Eis Fani Kartika
The History of Australia refers to the history of the area and people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its
preceding Indigenous and colonial societies. Aboriginal Australians are believed to have first arrived on the Australian
The artistic, musical and spiritual traditions they established are among the longest surviving such traditions in human
The first known landing in Australia by Europeans was by Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606. Other Dutch navigators
explored the western and southern coasts in the 17th century, and dubbed the continent "New Holland." Macassan
trepangers visited Australia's northern coasts after 1720, possibly earlier. Other European explorers followed until, in 1770,
Lieutenant James Cook charted the East Coast of Australia for Britain and returned with accounts favouring colonisation
at Botany Bay (now in Sydney), New South Wales.
A First Fleet of British ships arrived at Botany Bay in January 1788 to establish a penal colony. In the century that followed,
the British established other colonies on the continent, and European explorers ventured into its interior. Indigenous
Australians were greatly weakened and their numbers diminished by introduced diseases and conflict with the colonists
during this period.
Gold rushes and agricultural industries brought prosperity. Autonomous Parliamentary democracies began to be established
throughout the six British colonies from the mid-19th century. The colonies voted by referendum to unite in a federation in
1901, and modern Australia came into being. Australia fought on the side of Britain in the two world wars and became a
long-standing ally of the United States when threatened by Imperial Japan during World War II. Trade with Asia increased
and a post-war multicultural immigration program received more than 6.5 million migrants from every continent. The
population tripled in six decades to around 21 million in 2010, with people originating from 200 countries sustaining the
world's 14th largest national economy.
In the 21st century, religion in Australia is predominantly Christian. In the 2011 Census, 61.14% of the
Australian population were recorded as adhering to Christianity. Historically the percentage has been far
higher and the religious landscape of Australia is diversifying, along with multicultural immigration and
22.3% of people with no religious affiliation. 22.3% of Australians declared "no-religion" on the 2011
Census, and a further 8.55% did not answer the question. The remaining population is a diverse group
which includes Buddhist (2.46%), Islamic (2.21%), Hindu (1.28%), Jewish (0.45%) and Sikh (0.3%)
communities. The Constitution of Australia of 1901 prohibits the Commonwealth government
from establishing a church or interfering with the freedom of religion.
Australia's Aboriginal people developed the animist spirituality of the Dreaming and some of the earliest
evidence on earth for religious practices among humans has been found in the archaeological record of
PUBLIC HOLIDAYS AND
: JANUARY 1
: JANUARY 26
: SECOND MONDAY IN MARCH
: is enjoyed as a four-day holiday weekend starting on Good
Friday and ending on Easter Monday
ANZAC DAY (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps)
: APRIL 25
Canberra Day is a public holiday that celebrates the birth of the Nations Capital. Generally Canberra day is
held on the second Monday in March. It usually heralds week long celebrations with a variety of events.
The Canberra Festival is a nine day event that reflects Canberra's unique qualities through exhibitions,
displays, sporting events, music, film, dance and theatre.
This is a very family friendly and community spirited event.
Easter commemorates the resurrection (return to life) of Jesus Christ following his death by
crucifixion. It is the most significant event of the Christian calendar.
In addition to its religious significance, Easter in Australia is enjoyed as a four-day holiday
weekend starting on Good Friday and ending on Easter Monday. This extra-long weekend is
an opportunity for Australians to take a mini-holiday, or get together with family and friends.
Easter often coincides with school holidays, so many people with school aged children
incorporate Easter into a longer family holiday. Easter is the busiest time for domestic air
travel in Australia, and a very popular time for gatherings such as weddings and christenings.
Hot Cross Buns: Hot cross buns are sweet, spiced buns made with dried fruit and leavened
with yeast. A cross, the symbol of Christ, is placed on top of the buns, either with pastry or a
simple mixture of flour and water. The buns are traditionally eaten on Good Friday; however
in Australia they are available in bakeries and stores many weeks before Easter.
Easter Eggs: Eggs, symbolising new life, have long been associated with the Easter festival.
Chocolate Easter eggs are a favourite part of Easter in Australia. Some families and
community groups organise Easter egg hunts for children in parks and recreational areas.
Easter eggs are traditionally eaten on Easter Sunday, however stores start stocking Easter
treats well before the Easter holiday period.
The Easter Bunny: Early on Easter Sunday morning, the Easter Bunny 'delivers' chocolate
Easter eggs to children in Australia, as he does in many parts of the world.
The rabbit and the hare have long been associated with fertility, and have therefore been
associated with spring and spring festivals. The rabbit as a symbol of Easter seems to have
originated in Germany where it was first recorded in writings in the 16th century. The first
edible Easter bunnies, made from sugared pastry, were made in Germany in the 19th
A SHORT OF AUSTRALIA
: “ADVANCE AUSTRALIA FAIR”
: AUSTRALIAN, AUSSIE
: FEDERAL PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
-MONARCH: ELIZABETH II
-GOVERNOR GENERAL: QUETIN BRYCE
-PRIME MINISTER: TONY ABBOTT
A SHORT OF AUSTRALIA
: HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVE
INDEPENDENCE : FROM UNITED KINGDOM
CONSTITUTION : JANUARY 1, 1901
: - 2013 ESTIMATE: 23,245,502
- 2011 CENSUS : 21,507,717
: AUSTRALIAN DOLLAR (AUD)
SOME FACTS ABOUT AUSTRALIA
More than 6.5 million migrants have settled in Australia since 1945 .
English is the national language but other languages appreciated .
The majority of Australians are Christians but people are free to choose their religion .
Approximately 88 per cent of Australians attend cultural activities at least once a year .
More than 11 million Australians aged 15 years or more take part in sports or other physical
Australia is one country that has the most diverse cuisines in the world but does not have
a national cuisine .
The way Australians talk is peppered with many words that are unique
to our version of English. In Nation, brush up on your Aussie words and
discover the meaning of famous expressions and phrases supplied by
the Australian National Dictionary Centre at the Australian National
BUNG: Broken, exhausted, out of action 'The TV's bung.' It comes
from bang, meaning 'dead', which was first recorded in 1841 in
the Yagara Aboriginal language of the Brisbane region. The
word found its way into nineteenth-century Australian pidgin,
where the phrase to go bung meant 'to die'. By the end of the
nineteenth century, the present sense of the word had
DUG: A person who is unkempt, unfashionable or
lacking in social skills. The word dag also means a
lump of matted wool and dung hanging from a
sheep's rear. This sense probably led to the meaning
'unkempt', and then to the broader meanings
'unfashionable' and 'socially unacceptable'. It was
first recorded in 1891.
POM: A British person. Also pommy. First recorded in 1912,
the term was originally applied to an immigrant from
Britain, and was formed by rhyming slang. A British
immigrant was called a pommygrant, from the red fruit
pomegranate, perhaps referring to the complexion of the
new arrivals, which was then abbreviated to pommy and
pom. Although some argue otherwise, it is not an acronym
of prisoner of mother England.
SNAG: A sausage. In Australia and elsewhere snag
has a number of meanings, including 'a submerged
tree stump', 'an unexpected drawback', and more
recently a 'sensitive new age guy'. But in Australia, a
snag is also a 'sausage', a sense that probably comes
from the British dialect word snag, 'a morsel, a light
AND SO MANY OTHERS……
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