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Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics
 

Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics

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The controversy around privacy and security in ICT seems to be a never-ending source of newspaper headlines. Cases of security and privacy breaches are interspersed with an equal number of ...

The controversy around privacy and security in ICT seems to be a never-ending source of newspaper headlines. Cases of security and privacy breaches are interspersed with an equal number of announcements of new legislative measures or amendments. Learning analytics is certainly not the first technological area to deal with these issues, but more often than not, the debate on privacy tends to prevent the design of practical solutions. Far from trying to
settle the main controversy around privacy, in this talk we will try to identify the major areas in which privacy concerns can be divided and provide some examples of practical solutions.

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    Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics Presentation Transcript

    • danxoneil FlickrPractical privacy issuesaround Learning AnalyticsLearning Analytics and Knowledge 2013Abelardo Pardo (@abelardopardo)The University of Sydneywww.slideshare.net/abelardo_pardo
    • horrigans Flickr This talk is NOT about... Generic analysis of privacy Ramifications into ethics, societal issues, laws, governmentsAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 2
    • nevolution FlickrThis talk IS Review principles to consider Restricted to the LA context Based on practical guidelinesAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 3
    • Eleaf Flickr.com Generate more questions Where to focus the questions?Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 4
    • Mark Coggins flickr.com Delicate issue!Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 5
    • Wootpeanuts flickr.com Prevents reaching a practical solutionAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 6
    • malias flickr.com General Environment view LA ScenariosAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 7
    • malias flickr.com EnvironmentAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 8
    • http://blog.stephenwolfram.com/2012/03/the-personal-analytics-of-my-life (last accessed March 2013) 9 Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics Abelardo Pardo
    • 10 Is she pregnant? Practical privacy issues around Learning AnalyticsDailymail.co.uk/news/article-2102859/How-Target-knows-shoppers-pregnant–figured-teen-father-did.html (last accessed March 2013) Abelardo Pardo
    • http://hdguru.com/is-your-new-hdtv-watching-you/7643 (last accessed March 2013) 11 Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics Abelardo Pardo
    • Great Beyond flickr.com Privacy as a currencyAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 12
    • http://theweek.com/article/index/229508 (last accessed March 2013) B2B Data MarketAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 13
    • www.nytimes.com (last accessed March 2013) Lower premium With GPS Without GPSAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 14
    • malias flickr.com General Environment viewAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 15
    • https://www.privacyassociation.org/resource_center/consumer_data_privacy_in_a_networked_world (last accessed March 2013) 16 Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics Abelardo Pardo
    • http://www.csa.ca/cm/ca/en/privacy-code (last accessed March 2013)Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 17
    • arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2013/02/eu-data-law-proposal-uses-language-word-for-word-from-us-eu-corporations (last accessed March 2013) 18 Similar legislation Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics Abelardo Pardo
    • Reigh LeBlanc flickr.com Absolute confidentiality: undesired Data ownership Information flowAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 19
    • http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v13/n9/full/nm0907-999.html Uninformed consent is considered under special circumstancesAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 20
    • anthonylibrarian Flickr Internet requires new approach to privacyBefore: Limitingsurveillance, restrictingaccess to information, Additionally: How is datacurtailing intrusions into captured, who owns it, howprivate space. is it shared?Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 21
    • Small_Realm Flickr People act in different roles and contexts Applications should respect these contextsAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 22
    • Context Integrity: Framework to provide guidance to solve privacy related conflicts. Context Travel flickr.com Appropriateness & Distribution (Nissenbaum, H., 2004, Privacy as Contextual Integrity, Washington Law Review, 79(1))Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 23
    • Cotton|Joe Flickr Appropriateness What is collected? What is revealed? Valid in one context, invalid in anotherAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 24
    • johnthrm Flickr Distribution Who sees the data? When? For what purpose?Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 25
    • malias flickr.com General Environment view LA ScenariosAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 26
    • 27 Database with K-12 Student data Practical privacy issues around Learning Analyticshttp://www.reuters.com/article/2013/03/03/us-education-database-idUSBRE92204W20130303 (last accessed March 2013) Abelardo Pardo
    • deepwarren Flickr Observe in and out of the classroomAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 28
    • Case 1: K-12 Out-of-class support 1 Collection while doing homework in tablet 2 Data used by teachers to personalize activities. 3 Available to all teachers in the school. 4 Performance vs demographic factors correlated. 5 Available to platform vendors. 6 Kept for ever.Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 29
    • Case 2: University course 1 Collected in LMS and mobile application. 2 Available to instructors for personalization. 3 Some data considered for assessment. 4 Available to university-wide units: counseling, recruiting, marketing. 5 Analyzed Retention vs demographic. 6 eTextbook access available to publishers. 7 Kept for ever.Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 30
    • Case 3: Distance education 1 Data collected in LMS. 2 Available to instructors for personalization purposes. 3 Analyzed performance vs demographic. 4 Some data considered for assessment. 5 Results used in scientific publication. 6 Results available to funding institutions. 7 Student right to request data removal.Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 31
    • Ethical Principles • LA as a moral practice • Students as agents at the center • Data is temporal and dynamic • Student success is complex and multidimensional • Transparency • Institutions obliged to use data (Slade, S., Prinsloo, P. 2013, Learning Analytics: Ethical Issues and Dilemmas, American Behavioral Scientist)Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 32
    • Practical Principles • Transparency: Explicit description of how data is collected, manipulated, stored and accessed • Students as data owners: Include right to consult, modify or remove data • Data access policies: clearly stated and observed. • Accountability and assessment: Embedded constant review and auditing of the policy.Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 33
    • lrargerich FlickrTransparency • Means to achieve Legitimacy • Apply across the board • Easily accessible and clearly explained documentation • How is data collected • Who has access to the data • Which calculations are performed • How long is the data valid and availableAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 34
    • Students as data owners • Right to access, amend, delete data Images of Money Flickr • Institutions are borrowing the data • In conflict with derived data • Affects system design • Consider fixed life span of collected dataAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 35
    • Data Access Policies • Clarify the roles when Chris Cambpelll accessing data • Extend to derived data • Consider connection with research • Beware of “anonymization” or “deidentification”Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 36
    • On “anonymization” OperationPaperStorm Flickr • Comprehensive anonymized dataset of course participation • Include forum posts • All students introduced themselves in forum the first week • Student joins the course later.Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 37
    • Accountability and Assessment • Each aspect has a colemama Flickr responsible person, body, department. • Process continuously “under improvement” • Consider all stakeholdersAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 38
    • Case 1: K-12 Out-of-class support 1 Collection while doing homework in tablet 2 Data used by teachers to personalize activities. 3 Available to all teachers in the school. 4 Performance vs demographic factors correlated. 5 Available to platform vendors. 6 Kept for ever.Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 39
    • Case 2: University course 1 Collected in LMS and mobile application. 2 Available to instructors for personalization. 3 Some data considered for assessment. 4 Available to university-wide units: counseling, recruiting, marketing. 5 Analyzed Retention vs demographic. 6 eTextbook access available to publishers. 7 Kept for ever.Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 40
    • Case 3: Distance education 1 Data collected in LMS. 2 Available to instructors for personalization purposes. 3 Analyzed performance vs demographic. 4 Some data considered for assessment. 5 Results used in scientific publication. 6 Results available to funding institutions. 7 Student right to request data removal.Abelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 41
    • johnthurm Flickr Privacy changed in Internet era Integrity of the Learning Context Appropriateness & Distribution Ethical and Implementation principlesAbelardo Pardo Practical privacy issues around Learning Analytics 42
    • danxoneil FlickrPractical privacy issuesaround Learning AnalyticsLearning Analytics and Knowledge 2013Abelardo Pardo (@abelardopardo)The University of Sydneywww.slideshare.net/abelardo_pardo