Linked Open Data : opportunités et défis par Makx Dekkers
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Linked Open Data : opportunités et défis par Makx Dekkers

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Linked Open Data : opportunités et défis par Makx Dekkers Linked Open Data : opportunités et défis par Makx Dekkers Presentation Transcript

  • Linked (Open) Data Opportunities and challenges Makx Dekkers [email_address]
  • Outline
    • Basic notions
    • Recent developments
    • Comparing objectives
    • Opportunities and risks
    • Conclusions
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • BASIC NOTIONS © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • The idea and its history
    • 1989: Tim Berners-Lee already talked about linking documents and data together ( http://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposal.html )
    • 2001: Tim Berners-Lee and Ora Lassila introduced the “Semantic Web” ( http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-semantic-web )
    • 2006: Tim Berners-Lee presented the initial design issues (rules) for Linked Data ( http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html )
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • W3C Semantic Web initiative
    • Objective
      • to create a universal medium for the exchange of data […] to smoothly interconnect personal information management, enterprise application integration, and the global sharing of commercial, scientific and cultural data
    • Main results
      • Resource Description Framework (RDF), RDFa (RDF-in-HTML), SPARQL Query Language
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Core Linked Data Specifications
    • Transport
      • HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol
    • Identification
      • URI Uniform Resource Identifier
    • Description and linking
      • RDF Resource Description Framework
    • Search and access
      • SPARQL Query Language for RDF
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • The four rules of Linked Data
    • TBL’s recommendations:
      • Use URIs as names for things
      • Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names
      • When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL)
      • Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • The basic model of RDF
    • Resource Description Framework “triple”:
      • Subject: the “thing” (resource) described
      • Predicate: the characteristic of the resource
      • Object: the value of the characteristic
    Subject Object Predicate © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Complex structures in RDF This presentation Makx Dekkers Barcelona Journées ABES ABES Montpellier 17-18 May 2011 presenter partOf organizer location hometown date location © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Linked (Open / Enterprise) Data
    • Commonalities
      • Using Semantic Web technologies (RDF)
      • Linking information resources, people, places
    • Differences
      • Open Data with open licenses; Enterprise Data mostly for closed, controlled environments
      • Open Data links to other Open Data, available for external use; Enterprise Data may link to external data but not openly available for external use
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Linked Data -- Open Data
    • Linked Data: focus on technology
      • Semantic Web: Resource Description Framework, and other Web standards
      • Final solutions still under development
    • Open Data: focus on strategy
      • Based on notion that sharing is important and benefits all
      • Technology is secondary
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • The five-star system Source: http://inkdroid.org/journal/2010/06/04/the-5-stars-of-open-linked-data/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • The LOD diagram: 2007 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 25 datasets
  • The LOD diagram: 2008 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 45 datasets
  • The LOD diagram: 2009 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 95 datasets
  • The LOD diagram: 2010 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 203 datasets
  • RECENT DEVELOPMENTS © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • W3C communities
    • LinkingOpenData SWEO Community Project
      • Goal: to extend the Web with a data commons by publishing various open data sets as RDF on the Web and by setting RDF links between data items from different data sources ( http://www.w3.org/wiki/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData )
    • Library Linked Data Incubator Group
      • to help increase global interoperability of library data on the Web ( http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/lld/ )
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • More W3C communities
    • Government Linking Data Working Group
      • to provide standards and other information which help governments around the world publish their data as effective and usable linked data ( http:// www.w3.org/2011/gld/charter )
    • Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences (HCLS) Interest Group
      • to develop, advocate for, and support the use of Semantic Web technologies for health care and life science (e.g. biology, medicine) ( http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/hcls / )
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Open Knowledge Foundation, okfn.org
    • not-for-profit organization promoting open knowledge: any kind of data and content that can be freely used, reused, and redistributed
    • Working and Interest Groups, e.g.
      • Open Data in Science, Open Government Data, Open Bibliographic Data, Cultural Heritage etc.
    • CKAN.net: registry of open datasets and other “knowledge resources”
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Linked Data initiatives © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 Predicate vocabularies (descriptors) Research Description and Access (RDA) http://metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm The Bibliographic Ontology (BIBO) http://bibliontology.com/ Dublin Core http://dublincore.org/ Object vocabularies (values) Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) http://viaf.org/ Library of Congress authorities http://id.loc.gov/authorities/ AgroVOC (agricultural terminology) e.g. http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_550 DBPedia (based on Wikipedia) e.g. http://dbpedia.org/page/Montpellier Bibliographic data LIBRIS Sweden e.g. http://libris.kb.se/library/S British Library http://www.bl.uk/bibliographic/datasamples.html CrossRef (DOI metadata) http://www.crossref.org/CrossTech/linked_data/
  • More Linked Data initiatives © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 Broadcasting, publishing BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/bbcinternet/linked_data/ New York Times http://data.nytimes.com/ Governments (small sample) USA http://data.gov/ France http://opendata.paris.fr/ Finland http://data.suomi.fi/ UK http://data.gov.uk/ Spain (Cataluña) http://dadesobertes.gencat.cat/ Norway http://data.norge.no Netherlands http://www.overheid.nl/opendata Australia http://data.gov.au/
  • COMPARING OBJECTIVES © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Strategic aspects Linked Data
    • Achieving global interoperability with minimal coordination
    • Aggregating human knowledge
    • Supporting democracy, transparency and accountability
    • Enhancing and enriching information
    • Enabling user-driven and user-generated applications
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Strategic aspects libraries
    • Organizing information for use by specific users for specific goals
    • Ensuring and maintaining quality
    • Sustaining services economically
    • Preserving information for the long term
    • Providing trusted services
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Functional aspects Linked Data
    • Searching distributed collections
    • “ Following your nose” – navigating links between pieces of content
    • Distributing responsibility for making statements about things
    • Leaving to the user whom and what to trust
    • Leaving development of products and services to an open market (apps)
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Functional aspects libraries
    • Describing information by professionals
    • Bringing together and managing aggregations of information
    • Selecting relevant information
    • Mixing analogue and digital resources
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Technical aspects Linked Data
    • Publishing and using machine-readable statements (“data that speak for themselves”)
    • Focusing on Semantic Web technology
    • Enabling inferences across large distributed data sets
    • (Still to be done) Solving issues around harvesting, caching and real-time updating
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Technical aspects libraries
    • Using proven technology to provide high-quality services
    • Managing production systems and services
    • Guaranteeing performance, uptime, consistency across data
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Agility versus sustainability
    • In the Linked Data space:
      • Things move fast
      • Trial-and-error
      • Lots of development by volunteers (hackers)
    • In the library domain:
      • Operational systems need to evolve
      • Need to handle legacy data
      • Development by professionals in managed projects
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Data versus services
    • In the Linked Data space:
      • Focus on availability of “raw data”
      • Quality is secondary
      • Data and technology should lead to useful results
    • In the library domain:
      • Focus on services
      • Quality is essential
      • Data and technology in support of the service
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Economic aspects
    • In the Linked Data space:
      • “ Information wants to be free” – a human right?
      • Short-term thinking: today is hot, yesterday is not
      • Focus on applications to create value out of data
    • In the library domain:
      • Long-term view: sustainability is crucial
      • Public money to provide community services
      • Expected to do more with less money
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Strong points Linked Data
    • Attempt to create a common technical platform for machine-readable data
    • Lots of enthusiasm in publishing open data
    • Promise of global interoperability
    • Mix of researchers, user communities, hackers, professional data providers
    • High visibility on political level
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Risks Linked Data
    • Driven by technology, not by requirements
    • Technology may not (yet) be stable – RDF 2.0?
    • Operational issues far from solved (reliability, performance, quality, security, trust)
    • Hope for general agreement across domains may not be realistic
    • Promise may turn into disappointment
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Strong points libraries
    • Long time operational experience in managing information
    • Professional intermediaries between users and information needs
    • Sustainable business models (albeit with eternally shrinking budgets)
    • Long-term perspective: the past (legacy data) as well as the future (preservation)
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Risks libraries
    • Technologies change rapidly
    • New skills difficult to spread through the organization
    • Some people see libraries as a thing of the past (“the book museum”)
    • Underestimation of information handling skills
    • Information overload, human intervention does not scale, need for better tools
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Meeting both worlds
    • An example: Europeana.eu
      • Started out with domain perspectives (libraries, archives, museums, audiovisual archives)
      • “ Traditional” approach (metadata mappings) works but insufficient
      • Using Linked Data approach preserves domain specifics but allows for generalization to support common services
      • Cross-domain (but co-ordinated) interoperability
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Europeana Data Model Classes Properties Simple example Complex example Source at: http://version1.europeana.eu/web/europeana-project/technicaldocuments/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • CONCLUSION © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Libraries and Linked Data
    • Using Linked Data technology as the next step in connecting services
    • Offering information management skills to the technology domain
    • Creating a quality hub in the Linked Data space
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Best of both worlds
    • Libraries providing stability and sustainability to Linked Data spaces
    • Library professionals helping to manage the distributed collections
    • Libraries delivering high-quality linked data to the Web
    • Technologists to provide the next generation of systems and tools
    © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
  • Linked (Open) Data: opportunity for libraries! Thank you! Makx Dekkers [email_address]