Internet addiction

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Internet addiction is one of addictive disorders it considered as psychological addiction which needs intervention by psychiatrists

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Internet addiction

  1. 1. INTERNET ADDICTION BY ABEER MAHMOUD Prof. Of psychiatry, faculty of medicine Ain Shams University
  2. 2. OUTLINE Introduction What is Addiction? What is Internet Addiction? Types of Internet Addiction What makes internet use addictive? Symptoms Consequences
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION With the growing importance of the internet in everyday life, more and more people are using various on-line resources each day. The world wide web is informative, convenient, resourceful , fun, but also potentially way for internet addiction.
  4. 4. WHAT IS ADDICTION?
  5. 5.  The term "addiction" is used in many contexts to describe an obsession, compulsion, or excessive psychological dependence, such as: drug addiction (e.g. alcoholism, nicotine addiction), problem gambling, crime, money, work addiction, compulsive overeating, Oniomania (compulsive shopping), computer addiction, video game addiction, pornography addiction, television addiction, etc. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Addiction
  6. 6.  So, the term addiction is also sometimes applied to compulsions that are not substance-related, such as problem gambling and computer addiction. In these kinds of common usages, the term addiction is used to describe a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences, as deemed by the user himself to his individual health, mental state, or social life. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Addiction
  7. 7. WHAT IS INTERNET ADDICTION?
  8. 8.  Studies on Internet addiction originated in the US by Dr. Kimberly Young, who presented the first research on Internet addiction in 1996 ,her paper “Internet Addiction: The Emergence of a New Disorder”.
  9. 9. Internet Addiction Internet Addiction disorder Computer Addiction Compulsive Internet Use Pathological Internet Use Internet Dependence Internet Overuse
  10. 10.  A maladaptive pattern of internet use, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress as manifested by three (or more) of the following, occurring at any time in the same 12-month period: (I) Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:  (A) A need for markedly increased amounts of time on Internet to achieve satisfaction  (B) Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of time on Internet. INTERNET ADDICTION DISORDER (IAD) - DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA Author: Ivan Goldberg, M.D.
  11. 11. CRITERIA – IAD II (II) Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following:  (A)The characteristic withdrawal syndrome  (1) Cessation of (or reduction) in Internet use that has been heavy and prolonged.  (2) Two (or more) of the following, developing within several days to a month after Criterion 1: (a) psychomotor agitation - (b) anxiety - (c) obsessive thinking about what is happening on Internet - (d) fantasies or dreams about Internet - (e) voluntary or involuntary typing movements of the fingers.  (3) The symptoms cause distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important area of functioning  (B) Use of Internet or a similar on-line service is engaged in to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms  (III) Internet is often accessed more often or for longer periods of time than was intended.
  12. 12. (IV) There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control Internet use. (V) A great deal of time is spent in activities related to Internet use (e.g. organizing files of downloaded materials; researching Internet vendors, trying new browsers.) (VI) Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of Internet use.
  13. 13. DESTRUCTIVE CONSEQUENCES (VII) Internet use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical, social, occupational, or psychological problem that is likely to been caused or exacerbated by Internet use  sleep deprivation, marital difficulties, lateness for early morning appointments, neglect of occupational duties.  Isolation  Job loss
  14. 14. VALUE SHIFT – DESTRUCTIVE EFFECT  Online addicts realize that they give up values which have been important to them:  Respect of the other person.  Repulsion of violence and coercion.  Religion values of integrity, purity and self discipline.  Pathological Cybersex destroys the life of a person  Internally (distorted fantasies, continuous craving)  in relationships (partner, family)  in the workplace (risk of job loss and poverty)
  15. 15. INTERNET ADDICTION COMPARED TO SUBSTANCE ABUSE DISORDER Criteria for substance abuse that applies to Internet addiction:  Recurrent substance use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home  Continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance (DSM-IV-TR, 2000)
  16. 16. INTERNET ADDICTION COMPARED TO IMPULSE CONTROL DISORDER Criteria for impulse control disorder such as gambling that applies to Internet addiction:  Preoccupation with gambling  Repeated unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back, or stop gambling  Gambling as a way of escaping from problems  The significant loss of a relationship, job, or educational or career opportunity because of gambling
  17. 17. TYPES OF INTERNET ADDICTION
  18. 18.  Web surfer  Pornography/Cybersexual  Chat rooms/online dating/social networking  Gaming (video/computer) and online gambling
  19. 19. FOUR AREAS WITH ADDICTIVE POTENTIAL Internetpornography Chat Online-Games Internet-Gambling
  20. 20. WHAT MAKES INTERNET USE ADDICTIVE?
  21. 21. Peel (1991) “ It gives you feeling and gratifying sensations of pain, uncertainty, or discomfort. It may create powerfully distracting sensations that focus and absorb attention. It may enable a person to forget or feel “OK” about some problems. It may provide an artificial, temporary feeling of security or calm, of self-worth or accomplishment, of power and control, intimacy or belonging ” PDF article by Dr. Kimberly S. Young: Internet Addiction: Symptoms, evaluation and treatment
  22. 22.  It is accessible 24/7  It can be anonymous  It feels secure  It is easy to use  It provides the illusion of connection  It can be inexpensive  It is fun and very engaging
  23. 23. COMPLICATIONS
  24. 24. Physical complications Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Dry Eyes Headaches Back Aches Eating irregularities (skipping meals) Sleep disturbances Physical complications Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Dry Eyes Headaches Back Aches Eating irregularities (skipping meals) Sleep disturbances
  25. 25. FAMILIAL PROBLEMS  Marriages Dating relationships Parent-child relationship Close friendships
  26. 26. ACADEMIC PROBLEMS More time is spent “researching” than actually completing assignments. Incomplete or Missing Assignments Inability to concentrate on real life instruction Grades begin to decline Skipping classes to stay in chat room Absenteeism
  27. 27. COMPLICATIONS - COMORBIDITY  Alcoholism: Alcohol is being used to get calmer but also to enhance the sexual excitement.  Substance abuse (from Cocain to Viagra)  Depressive Episodes: caused by negative psychosocial consequences of the cyber-addiction or the break-up of relationships.  Suicidal thoughts: out of despair and hopelessness.  Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior: Online addicts develop complex rituals to conceal their dependency and to make sure their family, colleagues or company cannot access their “hidden area”.  Paranoid Thinking: Fear of being discovered and being ashamed lets them associate even marginal observations with personal threats.
  28. 28. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN  MEN  „Kick“ through visual material  Sexual excitement with masturbation.  Collecting mania (thousands of pictures etc.)  Tendency towards violent and abasing content.  WOMEN:  „Kick“ through communication (Chat).  Romantic stories and images (80 %)  Sexual excitement is secondary.
  29. 29. CONSEQUENCES
  30. 30. MY THOUGHTS I believe that everyone has some form of internet addiction. The severity of the addiction is what differs. Technology plays a huge role in today’s society. We rely on the internet for information and other daily activities. Most jobs require the use of internet/computer for job-related functions.
  31. 31. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is the first validated and reliable measure of addictive use of the Internet. Developed by Dr. Kimberly Young, the IAT is a 20-item questionnaire that measures mild, moderate, and severe levels of Internet Addiction. IAT Activity
  32. 32. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS USING THIS SCALE: 1= RARELY 2= OCCASIONALLY 3= FREQUENTLY 4= OFTEN 5= ALWAYS 1. How often do you find that you stay on-line longer than you intended? 2. How often do you neglect household chores to spend more time on-line? 3. How often do you prefer the excitement of the internet to intimacy with your partner? 4. How often do you form new relationships with fellow on-line users? 5. How often do others in your life complain about the amount of time you spend on-line?
  33. 33. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS USING THIS SCALE: 1= RARELY 2= OCCASIONALLY 3= FREQUENTLY 4= OFTEN 5= ALWAYS 6. How often do your grades or school work suffer because of the amount of time you spend on- line? 7. How often do you check your e-mail before something else that you need to do? 8. How often does your job performance or productivity suffer because of the internet? 9. How often do you become defensive or secretive when anyone asks you what you do on-line? 10. How often do you block out disturbing thoughts about your life with soothing thoughts of the internet?
  34. 34. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS USING THIS SCALE: 1= RARELY 2= OCCASIONALLY 3= FREQUENTLY 4= OFTEN 5= ALWAYS 11. How often do you find yourself anticipating when you will go on-line again? 12. How often do you fear that life without the internet would be boring, empty, and joyless? 13. How often do you snap, tell, or act annoyed if someone bothers you while you are on-line? 14. How often do you lose sleep due to late-night log- ins? 15. How often do you feel preoccupied with the internet when off-line, or fantasize about being on-line?
  35. 35. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS USING THIS SCALE: 1= RARELY 2= OCCASIONALLY 3= FREQUENTLY 4= OFTEN 5= ALWAYS 16. How often do you find yourself saying, “Just a few more minutes,” when on-line? 17. How often do you try to cut down the amount of time you spend on-line and fail? 18. How often do you try to hide how long you’ve been on-line? 19. How often do you choose to spend more time on- line over going out with others? 20. How often do you feel depressed, moody, or nervous when you are off-line, which goes away once you are back on-line?
  36. 36. RESULTS  20-49 points: You are an average on-line user. You may surf the Web a bit too long at times, but you have control over your usage.  50-79 points: You are experiencing occasional or frequent problems because of the internet. You should consider their full impact on your life.  80-100 points: Your internet usage is causing significant problems in your life. You should evaluate the impact of the internet on your life and address the problems directly caused by your internet usage. Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998)
  37. 37. Control yourself ! Use The Internet smart !
  38. 38. Acknowledge your addiction 1. Acknowledge that your „habit“ is an addiction, which requires consequent action. 2. Realize the fact that you support sexual abuse and slavery of women and children with your behavior. INTEGRATION
  39. 39. Limit access 3. Filtersoftware – blockade of access (www.max.com). - Limitations 4. Be accountable to a person you trust. Work at immature expectations and solution strategies. Perhaps using special software. INTEGRATION
  40. 40. Transparency 5. Share your addiction with your wife, a friend or a counselor. 6. Keep your computer in a public room of the house. Keep certain times to access the computer to ensure control. Personal discipline and responsibility. INTEGRATION
  41. 41. Live without the internet! 7. Choose to live without a computer or internet access for some time („plucking out your eye!“) 8. Attend a self-help group to learn with other addicts about strategies how to deal with your addiction. (www.sexhelp.com) INTEGRATION
  42. 42. WHAT ABOUT MEDICATION?  Serotonin: produced as a side effect of addiction process. Antidepressants are also elevating serotonin levels.  Could Serotonin reduce Craving? – possibly reduce feelings of emptiness and underlying depression.  Dopamin (increases desire in addiction)  No proven strategies in this area without severe side effects (neuroleptics).  Opiates: central in addiction, creating the feeling of being „high“.  Although there are opioid blockers there is no indication that they reduce non-substance addiction.  Conclusion:  Medication (unfortunately) is not a solution; perhaps partially a support for behavior therapy, where a person is additionally suffering from depression. No proven effect!
  43. 43. Thank you

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