Ecology Study Guide

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Ecology Study Guide

  1. 2. Energy Flow Lab primary productivity Biomass kcal= calories: measurement of energy amount of living tissue at a particular trophic level total amount of energy available in an ecosystem
  2. 3. Draw a food chain with 4 organisms. Draw a food web with at least 10 organisms.
  3. 4. Questions to think about... What are the similarities and differences between food chains and food webs? Why are they important in an ecosystem?
  4. 7. Food Chains and Food Webs tell us: 1) how organisms relate to one another (what eats what) 2) how energy flows through living systems
  5. 8. Ecology Essential Themes: 1. Human impact on the environment 2. All organisms relate to one another 3. Energy flows through living systems 4. Living systems move towards order/balance or death (homeostasis in the ecosystem) 5. Biodiversity is important 6. The role of material cycles in an ecosystem
  6. 9. Energy Pyramid
  7. 11. Terms you need to know: Abiotic vs. Biotic Factors Autotrophs Heterotrophs Producer Consumer Omnivore Herbivore Carnivore Predator Prey Parasite Energy Pyramid
  8. 12. Biosphere Biomes Ecosystems Communities Populations Organism Habitat Niche
  9. 13. Organization of the Environment: Living Systems move towards order or death. The movement towards order is ecological succession .
  10. 14. factors: Carrying Capacity Competition Niche Biodiversity Human Impact
  11. 15. Biodiversity is an assessment of how healthy an ecosytem is. The more diverse species live in an ecosystem is, the healthier it is.
  12. 16. Human Impact on the Environment When you disrupt the ecosystem, negative consequences result: ex: taking out deer population will effect the plant population and the predators that feed on the deer ex: introducing a new species in an environment can take food and mates away from the original species that live there ex: deforestation or pesticides can kill plant life and therefore disrupt energy flow/ amt of biomass produced.
  13. 17. Negative Impact: Population Growth Global Warming Ozone Depletion Extinction of Species Disrupted Ecosystems Pesticide Use Waste Disposal Positive Impact: Technology Environment Law Waste Disposal-Recycling
  14. 18. 4 Relationships between organisms called Symbiosis 1. Mutualism 2. Parasitism 3. Commensalism 4. Saprophytism
  15. 19. Remember how abiotic and biotic factors influence ecosystems.... Abiotic factors such as water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles allow for ecosystems to move towards order/balance!
  16. 20. Material Cycles : replenishing resources (homeostasis in an ecosystem). These cycles are how ecosystems move towards order! This is how the biosphere balances itself!
  17. 21. Water Cycle In - Rain and melted ice (precipitation) Out- Evaporation In humans- sweat Oceans/Lakes- evaporate Plant- Transpiration from leaves
  18. 23. Carbon Cycle- Carbon is a key component of living things In - atmosphere, cellular respiration, decomposition (fossil fuels, exhaling) Out- Used to make living things, Photosynthesis Use up more carbon by making more plants.... make it worse by cutting down plants... Deforestation- too much carbon in the atmosphere
  19. 25. nitrogen Cycle- Nitrogen is used to make amino acids, which form proteins. (Proteins are essential to life) In - atmosphere, decomposition. waste products, dead matter Out- atomosphere, autotrophs Bacteria are essential to this cycle. Nitrification- certain bacteria can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia in soil, others convert them into nitrates or nitrities, which can be used by producers. Denitrification- bacteria convert nitrates into atmospheric nitrogen.
  20. 27. Questions: How do organisms relate to one another in an ecosystem? How do ecosystems move towards order or homeostasis? How does energy flow through ecosystems? Why is biodiversity important? What are ways that humans impact the environment? How does the water, nitrogen, and carbon cycle play a role in an ecosystem?

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