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  • 1. CONTINUOUS & COMPREHENSIVEEVALUATION (CCE)
  • 2. The primary aim of education is not to enable students to do well in school, but tohelp them do well in thelives they lead outside of school. 2
  • 3. Education exists in the larger context of society. When society changes – sotoo must education if it is to remain viable!
  • 4. CBSE : NATIONAL BOARD41 School Boards in India3 National Boards• 2 formal education sector• 1 non formal education sector CBSE – 11,772 school 25 countries ▪Private ▪Kendriya Vidyalayas ▪State Government ▪Navodaya Vidyalayas ▪ CTSA ▪Others a) Kendriya Vidalayas - 964 b) JNV - 553 c) Govt. School - 1882 d) Independent Schools - 8355 e) CTSA - 18 4
  • 5. 10 CBSE 0 SCHOOLS 140 177 338 683 251 913 1821806 169 30 544 19 1369 362 50 24198 171 09 649 294 Maharashtra 351 347 Andhra Pradesh 292 Manipur 50 4 Arunachal Pradesh 251 Meghalaya 19 Assam 170 Mizoram 9 192 Bihar 362 Nagaland 30 351 Chhattisgarh 362 Orissa 192 Goa 9 Punjab 683 09 Gujarat 209 Rajasthan 544 Haryana 913 Sikkim 183 292 Himachal Pradesh 177 Tamil Nadu 258 415 Jammu & Kashmir 100 Tripura 24 11 Jharkhand 294 Uttar Pradesh 1369 Karnataka 415 Uttarakhand 338 258 Kerala 848 West Bengal 171 Madhya Pradesh 649 A&N 100 848 Daman & Diu 5 Chandigarh 140 Delhi 1806 D&N Haveli 5 4 5 Lakshadweep 4 Puducherry 11
  • 6. SCHOOLS ABROAD JapanBANGLADESH 01BAHRAIN 06 NIGERIA 01BURMA 01 UGANDA 01ETHIOPIA 02 MALAYSIA 02IRAN 01 JAPAN 02SAUDI ARABIA 25 WEST AFRICA 01KUWAIT 16 U.S.S.R. 01LIBYA 02 YEMEN 01OMAN 11 INDONESIA 01AFGHANISTAN 01 SINGAPORE 04NEPAL 12 UNITED ARAB 57QATAR 07 EMIRATES 6 6TANZANIA 01 THAILAND 01
  • 7. CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION EIGHT REGIONAL OFFICESAjmer Allahabad Bhubaneshwar Chennai 7Delhi Guwahati Panchkula Patna
  • 8. CHANGING PARADIGMSCHOOLS YESTERDAY SCHOOLS TODAY• Traditional • Cross – roads• Teacher-directed • Transition• Direct Instruction • Unprecedented changes in• Teacher dominated all fields• Knowledge – Content and • Emergence of knowledge Theory society• Homogenous Learners • School is not like a• Textbook driven manufacturing plant• Limited learning resources • Technological Invasion• End of year exams - Summative • ‘World is Flat’ - Global• Memory and Recall tests 8
  • 9. 21 st CENTURY LEARNING Move from …Teacher-directed Learner-centeredDirect Instruction CollaborativeKnowledge ConstructivismContent SkillsBasic Skills ProcessTheory Higher-order ThinkingCurriculum PracticeIndividual Life SkillsExaminations GroupLearning for Tests CCE Learning for Life 9
  • 10. SCHOOLS TOMORROW: SCHOOLS WITHOUT BOUNDARIES• Cross cultural influences• Changing Employability Skills• Changing technological Skills• Multi dimensional Life Skills• Experiential Learning and Moving Beyond the Classroom• Liberal Arts Education – Life Skills Education• Citizenship Programme 10
  • 11. STUDENTS – SKILLS REQUIRED• Enhanced Self Esteem• Self Confidence• Assertiveness• Ability to Establish Relationships• Ability to plan and set goals• Acquisition of Knowledge related to Specific content areas 11
  • 12. TASK• Each participant in the group has been given a Key Word.• Reflect on the Key Word.• The Participant will introduce himself/ herself using this language.• I am (name) from (name of school). To me the word - -------- means -----------• You have 30 seconds to introduce yourself.
  • 13. COMMONLY USED WORDSDIAGNOSTIC School Based Evaluation HOLISTIC CONTINUOUS ComprehensiveFormative assessment descriptive indicator Self awareness RATING SCALE Skills CO SCHOLASTIC LEARNER PROFILE Lateral Thinking AptitudeSCHOLASTIC Life Skills Thinking Skills Summative Assessment PERIODICITYREMEDIAL FEEDBACK ProjectTechniques & toolsof evaluation indicators of assessment attitudes anecdotal RECORD portfolio
  • 14. HUNTER COMMISSION 1882 SADLER COMMISSION 1917EXAMINATION A REFORMS: HARTOG COMMISSION 1929 HISTORICAL CCE MUDALIAR COMMISSION 1952-53PERSPECTIVE NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION 1979 REVIEW 1986 NCF 2000 NCF 2005 POSITION PAPER NCERT 2006 CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION INTRODUCES CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION 2009 CLASS X BOARD EXAM OPTIONAL 2011 14
  • 15. RESEARCH & NEED ANALYSIS• SMS Survey• Focus group discussions with various Stakeholders: – Principals – Teachers – Parents – Students• Online Survey-Questionnaire- by MDI, Gurgaon 15
  • 16. SMS SURVEY THE QUESTION Do you think if Board Examination were not conducted, you will A) Have more for conceptual clarity & learning experience B) Have less stress and be mentally healthier C) Find it equally useful if there is a well conducted exam at the school level. 16
  • 17. RESPONSESSMS RESPONSE BREAKUP RESPONSE SUMMARY Of the SMS responses, to the question that if Board Exams were not conducted- -53% said that they will have more time for conceptual clarity & learning experience -59% said that they will have less stress and mentally healthier -52% said that they will find it equally useful if there is a well conducted school examination. 17
  • 18. ANALYSISRESPONSE SUMMARY KEY ANALYSIS• 71% said YES to • Strong indication that Board exams at least 1question lead to stress and anxiety for students. • Opinion split but still favourable on• 56% said YES to well conducted school examination at least 2 questions as a replacement for Board Exams. • Opinion split but still favourable on• 36% said YES better conceptual clarity & learning to all questions. experience in absence of Board Exams• 29% of all respondents said NO to all questions. 18
  • 19. POINTS FOR DISCUSSION WITH STAKEHOLDERS AND FOCUS GROUPS ON EXTERNAL PUBLIC EXAMINATION1. External public exam is adversely affecting the teaching learning process especially in classes IX and X.2. Academic excellence is not the only criteria for measuring future potential or success in life.3. CCE – Continuous and Comprehensive assessment can be used for holistic assessment of a child. CCE would include  Scholastic  Co-scholastic aspects 19
  • 20. POINTS FOR DISCUSSION WITH STAKEHOLDERS AND FOCUS GROUPS ON EXTERNAL PUBLIC EXAMINATION4. Online testing on demand (when the learner is ready) in lieu of Board Examination – class X would provide certification of skills while at the same time would reduce stress and anxiety.5. Grading which is indirect and absolute would help to reduce stress and anxiety (subject wise percentile).6. Accreditation of schools will help to raise quality and standards of institutions, (provide parents with information about schools in an objective manner) 20
  • 21. Examination Reforms CBSE (2000-2005-2009 – NCF) CCE : I-V 2004 VI – VIII 2007 IX – X 2000 15 minutes of additional time to students for reading the question paper . Restructuring of question papers. More internal choices of questions Reduce the number of questions 21
  • 22. EXAMINATION REFORMS (2000-2005-2009 – NCF) Students comfortable in respect of time and speed. School based assessment in Mathematics/ Science/Social Science Sample Question Papers / Marking Schemes Five chances of compartment examination in five subjects Shift from content based testing to problem solving Counseling facilities through telephone, e-mail and the print media before and after examinations 22
  • 23. WHAT IS CONTINUOUS & COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE)? Continuous and Comprehensive evaluation (CCE) refers to a system of school basedassessment that covers all aspects of student’s development . 23
  • 24. SCHEME OF THE BOARDAll Schools– CCE / SBA – Oct. 2009 – Class IXOptional Aptitude Test for sts., parents to decidechoice of subjects + CCE + Scholastic– Class X 2010 – Board exam– Grading System – Class IX & X - 2009 - 2010 24
  • 25. SCHEME OF THE BOARDSecondary schools Board examination CCE class IX 2009 onwardsSr. Sec. Schools  No class X board examination – 2011  Class X Board exam 2011 - For students who wish to move out of the CBSE system after class X - Students who wish to go in for employment. 25
  • 26. HOW WOULD THE CCE SCHEME HELP?• reduce stress and anxiety• reduce the dropout rate• will do away with practice to finish the entire syllabus and follow it up with Pre-Board(s) and study leave• greater focus on learning rather than teaching to the test.• emphasis on conceptual clarification through experiential learning• more time available for transaction of curriculum. 26
  • 27. HOW WOULD THE CCE SCHEME HELP? (Contd…) help the learners to develop holistically in terms of personality focus on the co-scholastic aspects prepare the students for life making students physically fit, mentally alert and emotionally balanced. more time on their hands to develop their interests, hobbies and personalities. enable the students, parents and teachers to make an informed choice about subjects in Class XI. motivate learning in a friendly environment equip students with Life Skills especially Creative and Critical thinking skills, Social skills and Coping skills 27
  • 28. CCE : System of school-based evaluation of students that covers all aspects of Students’ Development Continuous ComprehensiveLearning Assessment Scholastic aspects Co-scholastic aspects periodic (Scholastic aspects (Co-scholastic aspects include curricular areas include life skills, Co- or subject specific curricular, attitudes areas) and values) 28
  • 29. Support Services Support material Tele-counseling •SQP’s (Print website) •Marking Schemes •Performance Analysis Examination Reforms Concessions – Visually Challenged •Based on NCF 2005• Seating Arrangement De-stressing• Amanuensis •Restructured Qs Papers •No school bag• Enlarged print in Math & •Moving Content – Application Sc. & Tech •No Home Work (upto class II)• Can offer Music, Home Sc. •Higher Order Thinking Questions •Focus on Soft Skills even if not available in school - Art, Music, Dance & Craft •Integrated School based Internal Assessment •Alternatives to HW ( I- V) X - •Math •Science •Social Science • CCE VI-VIII •9 point scale Concessions – ‘Differently Abled’ •Spot Evaluation •Persons with Disabilities – New nomenclature •0.1% merit •Use of computer/typewriter (outside Delhi • Studying 3rd lang. upto •CCE also ) class–VIII–exemption •Fee to amanuensis • Can use an amanuensis •PD – visit to centre allow a week in advance • Ground floor seating •Helper/scribe from host school for practical Sports attendance for CBSE/SGFI – 60% instead • Alternative as visuals of 75% 29
  • 30. Classes I & II Techniques Tools Observation Observation Oral schedule Oral questions Classes III,IV & V Classes XI & XII Diagnostic test Techniques ToolsTools FEATURES Oral Oral questionsQuestion paper Covers all aspects Written Question paperAssignment Continuous – Continual AssignmentProject Comprehensive Personal project Scholastic Curricular + Co-scholastic Social Diagnostic testPractical (activity / Classes I - V LS 5-point gradingexperiment) CCEOral questions A* Outstanding 90-100 A Excellent 75-89Portfolio Classes VI – XII NPE – 1986, POA – 1992 Techniques B Very Good 56-74 Written 5-point grading Violences NCF - 2005 PURPOSE C Good D Scope for 35-55 Practical Improve teaching learning improvement Below 35 Viva voce Develop learning abilities through activities rather then exams Classes VI to VIII Co-scholastic Areas Tools Classes IX & X Life Skills •Questions Work Education •Observation Techniques Tools Visual & Performing Arts Question Tools Schedule Written Attitudes & Values •Interview schedule Practical paper Oral questions Assignment •Checklist Viva voce Techniques Question paper •Rating scale Project Oral Assignment •Anecdotal records Practical (activity / Written Project •Document analysis experiment) Practical Diagnostic test •Tests and Oral Activity/experiment Inventories questions •Portfolio analysis 30
  • 31. Attitudes and Values Life Skills (5 POINT SCALE) (5 POINT SCALE)Towards Teachers Emotional SkillsStudents/Peers Thinking SkillsSchool Property Social SkillsSchool ProgrammesEnvironment CO-SCHOLASTIC AREAS Health & Physical EducationCo-Scholastic Areas (5 POINT SCALE)(5 POINT SCALE) 1. Sports/Indigenous Sports1. Literary & Creative Skills 2. NCC/NSS2. Scientific & ICT Skills 3. Scouting & Guiding3. Visual & Performing Arts 4. Swimming 5. Gymnastics 6. Yoga 7. First4. Organisational & Leadership Skills Aid 8. Gardening/Shramdaan 31 9.Work Experience
  • 32. GRADING SYSTEM FOR SCHOLASTIC-A MARKS GRADE GRADE POINT 91 – 100 A1 10 81 – 90 A2 9 71 – 80 B1 8 61 – 70 B2 7 51 – 60 C1 6 41 – 50 C2 5 33 – 40 D 4 21 – 32 E1 -- 20 & below E2 -- 32
  • 33. 5 POINT GRADING SCALE FORASSESSING CO-SCHOLASTIC ACHIEVEMENTSGRADE GRADE POINTS A 4.1 – 5.0 B 3.1 -4.0 C 2.1 – 3.0 D 1.1 – 2.0 E 0 – 1.0 33
  • 34. GRADES GRADES Work Experience Attitudes & Values Art Education Co-Curricular ActivitiesPhysical Education Health & Physical Life skills Education GRADE GRADE A+ A+ A A B+ B B C *Indicators are given in the Teachers’*Indicators are given in the Manual Teachers’ Manual 34
  • 35. GRADING SCALE FOR SCHOOL ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT AREAS GRADING SCALE (Point)• Part 1 A : Scholastic 9• Part 1 B : Scholastic 5• Part 2 : Co-Scholastic • A : Life Skills 5 • B: Work Education 5 • C: Visual and Performing Arts 5 • D: Attitudes and Values 5• Part 3 : Co-Scholastic • Part 3 A: Co-curricular Activities 5 • Part 3 B :Health & Physical Education 5 35
  • 36. EVALUATION OF SCHOLASTIC ASPECT CLASSES VI TO VIII & IX (2011-2012) 36
  • 37. ASSESSMENT FOR ACADEMIC YEAR FOR CLASS X TERM- I FINAL ASSESSMENTFA1 (10%) +FA2 (10%) FA1+FA2+FA3+FA4 +SA1 (30%) = 50% 10+ 10+ 10+ 10 = 40% Term -II SA1+ SA2 20 + 40 = 60%FA3 (10%) +FA4 (10%) TOTAL = 100% +SA2 (30%) = 50% 37
  • 38. Testing/Examining the Assessing students Formative Assessment needsstudents in a formal on a continuous to be taken up withmanner every day/week basis in a cyclic discrimination and inis not CCE. manner is CCE consultation with all subjects teachers so that projects of all subjects are not given at the same time.Excessive homework Collaborating of Self learning and study skillsassignments or project project and research need to be encouraged throughwork is not CCE. work in groups in-class activities. Project work Balancing of projects may be given in groups and the and assignments group members need to work across subjects is in school under the direct CCE supervision of the teacher. 83
  • 39. Invoking fear in Integrating assessment with Through an interactivestudents in the teaching and learning classroom, the teacherguise of Balancing the Scholastic must engage students inassessment by the Areas with the Co-Scholastic exploring, experimentingteacher is not Areas (to encourage and experiencing learningCCE. students participation) is CCEMinutely assessing Encouraging and motivating School may lay emphasisthe students for students to be positive in on Co-Scholastic Areas i.e.behaviour is not their attitude is CCE Life Skills, Attitudes andCCE. Values for personality development. Giving 39
  • 40. Believing that Formative Reference to the Uncovering and discoveringAssessment is only Manuals for Formative syllabus is more importantmeant for students and Assessment tools for than merely completingis not indicative of a teaching, learning, syllabus in all subjects.feedback mechanism ofteachers teaching diagnosis and feedbackmethodology is not is CCE.CCELack of coordination Teachers judgement Integrated Projects may bewith other subject when made through an given where subjects areteachers resulting in honest and objective interlinked. Subjectover assessment of the appraisal without bias teachers should plan andstudents is not CCE. is CCE. develop the project and 40
  • 41. Not informing the Continuous Sessions for parentsparents and students interaction with on CCE; handoutsabout the parents with regard can be given toparameters of to the students and parents and studentsassessment is not progress Details of CCE canCCE. performance is CCE. be mentioned in the schools Almanac/ Diary/Syllabus booklet. 41
  • 42. Objectives of CCE• To help develop cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills.• To lay emphasis on thought process and de-emphasise memorization• To make evaluation an integral part of teaching-learning process• To use evaluation for improvement of students achievement and teaching – learning strategies on the basis of regular diagnosis followed by remedial instruction• To use evaluation as a quality control devise to maintain desired standard of performance• To determine social utility, desirability or effectiveness of a programme and take appropriate decisions about the learner, the process of learning and the learning environment• To make the process of teaching and learning a learner-centered activity.
  • 43. WHAT SHOULD BE ASSESSED? RESPONSE APPLICATION SKILL VALUES PHYSICAL FIRST AID HEALTH RETENTION CLUBS SCHOOL YOGA MOTIVATION ATTITUDES INTELLECTUAL SOCIO-EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOUR SUBJECTAESTHETICS AREAS SOCIAL – ENVIRONMENT CREATIVITY ISSUES LIFE SKILLS INTERESTS
  • 44. Attitudes and Values Life Skills (5 POINT SCALE) (5 POINT SCALE) Towards Teachers Emotional Skills Students/Peers Thinking Skills School Property Social Skills Co-ScholasticSchool Programmes Environment Areas Health & Physical EducationCo-Scholastic Areas (5 POINT SCALE)(5 POINT SCALE) 1. Sports/Indigenous Sports 1. Literary & Creative Skills 2. NCC/NSS 2. Scientific & ICT Skills 3. Scouting & Guiding 3. Visual & Performing Arts 4. Swimming 5. Gymnastics 6. Yoga 7. 4. Organisational & Leadership Skills First Aid 8. Gardening/Shramdaan 9.Work Experience
  • 45. SCHOLASTIC - A ADDITIONAL SUBJECTS SKILLS SUBJECTS• Hindi  Analysis • Foundation of•English  Problem Solving Information•Social Science  Use of I.T. Technology  Correlation to real life •Home Science•Science Comprehension•Mathematics •Painting Expression•Add. Subject Creativity •Music Data Handling •Others Oral FORMATIVE SUMMATIVE Listening, WritingObservation QuestionsConversation ExaminationProject Short AnswerEssay Very Short AnswerElocution TOOLS & EssayQuestion TECHNIQUES MCQTest Data Interpretation
  • 46. • Summative assessment is carried out at the end of a course of learning. It measures or sums-up how much a student has learned from the course. It is usually a graded test, i.e., it is marked according to a scale or set of grades
  • 47. Formative Assessment DiagnosticFor the Teacher For the Student• Informs teacher where the  Helps student identify the need/problem lies. problem areas• Focus on problem area.  Provides feedback and support. Remedial• Helps teacher give specific feedback  Helps to improve• Provide relevant support performance• Plan the next step  Provides opportunity to improve performance
  • 48. PROPOSED EVALUATION SCHEME FOR SCHOLASTIC SUBJECTS Focus on Formative Assessment Share the learning outcomes and assessment expectations with students Use clearly defined criteria Use examples and exemplars Give specific feedback (which will help to ) Incorporate students Self Assessment Students keep a record of their progressTeachers keep records of students progress 48
  • 49. • Formative assessment is thus carried out during a course of instruction for providing continuous feedback to both the teachers and the learners for taking decisions regarding appropriate modifications in the transactional procedures and learning activities.
  • 50. TEACHERS SHOULD KEEP IN MIND• Use a variety of tools (oral, projects, presentations) .• Understand different learning styles and abilities.• Share the assessment criteria with the students.• Allow peer and self assessment.• Give an opportunity to the student to improve.
  • 51. Techniques For Effective Assessment• Conversational skills• Assignments• Verbal skills• Subject wise academic quiz• Project/ research• Intellectual activity (on the spot activities)• Presentations.• Group discussions• Computer skills.• Activities for better understanding of the concept.• Observation and evaluation through practice .
  • 52. A Successful Formative Assessment SchemePlan all assessmentFocus on formative assessmentShare learning outcomes and assessment expectations with studentsUse clearly defined criteriaUse examples and exemplars
  • 53. 5 POINT GRADING SCALEFOR ASSESSING CO-SCHOLASTIC ACHIEVEMENTS Grade Grade Points A 4.1 – 5.0 B 3.1 -4.0 C 2.1 – 3.0 D 1.1 – 2.0 E 0 – 1.0 53
  • 54. ASSESSING CO-SCHOLASTIC AREAS:All teachers need to be involved in Assessing Co-Scholastic Skill of children for the following reasons: – Reduces Subjectivity – Remove Bias – Provides a point of reference to all teachers – Makes all teachers involved and accountable – Distributes work load amongst teachers – Simplifies work with regularly maintained record, on computer 54
  • 55. HOW TO CALCULATE GRADES IN CO-SCHOLASTIC AREAS1. Each student will be graded on each of the 03 Life Skills, Work Education, Visual and Performing Arts, 03 Attitudes, Values, 02 Co- curricular Activities and 02 Health and Physical Education (HPE) activities.2. Maximum score for each Life Skill, Work Education and Visual and Performing Arts and Attitudes is 50, for Values is 200 and for Co- curricular Activities and HPE is 50.3. Before assigning the Grades on each component using the conversion table, please calculate the average for grade points by dividing the total score obtained by a student by number of items in that component. For example, for a student who has a score of 35 in Thinking Skills; you need to divide it by the number of descriptors, i.e. 10; the average or grade point is 3.5; hence grade is B. 55
  • 56. 56
  • 57. ASSESSING CO-SCHOLASTIC AREAS:To sum up, it may include the following steps:1. Identifying qualities2.Specifying indicators of the concerned area/skill3.Collection of evidence in respect of indicators through observation and other techniques4. Recording of the evidences5. Analysis of the recorded evidences6. Reporting or awarding grades 57
  • 58. Thus, our fundamental challenge in assessing students in Co-Scholastic Areas are four-fold:a. Identifying (overt) behavioural indicators for each of the chosen areasb. Creating a scheme of assessment for certificationc. Tools and techniques of gathering data and evidenced. Data archiving, interpreting and certifying 58
  • 59. As mentioned earlier, students will beassessed in these domains on the basis oftheir overt behaviour. We will take threedifferent courses of action to build inobjectivity and reliability:– Day-to-day observation– Rating per term– Testing annually 59
  • 60. What is Formative Assessment? What does it mean? How does it help the teacher and the student? 60
  • 61. SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT It is advised that within each term, schools use the paper-pencil test only once for assessing student performance under Formative Assessment.Note: Formative Assessment can be carried through using multiple modes of assessment such as assignments, quizzes, debates, group discussions, projects. It may be clearly communicated to all teachers teaching various subjects that all projects and assignments must be done as group activities, within the class and school time only. Each subject must have only one paper pencil test under Formative Assessment. The other modes of Assessment must be a part of classroom interactive activities. 61
  • 62. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT Diagnostic For the Teacher For the Student• Informs teacher where the  Helps student identify the need/problem lies. problem areas• Focus on problem area.  Provides feedback and support. Remedial• Helps teacher give specific feedback  Helps to improve• Provide relevant support performance• Plan the next step  Provides opportunity to improve performance 62
  • 63. Observation through Academic Quiz Practical Conversational Skills Assignments Intellectual activity Computer skillsUnderstanding the Concepts Project Group discussions 63
  • 64. TEACHERS SHOULD KEEP IN MIND Use a variety of tools (oral, projects, presentations) . Understand different learning styles and abilities. Share the assessment criteria with the students. Allow peer and self assessment. Give an opportunity to the student to improve. 64
  • 65. REPORT BOOK: CLASSES VI TO VIII 65
  • 66. 66
  • 67. 67
  • 68. 68
  • 69. SUPPORTING TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING CCE 73
  • 70. TEACHER’S MANUAL FORFORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS IN CLASS IX 74
  • 71. TEACHER’S MANUAL FORFORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS IN CLASS X 75
  • 72. WEBSITE FOR DISSEMINATING INFORMATION 76
  • 73. HOME PAGE (www.cbse.nic.in) 77
  • 74. 78
  • 75. An educational system isnt worth agreat deal if it teaches young people how to make a living but doesnt teach them how to make a life. ~Author unknownThe whole purpose of education is to turn mirrors into windows. ~Sydney J. Harris 79
  • 76. 80