Heredity and Inheritance - What are traits and how are they passed from parent to offspring? Structure of DNA - What does ...
Genetics- study of genes Heredity- how traits are passed from parent to offspring Inheritance- receiving alleles from both...
Lab Investigation: What are traits? 1. PTC paper test (taster or not taster) 2. Hairline (widows peak or straight) 3. eye ...
Traits Outside (physical apperance) =  phenotype   ex: long eyelashes Inside (genes) =  genotype   ex: EE or Ee The "...
The genotype determines the phenotype because of the rule of dominance and recessive. For example: Plant height (tall or s...
Mendel looked at several different traits of pea plants: stem length, seed shape, seed color, pod shape, pod color, flower...
This is what Mendel observed in stem height: Pure-bred tall plant Pure-bred short plant P generation Both offspring are ta...
This is what he observed in flower color:  Crossed a purely purple flower with a purely white flower All offspring had pur...
Punnett Squares: What is the probability of getting offspring with a particular genotype? Flower Color  P= dominant  p = r...
Complete Dominance - What Mendel observed.  If you have a genotype that is heterozygous/hybrid, the dominant allele will h...
Complete Dominance
Co-Dominance - If you have a genotype that is heterozygous/hybrid, both traits will be expressed (phenotype).  Example:  F...
C0-Dominance for Fur Color ( Red  +  White )
Incomplete Dominance - If you have a genotype that is heterozygous/hybrid, both traits will be expressed (phenotype) as a ...
Co- Dominance for Skin Color  ( green  +  pink ) Incomplete Dominance for Body Type  (Medium)
Example: Two parents have 3 children.  One child has a chronic disease, one child is a carrier, and the other is normal.  ...
Blood Typing: A, B, AB, and O Both A and B are dominant and O is recessive. How are blood types different? Physical struct...
Sex-Linked Traits All chromosomes are numbered except sex chromosomes.  They are called X and Y. XX = female XY = male Tra...
Hemophilia  and  Red-Green Colorblindness  are sex-linked traits X H X h  = female carrier X H Y= male normal X H X H  = f...
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Inheritance Study Guide

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Inheritance Study Guide

  1. 1. Heredity and Inheritance - What are traits and how are they passed from parent to offspring? Structure of DNA - What does DNA look like and how does it copy itself? Protein Synthesis - What role does DNA play in constructing proteins in our cells? Mutations - What happens when there is a change in the structure of DNA? Study of Genetics- starting with the outside (physical appearance) and moving inside (genes)
  2. 2. Genetics- study of genes Heredity- how traits are passed from parent to offspring Inheritance- receiving alleles from both parents
  3. 3. Lab Investigation: What are traits? 1. PTC paper test (taster or not taster) 2. Hairline (widows peak or straight) 3. eye shape ( almond or round) 4. eyelash length ( long or short) 5. tongue rolling ( roll or not) 6. thumb ( hitchhiker's or straight) 7. lip thickness ( thick or thin) 8. hair texture ( curly, straight, wavy) 9. inter-eye distance (close- set, far-set or medium-set) 10. lip protusion ( protruding, slightly protruding, or nonprotuding)
  4. 4. Traits Outside (physical apperance) = phenotype ex: long eyelashes Inside (genes) = genotype ex: EE or Ee The "E" is known as an allele . So, two alleles come together to form a genotype, and how this is expressed (what it looks like) is called a phenotype.
  5. 5. The genotype determines the phenotype because of the rule of dominance and recessive. For example: Plant height (tall or short) Dominance is represented by a capital allele, such as T. Recessive is represented by a lower case allele, such as t. Two alleles make up a genotype, such as Tt. This genotype would be expressed as a tall plant because the capital T is present and it takes over and hides the lower case t, the recessive allele.
  6. 6. Mendel looked at several different traits of pea plants: stem length, seed shape, seed color, pod shape, pod color, flower position, seed coat color, flower color Mendel and his Pea Plants
  7. 7. This is what Mendel observed in stem height: Pure-bred tall plant Pure-bred short plant P generation Both offspring are tall plants Next generation of offspring is 3 tall plants and 1 short plant
  8. 8. This is what he observed in flower color: Crossed a purely purple flower with a purely white flower All offspring had purple flowers Next generation of offspring had 3 purple and 1 white
  9. 9. Punnett Squares: What is the probability of getting offspring with a particular genotype? Flower Color P= dominant p = recessive P P p p
  10. 10. Complete Dominance - What Mendel observed. If you have a genotype that is heterozygous/hybrid, the dominant allele will hide the recessive allele and the dominant trait will be expressed (phenotype). Example: Flower Color Pp is a heterozygous genotype, but the dominant allele (P) is purple and it will hide the recessive allele, therefore the phenotype (physical appearance) of the plant will have purple flowers.
  11. 11. Complete Dominance
  12. 12. Co-Dominance - If you have a genotype that is heterozygous/hybrid, both traits will be expressed (phenotype). Example: Flower Color F P F W is a heterozygous genotype, with both a dominant purple allele and dominant white allele present, therefore the phenotype of the plant would be purple with white marks or white with purple marks.
  13. 13. C0-Dominance for Fur Color ( Red + White )
  14. 14. Incomplete Dominance - If you have a genotype that is heterozygous/hybrid, both traits will be expressed (phenotype) as a blend of the two alleles. Example: Flower Color F P F W is a heterozygous genotype, with both a dominant purple allele and dominant white allele present, therefore the phenotype of the plant would be a blend/mix of the two colors; lavender flower color.
  15. 15. Co- Dominance for Skin Color ( green + pink ) Incomplete Dominance for Body Type (Medium)
  16. 16. Example: Two parents have 3 children. One child has a chronic disease, one child is a carrier, and the other is normal. The gene for this particular disease is found on recessive alleles. Child #1 Genotype = gg Child #2 Genotype = Gg Child #3 Genotype = GG Child #1 Phenotype = afflicted with disease Child #2 Phenotype = carrier of disease Child #3 Phenotype = normal What is a carrier?
  17. 17. Blood Typing: A, B, AB, and O Both A and B are dominant and O is recessive. How are blood types different? Physical structure of the blood cell Rh factor- positive or negative blood due to the proteins that make up the blood cells
  18. 18. Sex-Linked Traits All chromosomes are numbered except sex chromosomes. They are called X and Y. XX = female XY = male Traits can be carried on these sex chromsomes and be passed from parent to offspring.
  19. 19. Hemophilia and Red-Green Colorblindness are sex-linked traits X H X h = female carrier X H Y= male normal X H X H = female normal X h Y = male hemo X h X h = female hemo X C X C = female normal X C Y = male normal X C X c = female carrier X c Y = male colorblind X c X c = female colorblind
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