Predicates, the direct object & indirect object


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Predicates, the direct object & indirect object

  1. 1. Predicates, the Direct Object, and Indirect Object By: Abegail S. Comandao CLAS
  2. 2. Objectives: <ul><li>To distinguish the different forms of the predicate. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify and use the direct object. </li></ul><ul><li>To familiarize students with the indirect object. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Predicates <ul><li>Compound Predicate </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Predicate </li></ul><ul><li>Predicate Adjective </li></ul><ul><li>Predicate Nominative </li></ul>
  4. 4. Predicate <ul><li>predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence (the other being the subject, which the predicate modifies). </li></ul><ul><li>must contain a verb, and the verb requires, permits, or precludes other sentence elements to complete the predicate. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Predicate <ul><li>These elements are: objects (direct, indirect, prepositional), predicatives (a.k.a. predicate complements: subject complements and object complements) and adverbials. </li></ul>
  6. 6. In the following examples, the predicate is underlined. <ul><li>She dances . (verb only predicate) </li></ul><ul><li>John reads the book . (direct object) </li></ul><ul><li>John's mother, Felicity, gave me a present . (indirect object without a preposition) </li></ul><ul><li>She listened to the radio . (prepositional object) </li></ul><ul><li>They elected him president . (predicative /object complement) </li></ul><ul><li>She met him in the park . (adverbial) </li></ul><ul><li>She is in the park . (obligatory adverbial / adverbial complement) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Compound Predicate <ul><li>is a predicate with two or more verbs joined by the word and or another conjunction. Compound predicates share the same subject. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Example: <ul><li>Jan jumped on her bike. Jan rode around the block. </li></ul><ul><li>Jan jumped on her bike and rode around the block. </li></ul><ul><li>The compound predicate is 'jumped on her bike and rode around the block.' The subject in both the sentences is Jan. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Complete Predicate <ul><li>The part that tells what is said about the subject is the complete  predicate . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>Edith and Mike are watching the storm from the window . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Predicate Adjective <ul><li>A predicate adjective (also called a subject complement) modifies the subject like other descriptive adjectives, but it must follow a linking verb in a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>These verbs are linking verbs only if they are followed by adjectives, nouns, or pronouns that rename the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>This cake is GOOD. (good cake) </li></ul><ul><li>Her hair looks so SHINY. (shiny hair) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Predicate Adjective <ul><li>Linking Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>is, become, seen, grow, turn, prove, look, feel, sound, smell, taste, appear, remain, keep and stay. </li></ul><ul><li>1. *Sarah looks OLDER with makeup. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The *children remained CALM. </li></ul><ul><li>3. *You are UNREASONABLE. </li></ul><ul><li>4. *You are PATIENT today. </li></ul><ul><li>5. *Babette grew TIRED of waiting. </li></ul><ul><li>6. *I grew WEARY from the complaints. </li></ul><ul><li>7. *Robert seems CHEERFUL today. </li></ul><ul><li>8. The *gumbo tasted GREAT. </li></ul><ul><li>9. That *idea sounds WONDERFUL. </li></ul><ul><li>10. The *roses smelled FRAGRANT. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Predicate Nominative <ul><li>A predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun which follows the verb and describes or renames the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>It is another way of naming the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>It follows a linking verb. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Predicate Nominative <ul><li>Defines the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>John is a plumber . Mike is a vet . Richard is a teacher . Cas is a Canadian . </li></ul><ul><li>The predicate nominative cannot change places with the subject. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Direct Object <ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul>
  15. 15. Direct Object
  16. 18. T he direct object is identifiable by its formal and functional properties: form, position, pronouns, and voice. <ul><li>Form . The direct object usually has the form of a noun phrase or clause. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cat chased the mouse (DO). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I know that she will be here soon (DO). </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Position <ul><li>Direct objects usually occur after the subject and verb, as in the examples above. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Pronouns <ul><li>If the subject and the object of a clause refer to the same entity, then the object will be in the form of a reflexive pronoun. The reflexive pronoun will agree with the subject in number, person, and gender, where relevant. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. You (S) should see yourself (DO). </li></ul><ul><li>We (S) rewarded ourselves (DO) with a treat. </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>All other pronouns assuming object function will take the objective form. </li></ul><ul><li>I like her (DO). </li></ul><ul><li>She likes me (DO). </li></ul>
  20. 23. Voice <ul><li>There is also a systematic relationship between the object of an active voice clause and the subject of a passive voice clause. </li></ul><ul><li>The object of the active voice clause corresponds to the subject in the passive voice equivalent. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Emily likes Liz (DO). [active voice] </li></ul><ul><li>Liz (S) is liked by Emily [passive voice] </li></ul>
  21. 24. Indirect Object <ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul>
  22. 25. Indirect Objects <ul><li>are words, phrases, and clauses that follow a ditransitive verb and indicate to or for whom or what the action of the verb is performed. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentences with indirect objects must also have direct objects. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Four grammatical forms can perform the grammatical function of indirect object in the English language. <ul><li>Both native speakers and ESL students must learn </li></ul><ul><li>and understand the four grammatical forms that </li></ul><ul><li>can function as the indirect object in order to </li></ul><ul><li>use indirect objects correctly in spoken and written </li></ul><ul><li>English. </li></ul><ul><li>The four grammatical forms that can function </li></ul><ul><li>as the indirect object are: </li></ul><ul><li>Noun phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositional phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Verb phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Noun clauses </li></ul>
  24. 27. Noun Phrases as Indirect Objects <ul><li>The first grammatical form that can perform the grammatical function of indirect object is the noun phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Noun phrases are defined as phrases formed by a noun or pronoun and any modifying words, phrases, and clauses including adjectives, prepositions, and verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. The woman gave the cat a bath. </li></ul><ul><li>My husband bought me flowers. </li></ul>
  25. 28. Prepositional Phrases as Indirect Objects <ul><li>The second grammatical form that can perform the grammatical function of indirect object is the prepositional phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositional phrases are defined as phrases formed by a preposition directly followed by a prepositional complement such as a noun phrase. </li></ul>
  26. 29. Examples: <ul><li>My mom gave under the bed a good scrubbing. </li></ul><ul><li>He has given behind the house some thought. </li></ul><ul><li>The contractor will give in the garage some consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to give above the refrigerator a cleaning. </li></ul>
  27. 30. Verb Phrases as Indirect Objects <ul><li>The third grammatical form that can perform the grammatical function of indirect object is the verb phrase in the form of present participles. </li></ul><ul><li>Verb phrases are defined as phrases formed by a verb plus any modifiers, complements, particles, or infinitive markers. </li></ul>
  28. 31. Examples: <ul><li>The child gave reading the book some consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>I had given preparing dinner some thought. </li></ul><ul><li>You should give showering daily a try. </li></ul><ul><li>My grandmother is giving returning to college serious consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional grammars usually use the term gerund for present participles functioning as indirect objects. </li></ul>
  29. 32. Noun Clauses as Indirect Objects <ul><li>The fourth grammatical form that can perform the grammatical function of indirect object is the noun clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Noun clauses are defined as subordinate clauses formed by an independent clause preceded by a subordinating conjunction. </li></ul><ul><li>A clause is defined as consisting of a subject and a predicate. </li></ul>
  30. 33. For example, the following italicized noun clauses function as indirect objects: <ul><li>My parents gave that I want to go to the party some thought. </li></ul><ul><li>I gave that you wanted me to prepare dinner a little consideration </li></ul><ul><li>You should have given what your parents said both thought and consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher gave that all his students failed the test some serious reflection. </li></ul>
  31. 34. Predicates, the Direct Object, and Indirect Object By: Abegail S. Comandao CLAS