Linked (Open) Data Opportunities and challenges Makx Dekkers [email_address]
Outline <ul><li>Basic notions </li></ul><ul><li>Recent developments </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing objectives </li></ul><ul><...
BASIC NOTIONS © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
The idea and its history <ul><li>1989: Tim Berners-Lee already talked about linking documents and data together  ( http://...
W3C Semantic Web initiative <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to create a universal medium for the exchange of data ...
Core Linked Data Specifications <ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP  Hypertext Transfer Protocol </li></ul></ul><...
The four rules of Linked Data <ul><li>TBL’s recommendations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use URIs as names for things </li></ul>...
The basic model of RDF <ul><li>Resource Description Framework “triple”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject: the “thing” (resour...
Complex structures in RDF This presentation Makx Dekkers Barcelona Journées ABES ABES Montpellier 17-18 May 2011 presenter...
Linked (Open / Enterprise) Data <ul><li>Commonalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Semantic Web technologies (RDF) </li></u...
Linked Data -- Open Data <ul><li>Linked Data: focus on technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Web: Resource Description...
The five-star system Source:  http://inkdroid.org/journal/2010/06/04/the-5-stars-of-open-linked-data/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers ...
The LOD diagram: 2007 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011...
The LOD diagram: 2008 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011...
The LOD diagram: 2009 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011...
The LOD diagram: 2010 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011...
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
W3C communities <ul><li>LinkingOpenData SWEO Community Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: to extend the Web with a data c...
More W3C communities <ul><li>Government Linking Data Working Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide standards and other in...
Open Knowledge Foundation, okfn.org <ul><li>not-for-profit organization promoting open knowledge: any kind of data and con...
Linked Data initiatives © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 Predicate vocabularies (descriptors) Research Description a...
More Linked Data initiatives © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 Broadcasting, publishing BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/blog...
COMPARING OBJECTIVES © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
Strategic aspects Linked Data <ul><li>Achieving global interoperability with minimal coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Aggreg...
Strategic aspects libraries <ul><li>Organizing information for use by specific users for specific goals </li></ul><ul><li>...
Functional aspects Linked Data <ul><li>Searching distributed collections  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Following your nose” – navig...
Functional aspects libraries <ul><li>Describing information by professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing together and manag...
Technical aspects Linked Data <ul><li>Publishing and using machine-readable statements (“data that speak for themselves”) ...
Technical aspects libraries <ul><li>Using proven technology to provide high-quality services </li></ul><ul><li>Managing pr...
Agility versus sustainability <ul><li>In the Linked Data space: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Things move fast </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Data versus services <ul><li>In the Linked Data space: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on availability of “raw data” </li></ul...
Economic aspects <ul><li>In the Linked Data space: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Information wants to be free” – a human right? ...
OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
Strong points Linked Data <ul><li>Attempt to create a common technical platform for machine-readable data </li></ul><ul><l...
Risks Linked Data <ul><li>Driven by technology, not by requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Technology may not (yet) be stable –...
Strong points libraries <ul><li>Long time operational experience in managing information </li></ul><ul><li>Professional in...
Risks libraries <ul><li>Technologies change rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>New skills difficult to spread through the organizat...
Meeting both worlds <ul><li>An example: Europeana.eu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started out with domain perspectives (libraries...
Europeana Data Model Classes Properties Simple example Complex example Source at: http://version1.europeana.eu/web/europea...
CONCLUSION © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
Libraries and Linked Data <ul><li>Using Linked Data technology as the next step in connecting services </li></ul><ul><li>O...
Best of both worlds <ul><li>Libraries providing stability and sustainability to Linked Data spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Libra...
Linked (Open) Data:  opportunity for libraries! Thank you! Makx Dekkers [email_address]
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Linked Open Data : opportunités et défis par Makx Dekkers

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Linked Open Data : opportunités et défis par Makx Dekkers

  1. 1. Linked (Open) Data Opportunities and challenges Makx Dekkers [email_address]
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Basic notions </li></ul><ul><li>Recent developments </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities and risks </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  3. 3. BASIC NOTIONS © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  4. 4. The idea and its history <ul><li>1989: Tim Berners-Lee already talked about linking documents and data together ( http://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposal.html ) </li></ul><ul><li>2001: Tim Berners-Lee and Ora Lassila introduced the “Semantic Web” ( http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-semantic-web ) </li></ul><ul><li>2006: Tim Berners-Lee presented the initial design issues (rules) for Linked Data ( http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html ) </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  5. 5. W3C Semantic Web initiative <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to create a universal medium for the exchange of data […] to smoothly interconnect personal information management, enterprise application integration, and the global sharing of commercial, scientific and cultural data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Description Framework (RDF), RDFa (RDF-in-HTML), SPARQL Query Language </li></ul></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  6. 6. Core Linked Data Specifications <ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>URI Uniform Resource Identifier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Description and linking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RDF Resource Description Framework </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search and access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPARQL Query Language for RDF </li></ul></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  7. 7. The four rules of Linked Data <ul><li>TBL’s recommendations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use URIs as names for things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things </li></ul></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  8. 8. The basic model of RDF <ul><li>Resource Description Framework “triple”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject: the “thing” (resource) described </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicate: the characteristic of the resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object: the value of the characteristic </li></ul></ul>Subject Object Predicate © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  9. 9. Complex structures in RDF This presentation Makx Dekkers Barcelona Journées ABES ABES Montpellier 17-18 May 2011 presenter partOf organizer location hometown date location © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  10. 10. Linked (Open / Enterprise) Data <ul><li>Commonalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Semantic Web technologies (RDF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking information resources, people, places </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Data with open licenses; Enterprise Data mostly for closed, controlled environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Data links to other Open Data, available for external use; Enterprise Data may link to external data but not openly available for external use </li></ul></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  11. 11. Linked Data -- Open Data <ul><li>Linked Data: focus on technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Web: Resource Description Framework, and other Web standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final solutions still under development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Data: focus on strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on notion that sharing is important and benefits all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology is secondary </li></ul></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  12. 12. The five-star system Source: http://inkdroid.org/journal/2010/06/04/the-5-stars-of-open-linked-data/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  13. 13. The LOD diagram: 2007 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 25 datasets
  14. 14. The LOD diagram: 2008 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 45 datasets
  15. 15. The LOD diagram: 2009 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 95 datasets
  16. 16. The LOD diagram: 2010 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 203 datasets
  17. 17. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  18. 18. W3C communities <ul><li>LinkingOpenData SWEO Community Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: to extend the Web with a data commons by publishing various open data sets as RDF on the Web and by setting RDF links between data items from different data sources ( http://www.w3.org/wiki/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Library Linked Data Incubator Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to help increase global interoperability of library data on the Web ( http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/lld/ ) </li></ul></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  19. 19. More W3C communities <ul><li>Government Linking Data Working Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide standards and other information which help governments around the world publish their data as effective and usable linked data ( http:// www.w3.org/2011/gld/charter ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences (HCLS) Interest Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to develop, advocate for, and support the use of Semantic Web technologies for health care and life science (e.g. biology, medicine) ( http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/hcls / ) </li></ul></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  20. 20. Open Knowledge Foundation, okfn.org <ul><li>not-for-profit organization promoting open knowledge: any kind of data and content that can be freely used, reused, and redistributed </li></ul><ul><li>Working and Interest Groups, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Data in Science, Open Government Data, Open Bibliographic Data, Cultural Heritage etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CKAN.net: registry of open datasets and other “knowledge resources” </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  21. 21. Linked Data initiatives © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 Predicate vocabularies (descriptors) Research Description and Access (RDA) http://metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm The Bibliographic Ontology (BIBO) http://bibliontology.com/ Dublin Core http://dublincore.org/ Object vocabularies (values) Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) http://viaf.org/ Library of Congress authorities http://id.loc.gov/authorities/ AgroVOC (agricultural terminology) e.g. http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_550 DBPedia (based on Wikipedia) e.g. http://dbpedia.org/page/Montpellier Bibliographic data LIBRIS Sweden e.g. http://libris.kb.se/library/S British Library http://www.bl.uk/bibliographic/datasamples.html CrossRef (DOI metadata) http://www.crossref.org/CrossTech/linked_data/
  22. 22. More Linked Data initiatives © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 Broadcasting, publishing BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/bbcinternet/linked_data/ New York Times http://data.nytimes.com/ Governments (small sample) USA http://data.gov/ France http://opendata.paris.fr/ Finland http://data.suomi.fi/ UK http://data.gov.uk/ Spain (Cataluña) http://dadesobertes.gencat.cat/ Norway http://data.norge.no Netherlands http://www.overheid.nl/opendata Australia http://data.gov.au/
  23. 23. COMPARING OBJECTIVES © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  24. 24. Strategic aspects Linked Data <ul><li>Achieving global interoperability with minimal coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregating human knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting democracy, transparency and accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing and enriching information </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling user-driven and user-generated applications </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  25. 25. Strategic aspects libraries <ul><li>Organizing information for use by specific users for specific goals </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring and maintaining quality </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining services economically </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving information for the long term </li></ul><ul><li>Providing trusted services </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  26. 26. Functional aspects Linked Data <ul><li>Searching distributed collections </li></ul><ul><li>“ Following your nose” – navigating links between pieces of content </li></ul><ul><li>Distributing responsibility for making statements about things </li></ul><ul><li>Leaving to the user whom and what to trust </li></ul><ul><li>Leaving development of products and services to an open market (apps) </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  27. 27. Functional aspects libraries <ul><li>Describing information by professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing together and managing aggregations of information </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting relevant information </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing analogue and digital resources </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  28. 28. Technical aspects Linked Data <ul><li>Publishing and using machine-readable statements (“data that speak for themselves”) </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on Semantic Web technology </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling inferences across large distributed data sets </li></ul><ul><li>(Still to be done) Solving issues around harvesting, caching and real-time updating </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  29. 29. Technical aspects libraries <ul><li>Using proven technology to provide high-quality services </li></ul><ul><li>Managing production systems and services </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteeing performance, uptime, consistency across data </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  30. 30. Agility versus sustainability <ul><li>In the Linked Data space: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Things move fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial-and-error </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of development by volunteers (hackers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the library domain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational systems need to evolve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to handle legacy data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development by professionals in managed projects </li></ul></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  31. 31. Data versus services <ul><li>In the Linked Data space: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on availability of “raw data” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality is secondary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data and technology should lead to useful results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the library domain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality is essential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data and technology in support of the service </li></ul></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  32. 32. Economic aspects <ul><li>In the Linked Data space: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Information wants to be free” – a human right? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term thinking: today is hot, yesterday is not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on applications to create value out of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the library domain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term view: sustainability is crucial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public money to provide community services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected to do more with less money </li></ul></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  33. 33. OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  34. 34. Strong points Linked Data <ul><li>Attempt to create a common technical platform for machine-readable data </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of enthusiasm in publishing open data </li></ul><ul><li>Promise of global interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Mix of researchers, user communities, hackers, professional data providers </li></ul><ul><li>High visibility on political level </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  35. 35. Risks Linked Data <ul><li>Driven by technology, not by requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Technology may not (yet) be stable – RDF 2.0? </li></ul><ul><li>Operational issues far from solved (reliability, performance, quality, security, trust) </li></ul><ul><li>Hope for general agreement across domains may not be realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Promise may turn into disappointment </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  36. 36. Strong points libraries <ul><li>Long time operational experience in managing information </li></ul><ul><li>Professional intermediaries between users and information needs </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable business models (albeit with eternally shrinking budgets) </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term perspective: the past (legacy data) as well as the future (preservation) </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  37. 37. Risks libraries <ul><li>Technologies change rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>New skills difficult to spread through the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Some people see libraries as a thing of the past (“the book museum”) </li></ul><ul><li>Underestimation of information handling skills </li></ul><ul><li>Information overload, human intervention does not scale, need for better tools </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  38. 38. Meeting both worlds <ul><li>An example: Europeana.eu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started out with domain perspectives (libraries, archives, museums, audiovisual archives) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Traditional” approach (metadata mappings) works but insufficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Linked Data approach preserves domain specifics but allows for generalization to support common services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-domain (but co-ordinated) interoperability </li></ul></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  39. 39. Europeana Data Model Classes Properties Simple example Complex example Source at: http://version1.europeana.eu/web/europeana-project/technicaldocuments/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  40. 40. CONCLUSION © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  41. 41. Libraries and Linked Data <ul><li>Using Linked Data technology as the next step in connecting services </li></ul><ul><li>Offering information management skills to the technology domain </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a quality hub in the Linked Data space </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  42. 42. Best of both worlds <ul><li>Libraries providing stability and sustainability to Linked Data spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Library professionals helping to manage the distributed collections </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries delivering high-quality linked data to the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Technologists to provide the next generation of systems and tools </li></ul>© 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  43. 43. Linked (Open) Data: opportunity for libraries! Thank you! Makx Dekkers [email_address]
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