Potential of agro based industries employment and self employment by abhay and rashmi


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Areport on youth employment in rural karnataka.

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Potential of agro based industries employment and self employment by abhay and rashmi

  1. 1. Summer internship report On 2011Potential of Agro based Industries Employment and Self Employment Abhay Kumar Mandal & Rashmi Kumari NIAM 6/30/2011
  2. 2. Summer internship report-2011 CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that Mr. Abhay Kumar Mandal and Miss Rashmi Kumari are bonafidestudent of Post Graduate Diploma in Agri-Business Management (2010-2012), NIAM, Jaipurparticipated as summer trainee in “Indigram Skill and Knowledge Initiatives Pvt. Ltd.”Companyfor the period May- June 2011They have successfully completed their summer project titled “Conducting a feasibility studyon potential of Agro Industries & Rural Service based Employment and Self Employmentin Gulbarga, Karnataka” towards the partial fulfillment of their course.Date: Mr. Mayuk Dasgupta (Vice President) Indigram Skill and Knowledge Initiatives Pvt. Ltd NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 2
  3. 3. Summer internship report-2011 CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that Mr. Abhay Kumar Mandal and Miss. Rashmi Kumari is bonafidestudent of Post Graduate Diploma in Agri Business Management (2010-2012), NIAM, Jaipurworked as Summer Trainee in Indigram Skill and Knowledge Initiatives Pvt. Ltd. Company forthe period May-June 2011.They have successfully completed his Summer Project “Conducting a feasibility study onpotential of Agro Industries & Rural Service based Employment and Self Employment inGulbarga, Karnataka” towards the partial fulfillment of the course.Date: Dr.Kamal Mathur Director, PGDABM NIAM, Jaipur NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 3
  4. 4. Summer internship report-2011 DECLARATIONThis is to declare that, we, Abhay Kumar Mandal and Rashmi Kumari student of PostGraduate diploma in Agri-Business Management (2010-2012), NIAM, Jaipur have given originaldata, information and maintained full confidentiality to the best of my knowledge in the projectreport titled “Conducting a feasibility study on potential of Agro Industries & Rural Servicebased Employment and Self Employment in Gulbarga, Karnataka.” and that, no part of thisinformation has been used for any other assignment but for the partial fulfillment of therequirements towards the completion of the said project.Date: Abhay Kumar Mandal & Rashmi Kumari PGDABM (2010-12) NIAM, Jaipur NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 4
  5. 5. Summer internship report-2011 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIt is a matter of great pride for us to be associated with Indigram Skill and Knowledge InitiativesPvt. Ltd. We hereby would like to thank Indigram Skill and Knowledge Initiatives Pvt. Ltd. andall its staff members whomever we came across, for their kind hospitality and co-operationduring our project work. We would like to extend my deepest gratitude to Mr. Alok Baraya,CEO for giving us an opportunity to work with Indigram Skill and Knowledge Initiatives Pvt.Ltd. as Summer Interns. This has been a pleasant and learning experience for us. We wish toexpress my deep sense of gratitude to our Guide, Mr. Mayuk Dasgupta for his able guidanceand useful suggestions, which helped us in completion of the project work in time. He has been amentor and critic in the best of senses. We would also like to thank Mr. Premsingh Rathod(ISAP) and Mr.Ramalingham(ISAP) for his valuable help during the project work. We extendour thanks to Ms. Deepti Nigham for her kind co-operation and support throughout the project.Our heartfelt gratitude and appreciation goes to all Farmers, Students, Dealers, Distributors,Government officers and Industries whose patient answers to our queries formed the foundationof project. We reverently express our special gratitude to Mr. Anurag Bhatnagar I.A.S(Director General, NIAM), Dr. Kamal Mathur (Director, PGDABM, NIAM) for their valuablesuggestion and feedback time to time. My sincere thanks also goes to Dr. Hema Yadav, (DeputyDirector and Principal coordinator PGDABM, NIAM) for her guidance and moral support whichhas always been with us. Finally, yet importantly, we would like to express our heartfeltgratitude to our beloved family for their blessings. Regards Abhay Kumar Mandal & Rashmi Kumari PGDABM(2010-12) NIAM, Jaipur NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 5
  6. 6. Summer internship report-2011 POTENTIAL OF AGRO BASED INDUSTRIES EMPLOYMENT AND SELF EMPLOYMENT FOR YOUTHExecutive SummaryProject titled “feasibility study on potential of Agro Industries & Rural Service basedEmployment and Self Employment” was conducted in Gulbarga districts of Karnataka. Mainobjective of this survey is to determine potential of skill development vocational center in andaround the identified areas of implementing the Skill development program. This surveyprovides vital, direct and meaningful input that allows the professional to consider futuredecision making actions with greater security and accuracy.The project involved a face to face interaction with drop-out student, college student, major AgriIndustries, farmers in the area and the other Govt. institutes such as block development office,district education office, Agriculture departments, village talukas and panchayats.Both primary and secondary data collection has been collected to gather information. Differentset of questionnaire was developed for students, farmers and Agri Industries to know theirdemand and requirements.The analysis was drawn that large no. of youth is unemployed in surveyed areas and industriesalso requires skilled employees with different kind of skills ranging from technical skill, jobrelated skills, managerial skills, communication skills etc. as per requirement of the industries.Main thing is that majority of youth does not have technical education so they are forced to do alabour job in industries or as Agriculture labour with very less wages, some of the youth who arewell educated also doing labour works as they don’t have any technical qualification.So there is needed to start skill development programme in identified areas by considering therequirements of the industry i.e. what type of trained people they want and also take care of thepotential of the rural youth. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 6
  7. 7. Summer internship report-2011IntroductionUnemployment is a major problem of India and presently more than 4.5 crores of youth areunemployed in this country. Young people are a major human resource for development, keyagents for social change and driving force for economic development and technologicalinnovation. But harnessing these resources is a major challenge. The youth challenge isconsidered as the most critical of the 21st century’s economic development challenge. Youth,defined by the United Nations as persons between the ages of 15 and 24, is a transitional periodfrom childhood to adulthood, According to the Census of India 2001, nearly 40 per cent of thepopulation was in the age group of 13 to 35 years. The number of youth aged 15 to 24 years was195.07 million, which accounted for 19.0 per cent of the whole population. India contributesabout 33 per cent of youth population in the developing Asian countries (ADB, 2008) Theunemployment was the highest in the age group of 20-24 years and at least 83% of theunemployed belong to the age group of 15-29 years in each social group both in rural and urbanareas.The critical aspects of the challenge are mostly related to labor market entry where young peopleencounter difficulties in finding and maintaining a decent job. The growing large number ofunemployed youth is one of the most daunting problems faced by developed and developingcountries alike (ILO, 2004, 2005b). Failure to integrate young people into the labor market hasbroader consequences for the future prosperity and development of countries.Though the share of agriculture in the aggregate economy has declined rapidly during theplanned development of the country; it assumes a pivotal role in the rural economy. The NSSsurveys on employment show a decline in the share of agriculture and an increase in the share ofnon-agricultural sector in aggregate employment. Such a structural shift though expected in adeveloping economy, has been slower in the Indian economy. This process is even slower in therural economy. Nevertheless in rural India the growth rate of employment in the non-agriculturalsector has been far short of the increase in the rural workforce. As a consequence, the incidenceof rural unemployment on the basis of current daily status (CDS) is as high as seven percent inthe year 1999-00. There is no evidence to suggest improvement in the quality of ruralemployment, which is generally associated with the structural changes of employment. In this NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 7
  8. 8. Summer internship report-2011context employment in agriculture remains important. Agriculture is one of thestrongholds of the Indian economy and accounted for 14.2 per cent of the countrys grossdomestic product (GDP) in 2010-11, according to the Central Statistical Organization’s (CSO)estimates. Furthermore, the sector provided employment to 55 per cent of the work force whichaccount for 467 million labour forces.Background of the studyIndigram skill and knowledge initiative pvt.ltd is an education and skill development companyworking in agri-rural areas providing employability training in vocational skills including selfemployment opportunities by training, placement and mentoring of rural youths. Knowledge andskills of the national workforce are the key determinant for future economic growth. A massiveinvestment by the various government sectors in rural areas is expected to create hugeinfrastructure and job opportunities for millions of rural youth. Indigram will act as an enablerthat will equip these youth with just the right kind of skills and be a part of this Endeavour.Vision of Indigram is to be the largest skills and employability training provider for rural youthin India. In the next ten years vision will be to provide appropriate training to over 2 million ruralyouth and create gainful employment or self employment opportunities and sustainablelivelihood to equal number of families.This report is framed around central questions.  How can the job skills and placement opportunities for unemployed vulnerable youth be increased in India, with particular attention to the Gulbarga, Karnataka?  What are the entry points for youth in the local industries, and how do these points relate to economic growth, employment generation, livelihood and labor policies in the Gulbarga district of Karnataka?  What are the formal and non-formal education and training opportunities that can help in preparing school dropout unemployed youth for working and engagement in civil society?  What kinds of strategies and programs Indigram can consider to strengthen efforts to meet the education, training, and employment of unemployed out-of-school youth? NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 8
  9. 9. Summer internship report-2011Need for the studyThe main goal of the report is to mesh current knowledge and information of India workforcedevelopment into a coherent strategy that examines the three main components of theassessment: the youth, the economic environment that shapes workforce demand, and theinstitutional supply of workforce training. Because 175 million students enroll in class I everyyear, Out of which only 20 million finish class XII; 55%student (96 Million) drop out up to classVIII & 70% (122 Million) by class X. 152 million has no access to obtain Vocational Training.What happens to those who do not finish school? Enter the employment / labor market and learnwhile working. Take what are available menial jobs which normally fail to bring them abovepoverty line or Remain unemployed.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY  Identification of catchment areas for students in the target locations within an age group of 18 ~ 30 yrs.  Sensitizing rural youths and their families on the need for skills training in various sectors and potential analysis on various agri and rural services based training for income generation.  Identifying industries that require skilled employees for entry level jobs  Understanding existing skill gaps for industries and their entry level requirements.  Market potential of vocational training in the target locations  Assessment report focuses on the challenges and opportunities for employment for out- of-school Youth in Gulbarga. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 9
  10. 10. Summer internship report-2011Why Gulbarga?The choice of the Gulbarga reflects initial investigations that showed clear potential foreconomic growth in the geographical area. Further, Indigram already had a presence in theseregions, thus creating possibilities of synergy between current Indigram programming ineducation and economic growth. Gulbarga has five most backward taluka out of eight talukas inwhich large number of unemployed youth is present. Gulbarga has relatively more per capitaland holding but agriculture is only rain fed which does not give employment to farmersthroughout the year. Hence there is a need of vocational training which will provide them analternate source of income.GULBARGA DISTRICT PROFILEThe district is one among the 30 districts of Karnataka State. It is located in the Northern part ofthe state and lies between North latitude 170 10 and 170 45 and between east longitude 760 10 and770 45.It is bounded on the west by Bijapur district of Karnataka and Solapur district ofMaharastra on the north by Bidar district of Karnataka and Zaheerabad district of AndhraPradesh and on the sotuh by Yadgir, a newly formed district of Karnataka. The districtconstitutes 7 revenue blocks and 8 educational blocks, they are Afzalpur. Aland, Chincholi,Chittapur, Gulbarga (North), Gulbarga (South), Jewargi and Sedam.Socio-Economic Characteristics of GulbargaIn recent years a High Power Committee was constituted by the govt. of Karnataka to look intothe problem of regional imbalances in the state. The committee (Popularly known asNanjundappa Committee) submitted its report in 2002. The committee, on the basis of varioussocio-economic indicators assessed the development of 175 taluks in the state. The committeehas identified the committee has identified six taluks among the seven taluks in the Gulbargadistrict as the most backward taluks. MOST BACKWARD TALUKAS OF GULBARGA DISTRICT IN KARNATAKA STATE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 10
  11. 11. Summer internship report-2011 TALUKA RANK IN STATE INDEX SEDAM 155 0.72 CHITTAPUR 165 0.65 AFZALPUR 170 0.62 ALAND 172 0.61 CHINCHOLI 173 0.57 JEWARGI 174 0.57During our survey we find that talukas which is backward, desire of student and farmer toundergo vocational training is more as compared to develop talukas. Jewargi, Aland andAfzalpur talukas are economically backward hence farmer and student of these talukas should betargeted.INDUSTRIAL AND EMPLOYMENT PROFILEGulbarga has 3 industrial areas and 3industrial estates. Gulbarga has an Industrial base for AgroBased, Cements, and Chemicals industry etc. The recent investments in Cement by ACC,Rajashree and India Cements make the District as an emerging destination for Cement industries.The proposed Suvarna Karnataka Corridor envisages the creation of an Information Technologyzone, Bio Technology zone and a cement zone. There are 7 Large and Medium industries in thedistrict with an investment of Rs 1,683.95 Crore There are 129 factories in the district. There is aproposal for a Textile Park in the district of Gulbarga. Gulbarga is the house of more than 300pulse mill which provide employment to more than 3000 people. The district economy is mainlyan agricultural economy as agriculture contributes 31.7% of district income and providesemployment to 67% of the population.Above mentioned data and interaction with student, farmers and industries gives us idea thatpotential of skill development courses in Gulbarga is very high and Indigram can move ahead forfurther expansion program. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 11
  12. 12. Summer internship report-2011 Industry and industry employment in different talukas Textiles Chemical Engineering Others Total Employment Afzalpur --- 1 --- 1 2 3000 Aland 1 --- 1 2 4 400 Chincholi --- --- 1 --- 1 50 Chittapur --- --- 4 4 8 300 Gulbarga --- 3 9 47 59 3000 Jewargi --- --- 1 --- 1 50 Sedam --- --- --- 3 3 1500 District 1 4 16 57 78 8300Gulbarga has large number of domesticated animals and birds and trend is also very encouragingwhich creates demand of very large number of veterinary doctors which veterinary college arenot able to fulfill the increasing demand so this gap can be filled though trained Para-Vetpersonal, Para-Vet can be the one of the course which Gulbarga centre can offer as short durationcertificate course. Cattle population Cattle 819620 Buffaloes 224109 Sheep 459515 Goats 562104 Poultry 733497 Other 152560 Total 2951405Population of Gulbarga is 21.75 lakh and area is about 16,224 sq-km with population density of129 person per square kilometer, which shows that per-capita land holding is large, means thereis sufficient land for cultivation but due to unaware about commercial use of uncultivable landthere source of income from these land is very low. If they will be trained for using these landthen they will generate extra income from the uncultivable land, for that farmer needs training NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 12
  13. 13. Summer internship report-2011which Indigram can provide by this means farmer and Indigram both will bebenefitted. During our survey we also find that farmer are interested undergoing training whichincrease their livelihood, particularly farmer of Afzalpur are interested undergoing poultrytraining. Land use Classification: (Unit: Area in Hectares) Area Uncultivated under Land Not available for land excluding Taluka Forest cultivation fallow land Fallow land Pmt. Land Pastures Mics. put to Barren & & other Tree Other non uncultivable Cultivable grazing cropes, Current fallow agri.uses land waste land` groves fallows land 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Afzalpur 78 5819 2395 458 1322 4 15083 Aland 2854 3465 3142 974 3469 55 28504 2600 Chincholi 19622 3006 13003 2723 6516 857 8703 700 Chittapur 6150 9368 3689 4530 674 21 25591 1480 Gulbarga 4121 8150 4223 78 4322 39 24237 300 Jewargi 310 8317 1838 294 6486 60 3761 230 Sedam 2181 3295 6823 360 3066 50 3345 1475 TOTAL 35316 41420 35113 9417 25855 1086 109224 6785 Land distribution of Gulbarga (Unit: Area in Hectares) Number Percentage Area Marginal holding 112331 20.46 13463 Small holdings 191271 34.86 281868 Semi Medium 158492 28.87 435718 Medium 73750 13.45 435001 Large 12956 2.36 180220 Total 548808 100 1346270 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 13
  14. 14. Summer internship report-2011 Research MethodologyMethodologyAfter the objectives of the survey were well defined, the Descriptive Research design was takenup. The research was of survey type and so immense importance was given on the technicalitiesof sampling, method of constructing questionnaires, interviewing the respondents, editing,coding, and tabulation of data and the statistical techniques to analyze data.Type of Research Undertaken: - Descriptive type of research was undertaken as informationneeded through this project was clearly defined. Descriptive research is preplanned andstructured. A formal research design specifies the method for selecting the sources ofinformation and collection of data from those sources.Sampling and Data collection:  Field data collection through Questionnaire, Form student’s communities and Industries.  Exploratory method (personal interview) has been adopted for data collection and executive opinion on specific subject.  Random sample method was selected for collection of data from field for students and farmer communities like mandis, haats, Gram Panchayats, etc.Sources of information:Primary Data  Data collection from students available in various high schools, colleges and other academic institutions like ITI.  Data collection from farmer communities like Mandis, Haats, Gram Panchayats, etc. by direct interaction.  Data collected from industries in Agri and Rural services sector in the target market. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 14
  15. 15. Summer internship report-2011Secondary Data  Demographic details of the target location through data sources like govt. statistics, district employment exchanges, and other data bases.  District agriculture dept, Rural Development offices, Block development office and other sources.Period of the studyOur field level study was for one month i.e. in the month of JulyArea of study  Gulbarga district of Karnataka.  Catchment area of 40 ~ 100 kms from the target location  Catchment area for students: For this project our main focus area was Gulbarga district of Karnataka and for making it more effective and efficient we divided Gulbarga district into 8 educational blocks they are 1. Gulbarga (North) 2. Gulbarga(South) 3. Afzalpur 4. Aland 5. Chincholi 6. Chittapur 7. Jewargi 8. Sedam Number of school, college and coaching institute selected for survey NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 15
  16. 16. Summer internship report-2011 Sr. No. Name of block No of schools No. of college No of coaching selected for selected for institute study study selected for study 1 Gulbarga (North) 7 12 8 2 Gulbarga(South) 4 10 5 3 Afzalpur. 3 5 - 4 Aland 2 2 - 5 Chincholi 2 5 - 6 Chittapur, 2 2 - 7 Jewargi 2 2 - 8 Sedam 2 2 -Villages surveyed in different talukas of GulbargaName the villageIndustry selected for surveyName the industry from databaseAnalysis:The data collected has been analyzed and interpreted through MS Excel, MS Project, GoogleScholar, SPSS etc. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 16
  17. 17. Summer internship report-2011KEY FINDINGS & IMPACT ASSESSMENT A) student’s key findingStudent’s response for vocational training (Total students surveyed – 212) 1. Interest of students in different sectors Name of Agriculture Sales Retail Healthcare Para vet. Others total the sector based and service No. of 58 40 34 32 28 20 interested students 212 percentage 27.36% 18.87% 16.04% 15.09% 13.21% 9.43% 100% No. of interested students in diffrent sector 20 Agriculture based 58 28 Sales and service 32 Retail 40 Healthcare 34 Para vet. OthersDuring our survey we interacted with students of school, college, private coaching institute anddrop-out individual. We find that Majority of students (27.36%) are interested in takingagricultural based vocational training, main reason behind this is average land holding in NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 17
  18. 18. Summer internship report-2011Gulbarga is high and this sector has high potential of self employment. There isgreat opportunity for rural drop-out student to start their own business as well as generateemployment for other unemployed youth in their village. It was good to notice that everyindividual are interested for skill development course some for permanent job other for par timejob. Second interested sector is sales and service as expected because of very high demand ofthese skilled personal. Poultry was one of the high demanded courses in Afzalpur talukas ofGulbarga because of more Muslim population.Model for poultry farming: 2. Student interest for job location Job Job in own Job in own Job in Interstate destination village district own state job No. of 24 102 60 27 interested students 120 100 80 60 40 20 No. of interested students 0 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 18
  19. 19. Summer internship report-2011 Inference – Majority of students wants job in their own district, main reason behind this is socio economic condition of student’s family. Student from economically backward number is more in Gulbarga. Student wants to take a part time job by which they can earn money without leaving school and college and also support their family financially. Accountable number of students has shown interest in doing job in their own state. These are the drop out students who left their studies and presently searching job, they are ready to work in any part of Karnataka even any part of India. 3. Preferred salary choice of the students:Amount Rs.15000- 8000- 5000-8000 <5000of salary 10000 10000No. of 89 69 39 13studentsinterested NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 19
  20. 20. Summer internship report-2011 No. of students interested 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 No. of students interested 10 0Inference –Large percentage of students wants higher level salary so that they can sustain in the job andcontinue it for longer time. 4. Family background of rural youth Family Marginal Small Large service business background farmer farmer farmer No of 26 42 38 68 37 students % of students 12.32 19.91 18.00 32.22 17.45 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 20
  21. 21. Summer internship report-2011 students family background 37 26 Marginal farmer 42 Small farmer Large farmer 68 38 service businessStudent surveyed were mostly from family with service background, large farmer, business etc. 5. Educational status of rural youthEducational <10 th pass 10th pass 12th pass Graduatequalification% of students 15.6 47.86 21.8 14.7No of students 33 101 46 31 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 21
  22. 22. Summer internship report-2011 % of students <10 th pass 10th pass 12th pass GraduateDuring our survey we targeted only literate person because our objective was to find student andfarmer for vocational training courses. Prerequisite for doing this course is at least 8th classpassed. 6. Do they want to continue their studies further? wants to continue their further study yes 181 no 31 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 22
  23. 23. Summer internship report-2011 wants to continue their further study 200 150 wants to continue their 100 further study 50 0 yes no Maximum of surveyed student we interested in continuing his education further which means maximum want to do part time job. 7. Willingness to pay for a training with confirmed job opportunity willingness to pay for a training with confirmed job opportunity yes 208 no 3208 students of 212 surveyed wants to pay for the course which provide confirmed job opportunity, thisdata shows that maximum are interested in doing vocational courses. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 23
  24. 24. Summer internship report-2011 willingness to pay for a training with confirmed job oppurtunity 250 200 150 willingness to pay for a training with confirmed 100 job oppurtunity 50 0 yes noRecommendationsBuild a bridge of better communication and understanding on workforce developmentbetween partnering institutions. Improved communication and understanding by the firms andeducation and training institutions is a first step in changing traditional practices of training,recruitment, hiring, and expectations. This communication leads to a “marriage” among theprivate sector, the training institutions, and youth, and allows for the distinct actors to contributeto the process.Promote core employability skills and competencies. India is just now developing a system ofworkforce skills and competencies that can be used by industry and education institutions. Thissystem creates a set of standards that is an alternative to the formal education credential. Themain priority is to develop simple and straightforward frameworks of skills and competenciesthat enable private sector, training providers, and youth to be partners in the workforcedevelopment process.Support institutional transformation of technical education. Accompanying this process isthe reform and transformation of education and training institutions to be more oriented to theworkplace. This institutional change process happens at different speeds in the public and privatesectors. Throughout the NGO community, many new and small projects are currently developing NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 24
  25. 25. Summer internship report-2011this workplace orientation. We recommend that Indigram assist in this institutionalstrengthening, particularly with new institutions committed to youth workforce development.Encourage active labor market programs for all skill levels of youth, but with particularattention to rural and vulnerable youth. The main challenge of all employment trainingprograms is to establish working linkages between demanders and suppliers of training. India isnow at a crossroads for this change of attitude. We recommend that programs place priority onactive linkages among the private sector, programs and youth.Limitations for study  Time was major limiting factor for this project because of random selection of students and such a many school and colleges has to cover.  Direct interview method adopted for students and industries, so bias may appear due to reasons like human exaggerating nature, social prestige, prejudices, suspicions etc.  With the consideration of all constraints and limitations, adequate efforts have taken to minimize biasness and make these efforts more meaningful.Directions for further ResearchBibliography 1. Youth Employment and Unemployment in India By- S. Mahendra Dev and M. Venkatanarayana Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai http://www.igidr.ac.in 2. Unemployment among youth in India: Level, nature and policy implications By- Pravin Visaria Institute of Economic Growth University of Delhi 3. Vocational Training in India By- Dr. Ashok Kolaskar India Knowledge Commission NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 25
  26. 26. Summer internship report-20114. Jobs for the 21st Century: India Assessment A Report by- USDA5. Socio-Economic Dimensions of Unemployment in India By- S. Ray and Rattan Chand6. Report on BACKWARD REGION GRANT FUND District Planning Committee, Gulbarga NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR 26