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Linked Open Data : opportunités et défis par Makx Dekkers
 

Linked Open Data : opportunités et défis par Makx Dekkers

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    Linked Open Data : opportunités et défis par Makx Dekkers Linked Open Data : opportunités et défis par Makx Dekkers Presentation Transcript

    • Linked (Open) Data Opportunities and challenges Makx Dekkers [email_address]
    • Outline
      • Basic notions
      • Recent developments
      • Comparing objectives
      • Opportunities and risks
      • Conclusions
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • BASIC NOTIONS © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • The idea and its history
      • 1989: Tim Berners-Lee already talked about linking documents and data together ( http://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposal.html )
      • 2001: Tim Berners-Lee and Ora Lassila introduced the “Semantic Web” ( http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-semantic-web )
      • 2006: Tim Berners-Lee presented the initial design issues (rules) for Linked Data ( http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html )
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • W3C Semantic Web initiative
      • Objective
        • to create a universal medium for the exchange of data […] to smoothly interconnect personal information management, enterprise application integration, and the global sharing of commercial, scientific and cultural data
      • Main results
        • Resource Description Framework (RDF), RDFa (RDF-in-HTML), SPARQL Query Language
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Core Linked Data Specifications
      • Transport
        • HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol
      • Identification
        • URI Uniform Resource Identifier
      • Description and linking
        • RDF Resource Description Framework
      • Search and access
        • SPARQL Query Language for RDF
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • The four rules of Linked Data
      • TBL’s recommendations:
        • Use URIs as names for things
        • Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names
        • When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL)
        • Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • The basic model of RDF
      • Resource Description Framework “triple”:
        • Subject: the “thing” (resource) described
        • Predicate: the characteristic of the resource
        • Object: the value of the characteristic
      Subject Object Predicate © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Complex structures in RDF This presentation Makx Dekkers Barcelona Journées ABES ABES Montpellier 17-18 May 2011 presenter partOf organizer location hometown date location © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Linked (Open / Enterprise) Data
      • Commonalities
        • Using Semantic Web technologies (RDF)
        • Linking information resources, people, places
      • Differences
        • Open Data with open licenses; Enterprise Data mostly for closed, controlled environments
        • Open Data links to other Open Data, available for external use; Enterprise Data may link to external data but not openly available for external use
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Linked Data -- Open Data
      • Linked Data: focus on technology
        • Semantic Web: Resource Description Framework, and other Web standards
        • Final solutions still under development
      • Open Data: focus on strategy
        • Based on notion that sharing is important and benefits all
        • Technology is secondary
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • The five-star system Source: http://inkdroid.org/journal/2010/06/04/the-5-stars-of-open-linked-data/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • The LOD diagram: 2007 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 25 datasets
    • The LOD diagram: 2008 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 45 datasets
    • The LOD diagram: 2009 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 95 datasets
    • The LOD diagram: 2010 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 203 datasets
    • RECENT DEVELOPMENTS © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • W3C communities
      • LinkingOpenData SWEO Community Project
        • Goal: to extend the Web with a data commons by publishing various open data sets as RDF on the Web and by setting RDF links between data items from different data sources ( http://www.w3.org/wiki/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData )
      • Library Linked Data Incubator Group
        • to help increase global interoperability of library data on the Web ( http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/lld/ )
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • More W3C communities
      • Government Linking Data Working Group
        • to provide standards and other information which help governments around the world publish their data as effective and usable linked data ( http:// www.w3.org/2011/gld/charter )
      • Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences (HCLS) Interest Group
        • to develop, advocate for, and support the use of Semantic Web technologies for health care and life science (e.g. biology, medicine) ( http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/hcls / )
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Open Knowledge Foundation, okfn.org
      • not-for-profit organization promoting open knowledge: any kind of data and content that can be freely used, reused, and redistributed
      • Working and Interest Groups, e.g.
        • Open Data in Science, Open Government Data, Open Bibliographic Data, Cultural Heritage etc.
      • CKAN.net: registry of open datasets and other “knowledge resources”
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Linked Data initiatives © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 Predicate vocabularies (descriptors) Research Description and Access (RDA) http://metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm The Bibliographic Ontology (BIBO) http://bibliontology.com/ Dublin Core http://dublincore.org/ Object vocabularies (values) Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) http://viaf.org/ Library of Congress authorities http://id.loc.gov/authorities/ AgroVOC (agricultural terminology) e.g. http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_550 DBPedia (based on Wikipedia) e.g. http://dbpedia.org/page/Montpellier Bibliographic data LIBRIS Sweden e.g. http://libris.kb.se/library/S British Library http://www.bl.uk/bibliographic/datasamples.html CrossRef (DOI metadata) http://www.crossref.org/CrossTech/linked_data/
    • More Linked Data initiatives © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011 Broadcasting, publishing BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/bbcinternet/linked_data/ New York Times http://data.nytimes.com/ Governments (small sample) USA http://data.gov/ France http://opendata.paris.fr/ Finland http://data.suomi.fi/ UK http://data.gov.uk/ Spain (Cataluña) http://dadesobertes.gencat.cat/ Norway http://data.norge.no Netherlands http://www.overheid.nl/opendata Australia http://data.gov.au/
    • COMPARING OBJECTIVES © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Strategic aspects Linked Data
      • Achieving global interoperability with minimal coordination
      • Aggregating human knowledge
      • Supporting democracy, transparency and accountability
      • Enhancing and enriching information
      • Enabling user-driven and user-generated applications
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Strategic aspects libraries
      • Organizing information for use by specific users for specific goals
      • Ensuring and maintaining quality
      • Sustaining services economically
      • Preserving information for the long term
      • Providing trusted services
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Functional aspects Linked Data
      • Searching distributed collections
      • “ Following your nose” – navigating links between pieces of content
      • Distributing responsibility for making statements about things
      • Leaving to the user whom and what to trust
      • Leaving development of products and services to an open market (apps)
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Functional aspects libraries
      • Describing information by professionals
      • Bringing together and managing aggregations of information
      • Selecting relevant information
      • Mixing analogue and digital resources
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Technical aspects Linked Data
      • Publishing and using machine-readable statements (“data that speak for themselves”)
      • Focusing on Semantic Web technology
      • Enabling inferences across large distributed data sets
      • (Still to be done) Solving issues around harvesting, caching and real-time updating
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Technical aspects libraries
      • Using proven technology to provide high-quality services
      • Managing production systems and services
      • Guaranteeing performance, uptime, consistency across data
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Agility versus sustainability
      • In the Linked Data space:
        • Things move fast
        • Trial-and-error
        • Lots of development by volunteers (hackers)
      • In the library domain:
        • Operational systems need to evolve
        • Need to handle legacy data
        • Development by professionals in managed projects
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Data versus services
      • In the Linked Data space:
        • Focus on availability of “raw data”
        • Quality is secondary
        • Data and technology should lead to useful results
      • In the library domain:
        • Focus on services
        • Quality is essential
        • Data and technology in support of the service
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Economic aspects
      • In the Linked Data space:
        • “ Information wants to be free” – a human right?
        • Short-term thinking: today is hot, yesterday is not
        • Focus on applications to create value out of data
      • In the library domain:
        • Long-term view: sustainability is crucial
        • Public money to provide community services
        • Expected to do more with less money
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Strong points Linked Data
      • Attempt to create a common technical platform for machine-readable data
      • Lots of enthusiasm in publishing open data
      • Promise of global interoperability
      • Mix of researchers, user communities, hackers, professional data providers
      • High visibility on political level
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Risks Linked Data
      • Driven by technology, not by requirements
      • Technology may not (yet) be stable – RDF 2.0?
      • Operational issues far from solved (reliability, performance, quality, security, trust)
      • Hope for general agreement across domains may not be realistic
      • Promise may turn into disappointment
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Strong points libraries
      • Long time operational experience in managing information
      • Professional intermediaries between users and information needs
      • Sustainable business models (albeit with eternally shrinking budgets)
      • Long-term perspective: the past (legacy data) as well as the future (preservation)
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Risks libraries
      • Technologies change rapidly
      • New skills difficult to spread through the organization
      • Some people see libraries as a thing of the past (“the book museum”)
      • Underestimation of information handling skills
      • Information overload, human intervention does not scale, need for better tools
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Meeting both worlds
      • An example: Europeana.eu
        • Started out with domain perspectives (libraries, archives, museums, audiovisual archives)
        • “ Traditional” approach (metadata mappings) works but insufficient
        • Using Linked Data approach preserves domain specifics but allows for generalization to support common services
        • Cross-domain (but co-ordinated) interoperability
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Europeana Data Model Classes Properties Simple example Complex example Source at: http://version1.europeana.eu/web/europeana-project/technicaldocuments/ © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • CONCLUSION © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Libraries and Linked Data
      • Using Linked Data technology as the next step in connecting services
      • Offering information management skills to the technology domain
      • Creating a quality hub in the Linked Data space
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Best of both worlds
      • Libraries providing stability and sustainability to Linked Data spaces
      • Library professionals helping to manage the distributed collections
      • Libraries delivering high-quality linked data to the Web
      • Technologists to provide the next generation of systems and tools
      © 2011 Makx Dekkers Journeés ABES 2011
    • Linked (Open) Data: opportunity for libraries! Thank you! Makx Dekkers [email_address]