Time Management
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Time Management

on

  • 615 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
615
Views on SlideShare
614
Embed Views
1

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
22
Comments
0

1 Embed 1

http://192.168.33.10 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Time Management Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Creating Effective Information Systems Session 5 Time ManagementAbeetha De Silva
  • 2. Why is Project TimeManagement important? According to research on average 82% of projects overrun time scales Issues concerning project schedules cause the most number of conflicts on projects Time variable is one of the project variables with the least amount of flexibility To avoid delays and increase the success rate of the timely completion of projects we need to do project time management 13 March 2012 Session 5- 2
  • 3. Effort vs. Duration: How much time do you need to complete this task? It will take 10 hours to complete it‖ or ―It will be completed in 10 hour. 13 March 2012 Session 5- 3
  • 4.  Effort=Work Effort is the actual time required to complete the task Duration is the total amount of time in which the user has to complete the task 13 March 2012 Session 5- 4
  • 5. Network diagram A Work breakdown Structure ( WBS) allows you to identify groups of activities that you need to accomplish in your project. However, the WBS does not show the dependencies or sequence between these activities. A network diagram will allow you to illustrate this. Once your network diagram is ready, only then can you realistically start determining your project‘s schedule. 13 March 2012 Session 5- 5
  • 6. Critical path method This includes determining the longest path in the network diagram (critical path), the earliest and latest an activity can start, and the earliest and latest it can be completed. Critical Path – the longest duration path through a network diagram. 13 March 2012 Session 5- 6
  • 7. Activity sequence/networkdiagram 13 March 2012 Session 5- 7
  • 8. ES-Early Start EF-Early Finish LS-Late StartFloat LF-Late Finish ES EF LS LF 13 March 2012 Session 5- 8
  • 9.  Early start(ES)Is the earliest time that an activity can start. An activity near the end of the path will only start early if all of the previous activities in the path also started early. If one of the previous activities in the path slips, that will push it out. Early finish(EF) Is the earliest time that an activity can finish. It‘s the date that an activity will finish if all of the previous activities started early and none of them slipped. 13 March 2012 Session 5- 9
  • 10.  Late start(LS)is the latest time that an activity can start. If an activity is on a path that‘s much shorter than the critical path, then it can start very late without delaying the project – but those delays will add up quickly if other activities on its path also slip! Late finish(LF)is the latest time that an activity can finish. If an activity is on a short path and all of the other activities on that path start and finish early, then it can finish very late without causing the project to be late. 13 March 2012 Session 5- 10
  • 11. Network diagram cont.. Slack/Float = LS –ES or LF-EF EF=ES+Duration LS=LF-Duration ES = Calc. time at the beginning node LF = Calc. time at the ending node 13 March 2012 Session 5- 11
  • 12. Dependency Finish to start (FS) A FS B = B cant start before A is finished. 13 March 2012 Session 5- 12
  • 13.  Finish to finish (FF) A FF B = B cant finish before A is finished 13 March 2012 Session 5- 13
  • 14.  Start to start (SS). A SS B = B cant start before A starts 13 March 2012 Session 5- 14
  • 15.  Start to finish (SF) A SF B = B cant finish before A starts Rare relationship 13 March 2012 Session 5- 15
  • 16. Exercise Activity A can start immediately and has an estimated duration of 3 weeks Activity B can start after activity A is completed and has an estimated duration of 3 weeks Activity C can start after activity A is completed and has an estimated duration of 6 weeks Activity D can start after activity B is completed and has an estimated duration of 8 weeks Activity E can start after activity C and D are completed and has an estimated duration of 4 weeks 13 March 2012 Session 5- 16
  • 17.  Draw network diagram Critical path? Float of activity 3? Float of activity 2? Total float of A-C-E? What is C‘s duration get increased to 14? 13 March 2012 Session 5- 17
  • 18. Estimate techniques1).Analogous estimates: analogous estimates are based on a previous project(s) within the organization. This estimate is often the earliest and most convenient one to gather. Because of that it is often used to justify a project and for project chartering. Top-Down Initial Phases Quick Less costly Less accurate Historical Data Expert Judgment involves 13 March 2012 Session 5- 18
  • 19. 2).Parametric Estimate An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (for example, square footage in construction, lines of code in software development) to calculate an estimate for activity parameters, such as scope, cost, budget, and duration. This technique can produce higher levels of accuracy depending upon the sophistication and the underlying data built into the model. 13 March 2012 Session 5- 19
  • 20. 3). Three-Point Estimates a = the best-case estimate m = the most likely estimate b = the worst-case estimate. E = (a + 4m + b) / 6 13 March 2012 Session 5- 20
  • 21. 4). Expert JudgmentJudgment provided based upon expertise in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc. as appropriate for the activity being performed.Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training, and is available from many sources, including: other units within the performing organization; consultants; stakeholders, including customers; professional and technical associations; and industry groups. 13 March 2012 Session 5- 21
  • 22. 5). Bottom-Up estimates A Bottom Up analysis is a technique to improve the accuracy of the overall project estimate. This technique requires the project team to decompose the work into very small work packages. Generally, the smaller the project activity, the easier it is to estimate because the work scope is very small. All of these estimates of small activities are added up into subgroups and finally into the project total. The advantage of this technique is that the estimate is usually more accurate since the work is better understood. The disadvantages of this technique is that it is very time consuming, and it may be impossible to decompose activities that cannot be easily defined. 13 March 2012 Session 5- 22
  • 23. 6).Published Estimated Data Published Data Estimating is an excellent technique for those activities for which there is published data. In this technique, the activity is compared to the activities for which data exists and the actual cost or durations of the closest comparable activity is selected from the data and used as the estimate. The advantage of this technique is that it is very accurate when the project conditions match the conditions under which the published data was generated. The disadvantages are that data does not exist for many activities and that the published data that does exist is based upon the characteristics of the organizations who compiled and published the data - which may not correspond with your organizations characteristics. (For instance you may have individuals on your project who are either much more or much less experienced than those who were in the projects comprising the data.) 13 March 2012 Session 5- 23
  • 24. Schedule compression Optimizing activity lead-lag times, Fast-tracking, Crashing Cut Scope Reduce Quality 13 March 2012 Session 5- 24
  • 25. Fast Track In which phases or activities normally performed in sequence are performed in parallel. Start development before the designed is approved May lead to rework Risk is high Only works if activities can be overlapped to shorten the duration 13 March 2012 Session 5- 25
  • 26. Crash Employed in those cases where activity overlap is unacceptable. Crashing critical path activities is the practice of reducing their duration while allowing them to remain in series, essentially the ―F-S arrangement.‖ 13 March 2012 Session 5- 26
  • 27.  By reducing the duration of a critical path activity it may be necessary to apply additional resources such as personnel, extra equipment, or supplementing with outsourced resources. Cost increases Risk increases crashing should be practiced only when the project schedule completion date is of a higher priority than the project cost. The priorities should therefore be clearly delineated in the authorizing project charter. 13 March 2012 Session 5- 27
  • 28. Exercise – Crashing Cost 13 March 2012 Session 5- 28
  • 29.  Assume project has a project float of 3 months, which activity(s) presented above would you crash? Its J and N. If the ‗float‘ is not there: ◦ First determine the critical path ◦ Select the activities with lowest cost ◦ Determine the crash time ◦ IF there are 2 critical paths then need to crash both together 13 March 2012 Session 5- 29
  • 30. Example PPT_Crashing.pdf 13 March 2012 Session 5- 30
  • 31.  Reduce Scope Cut QualityAdvantages and Disadvantages? 13 March 2012 Session 5- 31
  • 32. Terminology Milestone and milestone chart A milestone is a significant event in the project, such as an event restraining future work or marking the completion of a major deliverable or phase. Duration is zero. Lead time is used to represent partial dependencies. By using lead time, certain tasks can overlap by a fixed amount or by a percentage of the predecessor task. For example, testing can start when 30% of coding is finished. It can be thought of as the predecessor task getting a head start, or lead, before the successor task starts. lead time is also referred to as negative Lag. 13 March 2012 Session 5- 32
  • 33.  Float (Slack )The float of an activity is the amount of time that the activity can be delayed without causing a delay in the Project. LagA modification of a logical relationship that directs a delay in the successor task. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a ten day lag, the successor activity cannot start until ten days after the predecessor has finished. An example where a lag makes sense is that youre painting a house, you paint the first coat (predecessor task), and then you have to wait a day (thats your lag), and then you can start with the second coat (successor task). Negative float means behind the schedule 13 March 2012 Session 5- 33
  • 34. Artifacts Sample project schedule with MS project Milestone charts ->Report to Mgt Network diagrams -> show dependencies Bar charts ->Track progress of the team 13 March 2012 Session 5- 34
  • 35. Your effort Practice network diagram calculations Practice Crashing calculations Study estimation techniques Study artifacts of time management 13 March 2012 Session 5- 35
  • 36. References http://faculty.cbpa.drake.edu/bmeyer/webm120/PPT_Cr ashing.pdf http://www.cob.sjsu.edu/davis_r/courses/QBAreader/prj crsh.html http://examples.oreilly.com/9780596102340/hfpmp_ch0 6_errata_pp257-265.pdf http://www.projectmanagementguru.com/estimating.htm (PMBOK® Guide)—Fourth Edition ... PMI Publications, 14 Campus Boulevard, Newtown Square, PA 19073-3299 USA 13 March 2012 Session 5- 36