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financial & managerial accounting 15th edition solutions manual

financial & managerial accounting 15th edition solutions manual

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    Solution of ch6 sm Solution of ch6 sm Document Transcript

    • CHAPTER 6 ACCOUNTING FOR MERCHANDISING ACTIVITIES OVERVIEW OF EXERCISES, PROBLEMS, CASES, AND INTERNET ASSIGNMENT Exercises 6–1 6–2 Learning Objectives 3 1 6–9 6–10 6–11 Topic Using accounting information Effects on the accounting equation Subsidiary ledgers Perpetual inventory systems Performance evaluation Year-end physical inventory Periodic inventory systems Inventory relationships in a periodic system Selecting an inventory system Cash discounts Gross profit evaluations 6–12 6–13 6–14 Comparing inventory systems Periodic inventory systems Using an annual report 3, 4, 5 4, 5 8 Evaluating profitability Perpetual inventory systems 1, 3, 8 1, 2, 3 6–3 6–4 6–5 6–6 6–7 6–8 Problems 6–1 6–2 6–3 6–4 6–5 6–6 Trend analysis Recording purchase discounts Merchandising transactions A comprehensive problem © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002 2, 7 3 7 3 4 4 5 7 8 8 3, 7 3, 7 1–8 Character of Assignment Personal, conceptual Conceptual Conceptual Mechanical Conceptual, real—Sears, Broadway Mechanical, conceptual Mechanical, conceptual Conceptual, mechanical Conceptual, analytical Mechanical Conceptual, mechanical, real—Kmart, Nordstrom, Toys “R” Us Mechanical, conceptual Conceptual, mechanical Conceptual, mechanical, real—Tootsie Roll Industries, Inc. Mechanical, analytical Mechanical, conceptual, communication Mechanical, conceptual Mechanical, conceptual Mechanical, conceptual Mechanical, conceptual, analytical 177
    • Cases 6–1 6–2 6–3 6–4 Topic Selecting an inventory system A cost-benefit analysis Reconciling an inventory error Evaluating inventory systems Learning Objectives 5 4, 8 2 3, 4, 5, 6 Character of Assignment Conceptual, communication Communication, analytical Ethics, communication, analytical Conceptual, communication, group assignment, analytical Business Week Assignment 6–5 Business Week assignment 8 Conceptual, real—Gap, Inc. and Best Buy Co, communication Internet Assignment 6–1 8 Internet, real—Gap, Inc. 178 Evaluating the Gap © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002
    • DESCRIPTIONS OF PROBLEMS, CASES, AND INTERNET ASSIGNMENT Below are brief descriptions of each problem, case, and the Internet assignment. These descriptions are accompanied by the estimated time (in minutes) required for completion and by a difficulty rating. The time estimates assume use of the partially filled-in working papers. Problems 6–1 Claypool Hardware Introduction to both perpetual inventory systems and financial statement analysis. After making journal entries for merchandising transactions, students are asked to compare the company’s gross profit rate with the industry average and draw conclusions. 35  Medium 6–2 Office Solutions Illustrates the perpetual inventory system and the maintenance of an inventory subsidiary ledger. Students are also asked to discuss the usefulness of an inventory ledger in daily business operations. 35  Medium 6–3 Knauss Supermarkets Illustrates performance evaluation of a merchandising company using changes in net sales, sales per square foot of selling space, and comparable store sales. 20  Medium 6–4 Lamprino Appliance A straightforward comparison of the net cost and gross invoice price methods of recording purchases of merchandise. 30  Medium 6–5 Siogo Shoes and Sole Mates A comprehensive problem on merchandising transactions. Also asks students to evaluate whether it is worthwhile to take advantage of a 1/10, n/30 cash discount. 30  Strong 6–6 CPI A comprehensive problem addressing every learning objective in the chapter. Closely parallels the Demonstration Problem. 40  Strong © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002 179
    • Cases 6–1 Selecting an Inventory System Students are asked the type of inventory system they would expect to find in various types of business operations. Leads to an open-ended discussion of why different types of businesses maintain different types of inventory systems. A very practical problem. 35  Medium 6–2 A Cost-Benefit Analysis Using the company’s markup policy, students are asked to determine the amount of shrinkage loss included in the cost of goods sold in a business using a periodic inventory system. Having determined the amount of loss, they then are asked to evaluate the economic benefit of hiring a security guard. 25  Medium 6–3 Out of Balance: An Ethics Case The balance in the Accounts Payable controlling account exceeds that in the subsidiary ledger. There was a transposition error in the subsidiary ledger. But the company has already made payment—at an understated amount—and the creditor didn’t catch the error. In fact, the creditor says the company’s account is “paid in full.” 25  Medium 6–4 Inventory Systems in Practice (group assignment) Students are to visit two local businesses to gain an understanding of the inventory systems in use. They are then asked to evaluate those systems in terms of the information needs and resources of the businesses. No time estimate Business Week Assignment 6–5 Business Week Assignment Students are asked to discuss the meaning of same store sales. This assignment works well in conjunction with Internet Assignment. 10  Easy Internet Assignment 6–1 180 Evaluating The Gap Visit the home page of Gap, Inc., and gather financial information to evaluate sales performance. 25  Easy © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002
    • SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. The operating cycle of a business is the sequence of transactions by which the company normally generates its revenue and its cash receipts from customers. In a merchandising company, this cycle includes: (1) purchasing merchandise; (2) selling merchandise, often on account; and (3) collecting accounts receivable from customers. 2. Both wholesalers and retailers are merchandising companies and, therefore, buy their inventory in a ready-to-sell condition. Wholesalers, however, buy large quantities of merchandise directly from manufacturers and then sell this merchandise in smaller quantities to many different retailers. Wholesalers usually operate from a central location and do not sell directly to the final consumer. Retailers, in contrast, buy from wholesalers and then resell the merchandise to the final consumer. In summary, wholesalers emphasize distribution of the product to the places (retailers) where it is needed. Retailers specialize in meeting the needs of their local customers. 3. The cost of goods sold appears in the income statement of any business that sells merchandise, but not in the income statement of a business that sells only services. The cost of goods sold represents the original cost to the seller of the merchandise it sells. 4. Green Bay Company is not necessarily more profitable than New England Company. Profitability is measured by net income, not by gross profit. For a merchandising company (or manufacturer) to earn a net income, its gross profit must exceed its expenses (including nonoperating items). Green Bay’s gross profit exceeds that of New England by $70,000. However, if Green Bay’s operating expenses (and nonoperating items) exceed those of New England by more than $70,000, New England is the more profitable company. 5. Revenue from sales amounts to $1,070,000 (gross profit, $432,000, plus cost of goods sold, $638,000). Net income is equal to $42,000 (gross profit, $432,000, minus expenses, $390,000). 6. General ledger accounts show the total amounts of various assets, liabilities, revenue, and expenses. While these total amounts are used in financial statements, company personnel need more detailed information about the items comprising these totals. This detail is provided in subsidiary ledgers. Subsidiary ledgers are needed to show the amounts receivable from individual customers, the amounts owed to individual creditors, and the quantities and costs of the specific products in inventory. 7. The debit and credit amounts of $420 should be posted both to the Inventory and to the Accounts Payable controlling accounts in the general ledger. In addition, the $420 debit should be posted to the Boss LoadMaster II Shock Absorbers account in the inventory subsidiary ledger, along with the number of units purchased (12) and the unit cost ($35). The $420 credit also should be posted to the Boss Automotive account in the accounts payable subsidiary ledger. 8. “Reconciling a subsidiary ledger” means determining that the sum of the account balances in the subsidiary ledger agrees with the balance in the controlling account in the general ledger. The basic purpose of this procedure is to detect certain types of posting errors or mathematical errors in the computation of account balances. 9. Inventory shrinkage refers to the decrease (shrinkage) in inventory resulting from such factors as theft, breakage, and spoilage. In a company using a perpetual inventory system, shrinkage is measured and accounted for by taking a physical inventory and adjusting the accounting records to reflect the actual quantities on hand. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002 181
    • 10. In a perpetual inventory system, ledger accounts for inventory and the cost of goods sold are kept perpetually up-to-date. The Inventory account is debited whenever goods are purchased. When sales occur, Cost of Goods Sold is debited and Inventory is credited for the cost of the merchandise sold. An inventory subsidiary ledger is maintained showing the cost and quantity of every type of product in the inventory. In a periodic inventory system, up-to-date records are not maintained either for inventory or for the cost of goods sold. The beginning and ending inventory are determined by a physical count. Purchases are recorded in a Purchases account, and no entries are made to record the cost of individual sales transactions. Rather, the cost of goods sold is determined by a computation made at the end of the year (beginning inventory, plus purchases, minus ending inventory). 11. (a) $51,500; (b) $65,000; (c) $49,800; (d) $61,600. 12. The statement is correct. A perpetual inventory system requires an entry updating the inventory records as each item of merchandise is sold. In the days of manual accounting systems, only businesses that sold a small number of high-cost items could use a perpetual system. For example, perpetual inventory systems were used in auto dealerships and jewelry stores, but not in supermarkets. Today, point-of-sale terminals have made perpetual inventory systems available to almost every type of business. These terminals “read” identification codes attached to each item of merchandise; the computer then looks up both the sales price and the cost of the merchandise in computer-based files and records the sale instantly. 13. a. A general journal is capable of recording any type of business transaction. However, recording transactions in this type of journal is a relatively slow and cumbersome process. In addition, the person maintaining the journal must have sufficient background in accounting to correctly interpret all types of accounting transactions. Also, because the journal is used to record all types of transactions, it must remain in the accounting department, rather than being located “in the field” where a specific type of transaction occurs. b. A special journal is an accounting record or device that is designed for recording one specific type of transaction in a highly efficient manner. As the journal is used only in recording one type of transaction, the person maintaining the journal usually does not require an extensive background in accounting. Also, the journal may be located in the field where the transactions occur. Special journals are used to record transactions that occur frequently. A general journal still is used for recording unusual transactions which do not fit the format of any special journal. 14. A balance arises in the Purchase Discounts Lost account when the company fails to take advantage of an available cash discount and, therefore, pays more than the net cost of the merchandise. In most well-managed companies, management has a policy of taking all available cash discounts. Therefore, the balance in the Purchase Discounts Lost account represents a cost arising from failure to adhere to this policy. If this balance becomes significant, management will take corrective action to assure that the company does take advantage of future discount opportunities. 15. The freight charges should not be charged to delivery expense. Delivery expense is a selling expense, matched with (offset against) the sales revenue of the current period. Freight charges on inbound shipments are part of the cost of acquiring the inventory, not an expense of the current period. Transportation charges on inbound shipments should be added to the cost of the purchased merchandise or, as a matter of practical convenience, included in the cost of goods sold during the period. 182 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002
    • 16. Yes; Outback should take advantage of 4/10, n/60 cash discounts even if it must borrow the money to do so at an annual rate of 13%. Paying 50 days earlier and taking the discount saves 4%. This is equivalent to an investment with a rate of return of approximately 29% (4% × 365⁄50 = 29.2%). 17. The financial statements would not include sales tax expense because sales taxes are not an expense of the business entity. Rather, these taxes are collected from the customer and forwarded by the business to the state government. Until the taxes have been sent to the governmental authorities, a liability for sales taxes payable does appear in the balance sheet of the business. (The entry to record the collection of sales taxes consists of a debit to Cash or Accounts Receivable and a credit to Sales Taxes Payable.) 18. To sellers, the “cost” of offering cash discounts is the resulting reduction in revenue. This cost is measured by initially recording the account receivable from the customer at the full invoice price and then recording any discounts taken by customers in a separate account (Sales Discounts). Buyers, however, incur a cost when discounts are lost, not when they are taken. Therefore, buyers design their accounting systems to measure any discounts lost. This is accomplished by initially recording the account payable to the supplier at net cost—that is, net of any allowable cash discounts. This practice means that any discounts lost must be recorded in a separate expense account. 19. The increase in net sales is a good sign, but it does not necessarily mean the company’s marketing strategies have been successful. This increase might have stemmed entirely from the opening of new stores, or from inflation. Also, an increase in net sales does not mean that gross profit has increased. Perhaps this increase in sales stemmed from selling more low-margin merchandise, in which case, gross profit might even have declined. In that case this would have been an unsuccessful marketing strategy. An increase in net sales normally is viewed as a positive change. But to evaluate a specific company’s performance, it is necessary to determine the reasons for this change, and the overall financial impact. 20. Gross profit margin, also called gross profit rate, is gross profit expressed as a percentage of net sales revenue. It may be computed for the company as a whole (the overall gross profit margin), for specific sales departments, and for individual products. Management often may improve the company’s overall profit margin by raising sales prices or by concentrating sales efforts on products with higher margins. In a manufacturing company, management often is able to increase margins by reducing the cost of manufacturing the merchandise that the company sells. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002 183
    • SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES Ex. 6–1 a. You are at a significant disadvantage if no information is available about how many of each type of shirt were (1) ordered, (2) sold at full price, (3) sold at the discounted price, and (4) donated to the orphanage. It would be almost impossible to make optimal decisions without this sales information. b. The first step in the process would be to attempt to forecast the sales of shirts for each concert, both at the concert and on the next school day. To forecast sales, you could examine the relationship between sales of each type of shirt and attendance at the concert at which it was sold. By using this relationship in conjunction with the forecasts of ticket sales this year, you could estimate sales of each type of shirt, both at the concert and on the next school day. In making your decisions, consideration would also have to be given to the relationship between the cost of the shirts and their discounted price. If the cost of the shirts is greater than their discounted price, the optimal decision is to order only enough to meet the estimated demand at full price on the night of the concert. On the other hand, if the cost of the shirts is less than the discounted price, the optimal decision is to order enough shirts to meet the estimated demand on both the night of the concert and the next school day. c. To assist the person performing the task next year, you would want to maintain records for each concert of (1) the number of each type of shirt purchased, (2) the number of shirts sold at the concert, (3) the number of shirts sold on the next day on campus, and (4) the number of shirts donated to the orphanage. In addition, you would want to make a record of the attendance at each concert. Ex. 6–2 Transaction a. b. c. d. e. 184 Income Statement Net − Cost of − All Other = Net Sales Goods Sold Expenses Income NE I NE NE NE NE NE I NE I NE NE NE NE NE NE I D NE D Balance Sheet Assets = Liabilities + Owners’ Equity I I D NE D I NE NE NE NE NE I D NE D © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002
    • Ex. 6–3 Subsidiary Ledger Inv AP AP Inv AR Inv AR AP Inv Inv Inv AR Transaction a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Ex. 6–4 a. Jan. 2 Effect upon Subsidiary Account Balance Increase Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Decrease Decrease Increase Increase Decrease 106,000 Cash................................................................................... Sales....................................................................... Sale of merchandise for cash. 98,000 Cost of Goods Sold............................................................ Inventory................................................................ To reduce inventory by cost of goods sold. Jan. 3 Inventory........................................................................... Accounts Payable (McNamer Supply).................. To record purchase of merchandise on credit. 75,000 106,000 98,000 75,000 b. The balance of the Inventory account on January 3 was $1,231,000. The starting balance of $1.2 million on January 1 was increased by the $106,000 cost of merchandise purchased on January 2 and decreased by the $75,000 cost of goods sold on January 3 ($1,200,000 + $106,000 − $75,000 = $1,231,000). Ex. 6–5 a. The change in net sales provides an overall measure of the effectiveness of the company in generating revenue. A major limitation of this measure is that sales may have changed largely because of the opening of new stores, the closing of unprofitable ones, or as a result of a shift to merchandise with significantly different gross profit margins. Thus, an increase in net sales is not always “good,” and a decrease is not always “bad.” The change in comparable store sales represents the increase or decrease in the same stores from one period to the next. This statistic provides a better measure of the effectiveness of the company’s marketing strategies because it is not affected by changes in the total number of stores. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002 185
    • b. Sears’ performance is quite favorable from the standpoint of the overall increase in revenue and the increase in comparable store sales. It indicates that the company’s marketing strategies were effective at existing stores and that the company also is opening new locations. Broadway’s performance was not as good. Overall, the company’s net sales decreased. The company, however, was moderately effective in increasing sales at comparable stores. Taken together, it would appear that Broadway reduced the number of stores, but was more effective at generating sales at its remaining locations. (Note: Broadway subsequently was acquired by Macy’s.) Ex. 6–6 a. The reason why an actual physical count is likely to indicate a smaller inventory than does the perpetual inventory records is inventory shrinkage—the normal loss of inventory through theft, breakage, and spoilage. b. Cost of Goods Sold............................................................................. Inventory................................................................................. To reduce inventory to the quantities reflected in the year-end physical count. 4,000 4,000 c. Both portions of the preceding entry should be posted to the general ledger. In addition, the reduction in inventory should be posted to the inventory ledger accounts in which the shortages were determined to exist. Ex. 6–7 a. The amounts of beginning and ending inventory were determined by taking complete physical inventories at (or near) the ends of year 1 and year 2. “Taking a complete physical inventory” means physically counting the number of units of each product on hand and then determining the cost of this inventory by reference to per-unit purchase costs. (The inventory at the end of year 1 serves as the “beginning inventory” for year 2.) b. Computation of the cost of goods sold during year 2: Inventory (December 31, year 1).......................................................................... Add: Purchases...................................................................................................... Cost of goods available for sale during year 2...................................................... Less: Inventory (December 31, year 2)................................................................ Cost of goods sold.................................................................................................. 186 $ 2,800 30,200 33,000 3,000 $ 30,000 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002
    • c. Year 2 Dec. 31 Cost of Goods Sold............................................................ Inventory (Dec. 31, year 1)................................... Purchases............................................................... To close those temporary accounts that contribute to the cost of goods sold for the year. 31 Inventory (Dec. 31, year 2)............................................... Cost of Goods Sold................................................ To remove from the Cost of Goods Sold account the cost of merchandise still on hand at year-end. d. 33,000 2,800 30,200 3,000 3,000 BOSTON BAIT SHOP Partial Income Statement For the Year Ended December 31, Year 2 Net sales.................................................................................................................. Less: Cost of goods sold........................................................................................ Gross profit............................................................................................................ $ 79,600 30,000 $ 49,600 e. Because the business is small, management probably has decided that the benefits of maintaining a perpetual inventory system are not worth the cost. Furthermore, determining a cost of goods sold figure at the point of sale for live bait (e.g., a dozen minnows) may be difficult, if not impossible. Ex. 6–8 a. b. c. d. e. Ex. 6–9 Net Beginning Net Ending Sales Inventory Purchases Inventory 240,000   76,000 104,000   35,200 480,000   72,000 272,000 80,000 630,000 207,000 400,500 166,500 810,000 261,000 450,000 135,000 531,000 156,000 393,000 153,000 Cost of Goods Sold 144,800 264,000 441,000 576,000 396,000 Gross Profit   95,200 216,000 189,000 234,000 135,000 Expenses   72,000 196,000 148,500 270,000 150,000 Net Income or (Loss) 23,200 20,000 40,500 (36,000) (15,000) We cannot provide a specific answer to Exercise 6–9, as the exercise focuses upon local business entities selected by the students. However, the following points should be addressed in students’ answers. Students favoring perpetual inventory systems should explain (1) management’s need for timely information about inventory levels and/or sales of specific products, and (2) why it is practical for the business to maintain such a system. Students preferring a periodic system should explain why such a system can meet the needs of the business and/or why it would be impractical for the business to utilize a perpetual system. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002 187
    • Ex. 6–10 a. Entries in the accounts of Golf World: Accounts Receivable (Mulligans)....................................................... Sales......................................................................................... Sold merchandise on account to Mulligans. 10,000 Cost of Goods Sold............................................................................. Inventory................................................................................. To recognize cost of goods sold relating to sale to Mulligans. 6,500 Cash.................................................................................................... Sales Discounts................................................................................... Accounts Receivable (Mulligans)........................................... To record collection of account receivable from Mulligans, less 1% cash discount. 9,900 100 10,000 6,500 10,000 b. Entries in the accounts of Mulligans: Inventory............................................................................................. Accounts Payable (Golf World)............................................. Purchased merchandise from Golf World (net cost, $10,000 × 99% = $9,900). 9,900 Accounts Payable (Golf World)......................................................... Cash......................................................................................... Paid account payable to Golf World within the discount period. 9,900 9,900 9,900 c. Entry by Mulligans if discount not taken: Accounts Payable (Golf World)......................................................... Purchase Discounts Lost.................................................................... Cash......................................................................................... To record payment of account payable to Golf World and loss of purchase discount for failure to pay within discount period. 188 9,900 100 10,000 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002
    • Ex. 6–11 a. Net sales Cost of goods sold Gross profit Gross profit rate Kmart $31,437 24,390 7,047a 22.4% b Nordstrom $4,453c   3,082   1,371 30.8% d Toys “R” Us $9,232   6,407f   2,825e 30.6% Computations: a $31,437 − $24,390 = $7,047 b $7,047 (from a) ÷ $31,437 = 22.4% c $3,082 + $1,371 = $4,453 d $1,371 ÷ $4,453 (from c) = 30.8% e $9,232 × 30.6% = $2,825 f $9,232 − $2,825 (from e) = $6,407 b. The relative sales volumes and profit margins of Kmart and Toys “R” Us are what one might expect. Kmart is one of the nation’s largest mass merchandisers. It sells many types of everyday merchandise (including toys). Thus, it must compete on a basis of price with other mass merchandisers such as Wal-Mart, Sears, and J.C. Penney. Its gross profit is developed by selling a high volume of merchandise at minimal margins. Toys “R” Us is a big company, but it sells only toys. It logically has a much lower sales volume than one of the country’s largest sellers of general merchandise. Toys “R” Us also has very few large-scale competitors. Most of the competition comes from small toy stores which, because of their low sales volumes, need high margins to survive. Therefore, Toys “R” Us faces less price competition than Kmart. It competes effectively with its smaller competitors by offering a bigger selection and having greater name recognition. In purchasing merchandise, Toys “R” Us also may receive larger volume discounts than its competitors. Lower purchase costs contribute to higher gross profit margins. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002 189
    • Ex. 6–12 a. Cash.................................................................................................... Sales......................................................................................... To record sale of telescope to Central State University for cash. 117,000 Cost of Goods Sold............................................................................. Inventory................................................................................. To record cost of telescope sold to Central State University. 90,000 Inventory............................................................................................. Accounts Payable (Lunar Optics).......................................... To record purchase of merchandise on account from Lunar Optics, net 30 days. 50,000 117,000 90,000 50,000 b. Computation of inventory at January 7: Inventory at Dec. 31........................................................................ Deduct: Cost of goods sold............................................................. Add: Cost of merchandise purchased............................................. Inventory at Jan. 7.......................................................................... $250,000 (90,000) 50,000 $210,000 c. Cash.................................................................................................... Sales......................................................................................... To record sale of telescope to Central State University for cash. 117,000 Purchases............................................................................................ Accounts Payable (Lunar Optics).......................................... To record purchase of merchandise on account from Lunar Optics. Terms, net 30 days. 50,000 117,000 50,000 d. Cost of goods sold: Inventory, Jan. 1............................................................................. Purchases......................................................................................... Cost of goods available for sale....................................................... Less: Inventory, Jan. 7 (per part b)............................................... Cost of goods sold........................................................................ $250,000 50,000 $300,000 210,000 $ 90,000 e. The company would probably use a perpetual inventory system because it sells merchandise with a high unit cost and has a relatively small number of sales transactions. 190 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002
    • Ex. 6–13 a. Computation of the cost of goods sold: Beginning inventory............................................................................................................ Add: Purchases................................................................................................................... Cost of goods available for sale.......................................................................................... Less: Ending inventory....................................................................................................... Cost of goods sold............................................................................................................... $ 6,240 74,400 $80,640 4,560 $ 76,080 b. Mountain Mabel’s appears to be a very small business that probably has no external reporting obligations (other than in the owners’ annual income tax return). Also, “management” seems to consist of the owners, who may be in the store every day and therefore do not need an inventory ledger to know what merchandise is in inventory. In a situation such as this, the additional record— keeping required to maintain a perpetual inventory system simply may not be worthwhile. c. A larger business, such as a Sears store, needs to have up-to-date information as to the cost and quantity of merchandise in inventory and also the cost of goods sold. This information is used in quarterly reports to stockholders, reports to corporate management, and monthly reports measuring the profitability of the individual sales departments. In addition, information about the quantities of specific products sold and the quantities currently on hand is needed for such daily decisions as: (1) when to reorder specific products, (2) how much merchandise to order, and (3) which products to advertise in special sales. Also, a store such as Sears uses point-of-sale terminals to simplify the processing of sales transactions. These terminals permit the maintenance of perpetual inventory records at very little cost and with no special effort required of accounting personnel. Ex. 6–14 a. All of the following figures are shown in 000’s: (1) Net sales (2) Gross profit (margin) Gross profit percentage (2) ÷ (1) 1999 $396,750 204,189 1998 $388,659 201,042 1997 $375,594 187,281 51.5% 51.7% 49.9% b. Trends in sales and gross profit include: 1. The company reported its twenty-third consecutive year of record sales. 2. Gross profit increased by 7.3% from 1997 to 1998, and by 1.6% from 1998 to 1999. c. Management seems somewhat optimistic about trends in the company’s sales and gross profit statistics. In Management’s Letter to the Shareholders, the following points are made: 1. The company is encouraged by the continued growth in its niche brands. 2. The company has reported its twenty-third year of record sales. 3. The company’s cost of goods sold increased only slightly in 1999 due to slight inflationary pressures on major ingredient costs. The cost of minor ingredients and packaging remained stable throughout the year. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002 191
    • SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 35 Minutes, Medium PROBLEM 6–1 CLAYPOOL HARDWARE a. General Journal Nov 5 Accounts Receivable (Bemidji Construction) Sales Sold merchandise on account. 13390 13390 5 Cost of Goods Sold Inventory To record the cost of goods sold relating to the sales of merchandise to Bemidji Construction. 9 Inventory Accounts Payable (Owatonna Tool Co.) Purchased merchandise on account. Dec 9105 3800 9105 3800 5 Cash 13390 Accounts Receivable (Bemidji Construction) Collected account receivable. 13390 9 Accounts Payable (Owatonna Tool Co.) Cash Paid account payable to supplier. 3800 3800 31 Cost of Goods Sold Inventory To adjust inventory records to reflect the results of the year-end physical count. Inventory per accounting records 183,790 $ Inventory per physical count 182,080 Adjustment for inventory shrinkage $ 1,710 b. 1710 1710 CLAYPOOL HARDWARE Partial Income Statement For the Year Ended December 31, 20__ Net sales Cost of goods sold (1) Gross profit $1 0 2 4 9 0 0 696932 $ 327968 (1) Cost of goods sold prior to adjustment at Dec. 31 Add: Shrinkage adjustment at Dec. 31 Cost of goods sold (adjusted balance) $ 695222 1710 $ 696932 PROBLEM 6–1 192 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002
    • CLAYPOOL HARDWARE (concluded) c. Claypool seems quite able to pass its extra transportation costs on to its customers and, in fact, enjoys a significant financial benefit from its remote mountain location. The following data support these conclusions: Annual sales........................................................ Gross profit........................................................ Gross profit rate................................................. Claypool Hardware $1,024,900 327,968 32% (2) Industry Average $1,000,000 250,000 (1) 25% Difference $24,900 77,968 +7% (1) $1,000,000 sales × 25% = $250,000 (2) $327,968 gross profit ÷ $1,024,900 net sales = 32% Claypool earned a gross profit rate of 32%, which is significantly higher than the industry average. Claypool’s sales were almost equal to the industry average, but it earned $77,968 more gross profit than the “average” store of its size. This higher gross profit was earned even though its cost of goods sold was $18,000 to $20,000 higher than the industry average because of the additional transportation charges. To have a higher-than-average cost of goods sold and still earn a much larger-than-average amount of gross profit, Claypool must be able to charge substantially higher sales prices than most hardware stores. Presumably, the company could not charge such prices in a highly competitive environment. Thus, the remote location appears to insulate it from competition and allow it to operate more profitably than hardware stores with nearby competitors. The key question in the company’s future is whether there is enough growth in the area to support another store. If a second store opens, Claypool may face competition and have to cut its prices. If there is not sufficient business to support two stores, however, Claypool has a “captive market,” which will enable it to continue charging premium prices and earning high (gross) profits. (No information is provided in the problem about operating expenses, but with nearly $78,000 more gross profit than the average store of its size, Claypool should be able to earn a net income that is well above average.) 35 Minutes, Medium © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002 PROBLEM 6–2 OFFICE SOLUTIONS 193
    • a. General Journal May 10 Inventory Accounts Payable (Mitsui Corporation) Purchased five P-500 fax machines @ $300; payment due in 30 days. 1500 1500 23 Accounts Receivable (Foster & Cole) Sales Sold four Mitsui P-500 fax machines on account. Sales price $500 per machine; payment due in 30 days. 23 Cost of Goods Sold Inventory To adjust inventory records for the cost of four P-500 fax machines sold to Foster & Cole ($300 x 4 = $1,200). 1200 24 Inventory Accounts Payable (Mitsui Corporation) Purchased seven P-500 fax machines @ $300; payment due in 30 days. June 2000 2100 9 Accounts Payable (Mitsui Corporation) Cash Paid Mitsui Corporation for purchase on May 10. 19 Cash 2000 1200 2100 1500 1500 1050 Sales Sold two P-500 fax machines for cash; sales price, $525 each. 19 Cost of Goods Sold Inventory To record cost of two P-500 fax machines sold ($300 x 2 = $600). 22 Cash Accounts Receivable (Foster & Cole) Collected account receivable from sale on May 23. 194 1050 600 600 2000 2000 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002
    • PROBLEM 6–2 OFFICE SOLUTIONS (continued) b. Item Item Mitsui P-500 fax machine Primary supplier Description Description Plain paper fax machine Secondary supplier Location in showroom, remainder in warehouse 1 1 SOLD Units 5 Unit Cost $300 Total $1,500 7 300 Maximum 10 BALANCE 2,100 June 19 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002 Units Unit Cost Total Units 5 Unit Cost $300 4 23 24 None Inventory level: Minimum PURCHASED Date May 10 Mitsui Corporation $300 $1,200 1 300 300 8 300 2,400 6 300 1,800 2 300 600 Balance $1,500
    • PROBLEM 6–2 OFFICE SOLUTIONS (concluded) c. Eight. The quantity of units on hand at any date may be determined from the inventory subsidiary ledger. d. An inventory subsidiary ledger indicates the quantities, unit costs, and total costs of the units of product purchased, sold, and currently on hand. In addition, the subsidiary ledger accounts usually indicate the location of units in stock, the minimum and maximum quantities desired in inventory, and the names of the major suppliers. Management uses this information to determine which products are selling quickly and which are selling slowly and in setting sales prices. Accounting personnel use the unit cost data in recording the cost of goods sold. Sales personnel refer to this ledger to determine the quantities and location of goods on hand. Employees responsible for purchasing merchandise use the data in this ledger to determine when specific products should be reordered, the quantities to order, and the names of the principal suppliers. 20 Minutes, Medium PROBLEM 6–3 KNAUSS SUPERMARKETS 2001–2002 a. 1. Change in net sales..................................................... 6% (1) 2. Change in net sales per square foot........................... (1%) (3) 3. Change in comparable store sales.............................. (1.8%) (5) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 2000–2001 8% (2) (2.7%) (4) (3.5%) (6) ($5,495 − $5,194) ÷ $5,184 = 6% ($5,184 − $4,800) ÷ $4,800 = 8% [($5,495 ÷ 11.9) − ($5,184 ÷ 11.1)] ÷ ($5,184 ÷ 11.1) = (1%) [($5,184 ÷ 11.1) − ($4,800 ÷ 10.0)] ÷ ($4,800 ÷ 10.0) = (2.7%) ($10.8 − $11.0) ÷ $11.0 = (1.8%) ($11.0 − $11.4) ÷ $11.4 = (3.5%) b. While Knauss has increased its overall revenue from sales, several of the statistics indicate problems. Both sales per square foot of selling space and comparable store sales have declined for the last two years. This indicates a downward trend in sales at existing stores. It is apparent that the increase in overall net sales must have resulted from adding new stores. As a result, management should reevaluate its marketing strategies. 30 Minutes, Medium 196 PROBLEM 6–4 LAMPRINO APPLIANCE © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001
    • a. General Journal Date (1) June 10 Inventory Accounts Payable (Mitsu Industries) To record purchase of 10 TVs at net cost of $294 per unit ($300, less 2%). 15 Cash 2940 2940 450 Sales Sold 1 Mitsu TV for cash. 450 15 Cost of Goods Sold Inventory To record cost of TV sold. 294 294 20 Accounts Payable (Mitsu Industries) Cash Paid account within discount period. (2) June 10 Inventory Accounts Payable (Mitsu Industries) To record purchase of 10 TVs at gross invoice price ($300 per unit). 15 Cash 2940 2940 3000 3000 450 Sales Sold 1 Mitsu TV for cash. 450 15 Cost of Goods Sold Inventory To record cost of TV sold. 300 300 20 Accounts Payable (Mitsu Industries) Cash Purchase Discounts Taken Paid account payable, less 2%. b. (1) July 10 Accounts Payable (Mitsu Industries) Purchase Discounts Lost Cash Made payment after discount period had expired. (2) July 10 Accounts Payable (Mitsu Industries) Cash Made payment after discount period had expired. 3000 2940 60 2940 60 3000 3000 3000 PROBLEM 6–4 LAMPRINO APPLIANCE (concluded) © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001 197
    • c. The net cost method provides more useful information for evaluating the company’s efficiency in paying its bills. This method clearly indicates the lowest price that the company may pay, and separately records any additional costs incurred as purchase discounts lost. Under the gross price method, the liability is not recorded at the lowest price at which it can be settled. Hence, management is not made aware of available discounts that were not taken. 30 Minutes, Strong 198 PROBLEM 6–5 SIOGO SHOES AND SOLE MATES © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001
    • General Journal a. Feb Journal entries by Siogo Shoes: 9 Accounts Receivable (Sole Mates) Sales Sold merchandise on account; terms, 1/10, n/30. 9 Cost of Goods Sold Inventory To record cost of merchandise sold (100 pr. x $60/pr.). 12 Delivery Expense Cash Paid delivery charges on outbound shipment. 10000 10000 6000 6000 40 40 13 Sales Returns & Allowances Accounts Receivable (Sole Mates) Customer returned merchandise (10 pr. x $100/pr.). 1000 13 Inventory Cost of Goods Sold Reduce cost of goods sold for cost of merchandise returned (10 pr. x $60/pr.). 600 19 Cash Sales Discount Accounts Receivable (Sole Mates) Collected amount due, less $1,000 return and less 1% cash discount on remaining $9,000 balance ($9,000 x 1% = $90). b. Feb 1000 600 8910 90 9000 Journal entries by Sole Mates: 9 Inventory Accounts Payable (Siogo Shoes) Purchased 100 pairs of boots; terms, 1/10, n/30. Net cost, $99 per pair ($100, less 1%). 12 Transportation-in Cash Paid transportation charge on inbound shipment. 13 Accounts Payable (Siogo Shoes) Inventory Returned 10 pairs of boots to supplier. (Net cost, $99 per pair x 10 pairs = $990.) 9900 9900 40 40 990 990 PROBLEM 6–5 SIOGO SHOES AND SOLE MATES (concluded) © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001 199
    • General Journal Feb 19 Accounts Payable (Siogo Shoes) Cash Paid within discount period balance owed to Siogo Shoes ($9,900 - $990 = $8,910). 8910 8910 c. Yes. Sole Mates should take advantage of 1/10, n/30 purchase discounts, even if it must borrow money for a short period of time at an annual rate of 11%. By taking advantage of the discount, the company saves 1% by making payment 20 days early. At an interest rate of 11% per year, the bank charges only 0.6% interest over a 20-day period (11% × 20⁄365 = 0.6%). Thus, the cost of passing up the discount is greater than the cost of short-term borrowing. 40 Minutes, Strong PROBLEM 6–6 CPI Parts a, c, g, and h follow; parts b, d, e, and f are on the next page. 200 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001
    • a. The operating cycle of a merchandising company consists of purchasing merchandise, selling that merchandise to customers (often on account), and collecting the sales proceeds from these customers. The assets and liabilities involved in this cycle include cash, accounts receivable, inventory, and accounts payable. c. In the January 2 entry, the $24,250 debit to the Inventory controlling account should be allocated among—and posted to—the appropriate product accounts in the inventory subsidiary ledger. The information posted should include the cost and quantities of each type of merchandise purchased. In addition, the credit portion of this entry should be posted to the Sharp account in CPI’s accounts payable subsidiary ledger. In the first entry on January 6, the debit to the Accounts Receivable controlling account should be posted to the Pace Corporation account in CPI’s accounts receivable ledger. In the final entry, the credit to the Inventory controlling account should be allocated among the thirty products sold and posted to the appropriate accounts in the inventory ledger. g. CPI probably would use a perpetual inventory system. The items in its inventory have a high perunit cost. Therefore, management will want to know the costs of the individual products included in specific sales transactions, and also will want to keep track of the items in stock. The company also has a computer-based accounting system, a full-time accountant, and a low volume of transactions. This combination of factors eliminates the potential difficulties of maintaining a perpetual system. h. Computation of profit margin on January 6 sales transaction: Gross profit = Sales price - Cost of goods sold = $10,000 − $6,100 = $3,900 Gross profit margin = Dollar gross profit ÷ Sales revenue = $3,900 ÷ $10,000 = 39% PROBLEM 6–6 CPI (concluded) © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001 201
    • b. General Journal 2002 Jan 2 Inventory Accounts Payable (Sharp) Purchased merchandise on account; terms, 3/10, n/60. Net cost, $25,000, less 3%. 24250 24250 6 Accounts Receivable (Pace Corporation) Sales Sale on account; terms, 5/10, n/90. 10000 10000 6 Cost of Goods Sold Inventory To record the cost of merchandise sold to Pace Corporation. d. 6 Accounts Receivable (Pace Corporation) Sales Sale on account; terms, 5/10, n/90. 202 6100 Computation of inventory at January 6: Inventory at Dec. 31, 2001 Add: Merchandise purchased on Jan. 2 Less: Cost of goods sold on Jan. 6 Inventory at close of business on Jan. 6 e. Journal entries assuming use of a periodic system: 2002 Jan 2 Purchases Accounts Payable (Sharp) Purchased merchandise on account; terms, 3/10, n/60. Net cost, $25,000, less 3%. f. 6100 Computation of cost of goods sold: Inventory (Dec. 31, 2001) Add: Purchases Cost of goods available for sale Less: Inventory (Jan. 6—per part d ) Cost of goods sold $50 2 ( $51 0 4 6 8 0 2 1 1 0 5 0 5 0 0 0) 0 24250 24250 10000 10000 $50 2 $52 51 $ 0 4 4 8 6 0 2 2 1 1 0 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001
    • 35 Minutes, Medium SOLUTIONS TO CASES CASE 6–1 SELECTING AN INVENTORY SYSTEM a. The Frontier Shop would probably use a periodic inventory system. Several factors support this conclusion. First, this is a small business that does not have a computerized accounting system. An antique cash register is not an electronic device that can automatically determine the cost of items sold. Thus, the only dollar amount recorded at the time of sale is the sales revenue. Also, the fact that the accounting records are maintained by a bookkeeper who comes in at the end of the month suggests a periodic inventory system, rather than a continuous updating of the inventory account. Finally, this business does not appear to need an inventory subsidiary ledger, as the owner is likely to be very knowledgeable as to how quickly various items are selling and the quantity of each item currently in stock. In summary, The Frontier Shop has no need for a perpetual inventory system and does not have the resources to maintain one. b. Although Allister’s Corner is a small business with a manual accounting system, it probably would maintain a perpetual inventory system. The primary reason for using a perpetual system is the high unit cost of the paintings comprising the company’s inventory. For purposes of internal control, management would want the accounting records to indicate the quantity, cost, and identity of the paintings in stock. Also, the low volume of sales transactions—three or four sales each week—makes the record-keeping burden of maintaining a perpetual system of virtually no consequence. c. The publicly owned publishing company probably would use a perpetual inventory system for several reasons. First, in order to service its customers, the company needs to have the necessary quantities of specific textbooks at the appropriate warehouses and at the proper time. The need to carefully control the quantity and location of inventory on hand suggests the need for an inventory subsidiary ledger. Next, as a publicly owned corporation, this company must issue quarterly financial statements. The perpetual inventory system is better suited to the issuance of quarterly (or monthly) financial statements than is a periodic system. d. The facts suggest that Toys-4-You uses a perpetual inventory system. Point-of-sale terminals can maintain a perpetual inventory system at little or no incremental cost. In fact, this is the principal reason for using point-of-sale terminals. Also, the fact that headquarters is provided with information about the weekly profitability of each store suggests the use of an accounting system that is capable of measuring the cost of goods sold prior to year-end. Finally, the size of Toys-4-You—86 retail stores—suggests a publicly owned corporation with quarterly reporting obligations. CASE 6–1 SELECTING AN INVENTORY SYSTEM (concluded) © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001 203
    • e. An ice cream truck would use a periodic inventory system. Several factors support this conclusion. First, it would be impractical for an ice cream truck to utilize a perpetual system, as this would involve separately recording the cost of each ice cream bar and popsicle sold. Next, inventory is not material in this type of business. In the course of a month, the quantity of ice cream products purchased will be very close to the quantity sold; very little inventory remains on hand. Finally, a person operating an independent ice cream truck probably has no external reporting responsibilities other than the preparation of annual income tax returns. It is unlikely that the operators of such businesses would maintain sophisticated accounting systems. f. Several factors suggest that TransComm would use a perpetual inventory system. For one, management needs to know precisely how many units are on hand at any time in order to know whether the company can fill the large sales orders it receives from customers. Next, the fact that the company sells only one product makes the operation of a perpetual inventory system relatively simple; the accountants must only keep track of the number of units purchased and sold. Finally, TransComm’s accounting records are maintained on commercial accounting software. Virtually all software programs used in accounting for inventories are based upon perpetual inventory systems. 25 Minutes, Medium a. CASE 6–2 A COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS VILLAGE HARDWARE Partial Income Statement For the Year Ended December 31, 20__ Net sales Cost of goods sold: Inventory, January 1 Purchases Cost of goods available for sale Less: Inventory, December 31 Cost of goods sold Gross profit b. $580000 $ 58 297 $355 49 0 2 2 3 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 305950 $274050 (1) Loss from inventory “shrinkage” at cost: Cost of goods sold, per part a Less: Cost of goods sold excluding any shrinkage losses (net sales, $580,000 x 50%) Inventory shrinkage losses for the year, at cost (2) Inventory shrinkage losses for the year stated at retail prices (cost, $15,950 x 200%) $305950 $ 290000 15950 $ 31900 c. The loss sustained by Village Hardware as a result of inventory shrinkage is the cost of the lost merchandise, not its resale value. Thus, hiring the security guard would not be a profitable strategy. The annual cost of the guard amounts to $21,600, while the potential savings is only $15,950. Furthermore, not all of the “shrinkage” loss necessarily stems from shoplifting. Other elements of “shrinkage” are breakage, spoilage, and employee theft. If the security guard could not eliminate these other types of losses, shrinkage would not be reduced to zero even after the guard was hired. 204 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001
    • 25 Minutes, Medium CASE 6–3 OUT OF BALANCE a. Prior to making any correcting entry, the balance in the Accounts Payable controlling account exceeds that of the subsidiary ledger by $4,500. Without regard to which record actually is in error, this imbalance can be eliminated in either of two ways: (1) reduce the balance in the controlling account, or (2) increase the balance of the Appalachian account in Artistic’s accounts payable ledger. Dean’s proposed correcting entry takes the first approach—reducing the balance in the controlling account. Mechanically, it will bring the controlling account balance into agreement with the subsidiary ledger. b. The ethical issue is that Artistic still owes Appalachian $4,500. The fact that Appalachian did not promptly detect Artistic’s underpayment does not relieve Artistic of its obligation—in either a moral or a legal sense. But Dean’s proposed “correcting entry” not only fails to enter this legitimate obligation in the subsidiary ledger, it removes it from the Accounts Payable controlling account. In short, Dean proposes correcting the wrong accounting record. And his action may cause a supplier never to be paid (or have difficulty collecting) an amount to which it is rightfully entitled. Dean should simply notify his supervisor that he has found a posting error in the subsidiary ledger and that Artistic owes Appalachian Woods an additional $4,500. As all of Artistic’s journal entries were correct, no “correcting” journal entry is needed. The only accounting record in need of correction is the subsidiary ledger account for Appalachian. This “correction” may consist of crossing out the erroneous $4,900 credit and entering the correct $9,400 amount. This will give the subsidiary ledger account a correct credit balance of $4,500. Note to instructor: We like to put this issue on a more personal basis by asking students what they would do if they knew that a salesclerk had given them too much cash in change. Would they correct the error —or head for the door? While the ethical issues are similar, there is one significant difference in the case. Appalachian probably will find this error sooner or later—and it also knows where to find Artistic. Group assignment: No time estimate CASE 6–4 INVENTORY SYSTEMS IN PRACTICE No specific solution is provided for this group assignment. In this assignment, students are likely to encounter many variations in perpetual inventory systems. For example, some businesses may maintain perpetual records only in units, others may enter dollar amounts on a monthly basis, and still others may maintain perpetual records for use by management, but may use estimating techniques such as the gross profit method or the retail method in interim financial statements. The textbook will discuss some of these variations in Chapter 7. At this point, however, we consider it useful for students to learn first-hand that accounting systems are tailored to meet the specific needs of the organization. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001 205
    • CASE 6–5 BUSINESS WEEK ASSIGNMENT As a measure of performance, trends in net sales can be misleading, especially if companies are adding new stores each year. As companies expand, increases in overall net sales in comparison to the prior year may have resulted solely from sales at the newly opened locations. Sales at existing locations may actually be declining. The measure of a company’s same store sales (or comparable store sales) excludes new stores opened during the period to better indicate whether demand is rising or falling at established locations. 206 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001
    • SOLUTION TO INTERNET ASSIGNMENT 25 Minutes, Easy INTERNET 6–1 EVALUATING THE GAP Note: We cannot supply quantitative answers to this assignment as they will vary depending upon which month and quarter the student selects. Our answers provide only general information about the requirements. a. The “Monthly Sales Reports” are the company’s news releases about sales for each month. They contain amounts of sales for the month and year-to-date, and the change in comparable store sales in relation to the same period in the preceding year. b. Amounts of sales and inventories are found in the company’s quarterly financial statements. The number of stores opened and closed and sales per average square foot of selling space are found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Operations.” © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001 207