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Emerging concepts in urban space design
 

Emerging concepts in urban space design

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Geoffrey Broadbent

Geoffrey Broadbent
Summary Of Selected Chapters Part II (21-38)
(1990). Van Nostrand Reinhold (International) Co. Ltd, London

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    Emerging concepts in urban space design Emerging concepts in urban space design Presentation Transcript

    • Geoffrey Broadbent Summary Of Selected Chapters Part II (21-38) (1990). Van Nostrand Reinhold (International) Co. Ltd, London
    • Presentation Info.  University Of Jordan.  College Of Graduate Studies.  Department Of Architecture.  Course Title: Urban Design And Planning. (0902721).  Course Instructor: Dr. Magdy Tewfik.  Presented By: Arch. Abedelrahman I. AlKhattab. (8121088)  Date Of Presentation: 2- Nov.- 2013 - 1st Semester. Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 2
    • Index  Overview.  The Logic Of Informal Space.  Medieval Planning 2: European Recovery.  Medieval Planning 3: Irregular.  Medieval Planning In Siena.  Medieval Regularity.  Bastides.  Renaissance Planning – ( Alberti ). Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 3
    • Overview This important work provides a clear analysis of the nature of many of today's design problems, identifying their causes in history and suggesting a basis for coordinated solutions. The author discusses a spectacular and formal tendencies in modern architecture, relating them to parallels between philosophic thought and design theory through the ages. Using a wealth of international examples from around the world including USA, UK, Italy, Germany and France and with over 250 photographs and illustrations, emerging concepts in space design offers a fascinating insight into the history and likely future directions of Urban Design. Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 4
    • The Logic of Informal Space First point in this chapter is the rules of the gridded cities (Geometric & Social), then turning to |Hillier and Hanson argument (1984). Talking from a biological concepts about how we think in spaces and buildings as cells that is linked, related according to genotypes. The defined buildings as cells into two types :  Enclosed cell with a boundary consisting a Floor, Walls, (Ceiling or Roof), Inside, Outside, an Entry, and Threshold, that is enclosed to another cell.  Open cell that is open to sky and defined only by the boundary walls of whatever closed cells may surround it. Two ruler for these cells : every cell must be linked each other & should have at least one open face ( courtyard) for example: Catal Huyuk, Turkey which is the first city that got this type of rules. Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 5
    • The Logic of Informal Space Open cell Enclosed cell Fig. 1.16 Hillier: Random, full-face aggregation of square cells each with at least one wall free of other cells (from Hillier And Hanson, 1984, The Social Logic Of Space, Cambridge University Press). Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 6
    • The Logic of Informal Space Hillier and Hanson took a small town in southern France to practice their proposed rules. And to enumerate its spatial properties that is: 1. Each building fronts directly, with no intervening boundary to hamlet's general open-space structure. 2. The hamlet's form depend on how the buildings enclosed them. 3. There is one main ring in the complex with a growing number of sub-rings. 4. Each beady ring of spaces is formed between an inner clump of buildings and a series of outer clumps. 5. The buildings which form the outer ring of clumps provide boundary to the settlement that gives its finished shape. 6. The buildings are mutually accessible by a definition at least two ways any building to any other building. Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 7
    • The Logic of Informal Space Fig. 1.17 „G‟, a small town in the Var Region of France showing Hillier's aggregation in practice (from Hillier And Hanson, 1984, The Social Logic Of Space, Cambridge University Press). Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 8
    • Medieval Planning (2) European Recovery : Reviewing historical events , civilizations (Vikings, Muslims) that affected the urban form in Europe . How these factors limited the properties of forming cities, Location, Shape, using new Materials (stone instead of limber), to defend their own villages. Comparing different region in Europe that is under the Byzantine like the Walls Of Constantinople and the Muslims proper castles in Armenia. In that time a new complex's where found Burgus as a reaction of the region rulers to built their castles, cathedral, monastery that farmers with their produce and traders huddled round them for protection. So a city might started as a town , old roman, cathedral, monastic, or it have started as Burgus round a castle. Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 9
    • Medieval Planning (2) European Recovery : Fig. 1.18 Walls Of Constantinople Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 10
    • Medieval Planning (2) European Recovery : After (1096) the Christians of northern Europe were emboldened to embark on the first crusade, to occupy the holy land from Muslims. After many crusades the invasions has been halted, so Europe recovered quickly and began to plan a new towns outside the walls of their cathedrals and monasteries. Therefore the gates were a control on cities to levied on everything that passed through till the French revolution(1789). Otherwise these walls and gates creates a feeling of unity between the citizens in the city. Once individual ( Burgage ) plots had been set out within the new town they would be made available to all comers on a first come and first served basis. Each burgage holder was required to build a house on his plot. And on the 11th century there was a real commercial revival centered in Venice between northern Europe, Mediterranean. Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 11
    • Medieval Planning (2) European Recovery : Even though the city may have been started a regular plan it have continued in irregular lines, according to location of the markets in it. Many cities as King‟s Lynn, Oxford and other, planned so that street frontages were occupied by several shops but with a single large residence behind them. As the merchants became rich hey built walls or pallisades, which meant that others had to start new faubourgs outside theirs. Thus the cities in Europe concentric, irregular loops. Like Hillier “ Clouds Of Midges” but on a very large scale . Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 12
    • Medieval Planning (2) European Recovery : Fig. 1.19 Oxfords: Tackly‟s Inn. Late 13th Or Early 14th Century. Reconstruction By A. W. Pantin ( From Platt, 1976) Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 13
    • Medieval Planning (2) European Recovery : Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 14
    • Medieval Planning (2) European Recovery : Fig. 1.21 medieval Paris (early 17th century print) (from Hiorns, 1956) Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 15
    • Medieval Planning (3) Irregular. Why so many medieval cities were irregular? According to many factors like : 1.The nature of the sites on which they were built. 2.The defensive purposes. 3.Influences from Muslims and others. Even though to fix this situation many Europe cities began to stream regulation to clarify the land formation, buildings, materials, shapes, forms and height to develop the medieval city. Further they tried to public records as Saalman suggested. At this point urban planning some how began to crystallized as shown in city of Siena Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 16
    • Medieval Planning In Siena The city of Siena clustered around the castle of Vecchio, with a Y-shaped formation as a three main roads( axes of growth): the Vit Di Citta, the Banchi Di Sopra and the Banchi Di Sotta. Later on these three axes turned into three main gates of the city walls: the Port San Marco to the south-west, Camnolia to the north-west, and Romana to the south-east. The last two created a Scallop-shell form space that the buildings surround it to become later on the Campo. As for the Campo itself Like many of the world‟s great urban spaces it is surrounded by buildings which themselves all distinguished. The city were built from stone or bricks with open courtyards and towers. Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 17
    • Medieval Planning In Siena Siena plan Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 18
    • Medieval Planning In Siena The Campo plan Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 19
    • Medieval Regularity We tend to thin that the medieval planning was irregular, But that was no means always the case, Medieval drawings exist of regular geometric planning for example the abbey of St. Gall. Horn and born have analyzed the plans of it and got a lot of details, grids, drainage system, and their work were summarized by Lorna Price (1982). So even in the darkest ages the monasteries were built, and continued to be built, in enormous numbers, And according to location they provided the seeds which many medieval cities grew from. Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 20
    • Medieval Regularity Fig. 1.26 Monastery Of St. Gall : plan (c.820-830 ad) ( from Pric.1982) Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 21
    • Bastides In the late thirteenth century by the kings of France and the dukes of Aquitaine, the kings of England, to keep watch over and maintain their common border. In exchange for the service they were called upon to provide to the inhabitants, they received extensive rights. they starts to build Bastides (derived from French word for build “batir”) for example: Montpazier. So in these Bastides there a new regulations as the gap between two buildings is 10 inches to make fire-stop, the walls got gates in the end of roads, and the rest got tower to defend the Bastide. the Bastides took two regular shapes: 1. The rectangular shape like Montpazier. 2. The circular shape Montsegur. Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 22
    • Bastides Montpazier, an English Bastide, was founded in 1284 by Edward I. Its layout is particularly curious. Three longitudinal and four intersecting roads cut the town into right angles. The houses are organized with a cellular uniformity, and are separated by narrow alleyways of equal dimensions. At the center is the church and large square surrounded by houses. Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 23
    • Renaissance Planning – ( Alberti ) Curiously enough, the most coherent advocate of medieval irregular planning was the first great architectural theorist of the Renaissance, Leone Battista Alberti. As Vitruvius before him, Alberti is concerned in location of the city, the spaces between building (streets wide), the straightness of lines (street shape), and how those factors affect the healthiness and happiness level. He assumes that the city will be walled, with battlement, towers, Cornish's, and gates. Alberti as Vitruvius has an idea how the city image will be by proposing the center, the heights of buildings, the wide of streets, and the grid which will use in creating the city elements as symmetrical in themselves. Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 24
    • Renaissance Planning – ( Alberti ) Filarete inscribed the imaginary city of Sforzinda within an eight-pointed star of walls within a circular moat, which formed the blueprint of the city. This plan was the first of many ideal star-shaped city plans that was the opposite of the crowded, irrational areas of the typical medieval city. In his work, Filarete compares the ideal city to a human body when proposing that it should function “like a communal organism.” The architect further theorized that its buildings not only had to be designed to respond to the desires and needs of its citizens and government, but that also had to be constructed adhering to three central values: permanence, beauty, and utility. Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 25
    • Renaissance Planning – ( Alberti ) Fig. 1.30 Scamozzi, Palmanova (C.1593). Plan Showing Defenses In 1713. Third International Exhibition Of Architecture, Biennale Di Venezia, 1985, Electra Editrice. Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 26
    • Palmanova is a city in Italy constructed during the renaissance and it is a city built following the ideals of a utopia. It is a concentric city with the form of a star, with three nine sided ring roads intersecting in the main military radiating streets. It was built at the end of the 16th century by the Venetian Republic which was, at the time, a major center of trade. It is actually considered to be a fort, or citadel as protection Broadbent, Geoffrey (1990). Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design 27