOSALS 1) Title Page 2) Table of Contents 3) List of Figures 4) Abstract or Summary 5) Methodology 6) Introduction 7) Statement of Problem 8) Proposed Plan and Schedule 9) Advantages/Disadvantages 10) Recommendation 11) Conclusion 12) AppendicesThese sections however could broadly be divided into – 1) Front Matter 2) Technical Section 3) Managerial Section 4) Financial SectionRESEARCH PAPER, DISSERTATION AND THESIS 1) Research Paper – • An organized analysis of a subject written mainly to record and disseminate information or knowledge, or to present a point of view on a selected topic. • A documented prose work. All important analysis have to be supported by adequate evidence. • Every research paper is a unified composition arising out of the study of a particular subject, assembling the relevant data and organizing and analyzing the same.
• It may be written on any topic or subject – scientific, technical, social, etc. but the treatment is scholarly in nature. • Basic components are – a) Title b) Authors and Addresses c) Abstract d) Introduction e) Materials and Methods f) Results g) Discussions h) Conclusion i) Acknowledgements j) List of Symbols k) References or Bibliography2) Dissertation – • A dissertation arises out of the study, research and analysis undertaken over a semester or a term. Hence it is also known as Term-Paper • It concerns itself with the intellectual, visual or cultural context of a candidate’s work and the development of that work. • It should identify and discuss the work’s references (cultural, historical and theoretical. • It should be original and follow academic conventions i.e. be objective, structured, consistent, clearly and concisely and clearly expressed and correctly referenced. • Structural elements are – a) Title Page b) Acknowledgements c) Content Page d) Abstract e) Introduction f) Literature Survey g) Methodology h) Results i) Discussion j) Conclusion k) References l) Appendices3) Thesis – • It’s a long research report presented after extensive research on a particular topic in the form of a thorough analysis • Must be supported adequately by statistical data, survey findings, experimental results, etc. • May spend a time period of two to five years.
• Stages in Thesis writing are – a) Selecting a topic b) Delivering the problem c) Collection of source material d) Taking Notes (choosing the reliable and approved material, jotting down notes) e) Thesis Statement (begin to shape the information collected) f) Final Outline g) Writing drafts• Structure of thesis includes – a) Title Page b) Declaration c) Acknowledgements d) Table of Contents e) Abstract f) Introduction g) Literature Reviews h) Middle Chapters (the journal articles of which the student was the major author, optional) i) Materials and Methods j) Theory k) Results and Discussions l) Conclusions and Suggestions m) References n) Appendices